Impacts of obesity, maternal obesity and nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation on sperm quality in mice.
ABSTRACT: Male fertility and sperm quality are negatively impacted by obesity. Furthermore, recent evidence has shown that male offspring from obese rat mothers also have reduced sperm quality and fertility. Here, we extend work in this area by comparing the effects of both maternal obesity and offspring post-weaning diet-induced obesity, as well as their combination, on sperm quality in mice. We additionally tested whether administration of the NAD+-booster nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) can ameliorate the negative effects of obesity and maternal obesity on sperm quality. We previously showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of NMN can reduce the metabolic deficits induced by maternal obesity or post-weaning dietary obesity in mice. In this study, female mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks until they were 18% heavier than a control diet group. Thereafter, HFD and control female mice were mated with control diet males, and male offspring were weaned into groups receiving control or HFD. At 30 weeks of age, mice received 500 mg/kg body weight NMN or vehicle PBS i.p. for 21 days. As expected, adiposity was increased by both maternal and post-weaning HFD but reduced by NMN supplementation. Post-weaning HFD reduced sperm count and motility, while maternal HFD increased offspring sperm DNA fragmentation and levels of aberrant sperm chromatin. There was no evidence that the combination of post-weaning and maternal HFD exacerbated the impacts in sperm quality suggesting that they impact spermatogenesis through different mechanisms. Surprisingly NMN reduced sperm count, vitality and increased sperm oxidative DNA damage, which was associated with increased NAD+ in testes. A subsequent experiment using oral NMN at 400 mg/kg body weight was not associated with reduced sperm viability, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction or increased NAD+ in testes, suggesting that the negative impacts on sperm could be dependent on dose or mode of administration.
Project description:Maternal obesity impacts offspring metabolism. We sought to boost mitochondrial energy metabolism using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) to treat metabolic impairment induced by maternal and long-term post weaning over-nutrition. Male offspring of lean or obese mothers, fed chow or high fat diet (HFD) for 30 weeks post-weaning, were given NMN injection, starting at 31 weeks of age, daily for 3 weeks before sacrifice. Glucose tolerance was tested at 10, 29 and 32 weeks of age to measure short and long term effects of post-weaning HFD, and NMN treatment. Plasma insulin and triglycerides, liver triglycerides and expression of mitochondrial metabolism-related genes were measured at 34 weeks. Impaired glucose tolerance due to maternal and post weaning HFD was significantly improved by only 8 days of NMN treatment. Furthermore, in offspring of obese mothers hepatic lipid accumulation was reduced due to NMN treatment by 50% and 23% in chow and HFD fed offspring respectively. Hepatic genes involved in fat synthesis, transport and uptake were reduced, while those involved in fatty acid oxidation were increased by NMN. Overall this finding suggests short term administration of NMN could be a therapeutic approach for treating metabolic disease due to maternal and post weaning over-nutrition, even in late adulthood.
Project description:STUDY QUESTION:Can maternal and offspring high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in mRNA expression levels in mice be ameliorated by interventions in female offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER:Our results indicate that exercise and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) can ameliorate the negative effects of maternal and post-weaning HFD in female offspring. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:Maternal and post-weaning HFD can perturb offspring developmental trajectories. As rates of maternal obesity are rising globally, there is a need for effective treatments in offspring to ameliorate the negative effects from a maternal obesogenic environment. Modulation of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) pathway by exercise and the NAD+ precursor NMN has previously been shown to reduce the effects of obesity. STUDY DESIGN SIZE DURATION:This study consisted of a multigenerational study using C57Bl6 mice. Mice were fed a control (chow) or HFD ad libitum throughout mating, pregnancy and lactation (n = 13-25). Female offspring (n = 72) were then also supplied either a chow or HFD post-weaning. At 9 weeks of age offspring from HFD dams were subjected to exercise on a treadmill for 9 weeks or at 16 weeks of age administered NMN (i.p.) for 2.5 weeks. At 18.5 weeks mice were euthanized and ovaries and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were collected to examine the possibility of ameliorating the negative effects of maternal and post-weaning HFD. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS SETTING METHODS:Ovary and COC mRNA expression was analysed using RT-qPCR. An initial screen of candidate genes was developed to test which molecular pathways may be involved in generating adverse reproductive system effects. For histological analysis, ovarian tissue was fixed in paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The numbers of primordial, primary, secondary and antral follicles were counted. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:In the offspring's COC, maternal obesity increased both growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9: 2-fold; P < 0.05, HFD versus chow) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (Bmp15: 4-fold; P < 0.05, HFD versus chow) mRNA expression levels while exercise and NMN interventions did not regulate Gdf9 and Bmp15 in the same manner. In whole ovary, maternal diet programmed a 25-50% reduction in FSH receptor and sirtuin-3 mRNA expression levels in daughter ovaries (P < 0.05, HFD versus chow). There was a significant interaction between HFD and intervention on the proportion of large preantral and preovulatory follicles (P < 0.05). However, the increase in preovulatory follicles did not translate to increased oocyte yield. NMN administration resulted in reduced body weight in HFD-fed individuals. LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION:It is unclear if the changes in oocyte mRNA expression levels reported here will impact oocyte quality and fertility in offspring. Offspring ovulation rate or fecundity could not be studied here and fertility trials are required to determine if the changes in gene expression do reduce fertility. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:Our results demonstrate that maternal and offspring HFD perturbs key signalling pathways that are known to regulate fertility in mice, highlighting the importance of interventions in helping to prevent the declining rates of fertility in the context of the current obesity epidemic. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS:This work was supported by grants and fellowships from the National Health and Medical Research Council to R.B.G. (APP1023210, APP1062762, APP1117538) and to M.J.M. and D.A.S. (APP1044295). DAS is a consultant to and inventor on patents licenced to Ovascience, Metrobiotech and GlaxoSmithKline. The other authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Project description:Maternal overnutrition increases the risk of long-term metabolic dysfunction in offspring. Exercise improves metabolism partly by upregulating mitochondrial biogenesis or function, via increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). We have shown that the NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) can reverse some of the negative consequences of high fat diet (HFD) consumption. To investigate whether NMN can impact developmentally-set metabolic deficits, we compared treadmill exercise and NMN injection in offspring of obese mothers. Five week old lean and obese female C57BL6/J mice were mated with chow fed males. Female offspring weaned onto HFD were given treadmill exercise for 9 weeks, or NMN injection daily for 18 days. Maternal obesity programmed increased adiposity and liver triglycerides, with decreased glucose tolerance, liver NAD+ levels and citrate synthase activity in offspring. Both interventions reduced adiposity, and showed a modest improvement in glucose tolerance and improved markers of mitochondrial function. NMN appeared to have stronger effects on liver fat catabolism (Hadh) and synthesis (Fasn) than exercise. The interventions appeared to exert the most global benefit in mice that were most metabolically challenged (HFD-consuming offspring of obese mothers). This work encourages further study to confirm the suitability of NMN for use in reversing metabolic dysfunction linked to programming by maternal obesity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Early life nutrition is critical for the development of hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. We previously showed that intrauterine and early postnatal overnutrition programmed hypothalamic neurons expressing the appetite stimulator neuropeptide Y (NPY) and suppressor proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in offspring at weaning. However, the long-term effects of such programming and its interactions with post-weaning high-fat-diet (HFD) consumption are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or HFD for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1, litters were adjusted to 3/litter to induce postnatal overnutrition (vs. 12 in control). At postnatal day 20, half of the rats from each maternal group were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. Hypothalamic appetite regulators, and fuel (glucose and lipid) metabolic markers were measured. RESULTS:Offspring from obese dams gained more weight than those from lean dams independent of post-weaning diet. Maternal obesity interacted with post-weaning HFD consumption to cause greater levels of hyperphagia, adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and glucose intolerance in offspring. This was linked to increased hypothalamic NPY signaling and leptin resistance in adult offspring. Litter size reduction had a detrimental impact on insulin and adiponectin, while hypothalamic NPY and POMC mRNA expression were suppressed in the face of normal energy intake and weight gain. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal obesity, postnatal litter size reduction and post-weaning HFD consumption caused obesity via different neuroendocrine mechanism. There were strong additive effects of maternal obesity and post-weaning HFD consumption to increase the metabolic disorders in offspring.
Project description:Maternal obesity and consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy has a negative impact on offspring, including an increased risk for the development of obesity in adolescence. The mechanism for this transferred metabolic risk is unclear, but many studies have focused on the brain due to its important role in appetite and body-weight regulation. Two main pathways regulate appetite in the brain; homeostatic regulation that occurs predominantly in hypothalamic circuits and hedonic regulation of feeding that occurs via dopaminergic pathways. The current proposal examined the impact of early HFD exposure on the dopaminergic control of hedonic feeding pathways in a translational nonhuman primate model. Japanese macaque offspring from mothers consuming a control (CTR) or HFD were weaned onto control or HFD at an average 8 months of age yielding four groups: maternal and post-weaning control diet (mCTRpCTR), maternal control diet and post-weaning HFD (mCTRpHFD), maternal HFD and post-weaning control diet (mHFDpCTR) and maternal and post-weaning HFD (mHFDpHFD). Brains from 13-month-old offspring were evaluated for expression of neuropeptides that regulate dopaminergic pathways including orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Orexin cell numbers in the LH were significantly increased in animals exposed to a post-weaning HFD, while no difference was observed for orexin mRNA content or MCH cell numbers. Orexin fiber projections to the rostral VTA were significantly reduced in mCTRpHFD, mHFDpCTR, and mHFDpHFD groups, but these differences were not significant in the caudal VTA. There was no difference in the percentage of dopamine neurons receiving close appositions from orexin fibers in either the rostral or caudal VTA, nor was there any difference between groups in the number of orexin contacts per TH cell. In conclusion, the current study finds that prolonged early exposure to HFD during the in utero and postnatal period causes alterations at several levels in the dopaminergic circuits regulating reward.
Project description:Background:Maternal malnutrition is a critical factor in determining the risk of obesity and glucose intolerance in offspring. However, little is known about the effects of a maternal high-fat diet (HFD) on the ? cell phenotype in offspring, which is a major factor in glucose homeostasis, especially during the early life of offspring. Methods:Dams were randomly fed a HFD (60% kcal from fat) or a chow diet before pregnancy and during gestation and lactation. Glucose metabolism and the ? cell phenotype were assessed in male offspring at weaning. Results:Dams fed a HFD showed impaired glucose tolerance. A HFD predisposed the offspring to increased impairment of metabolic health, including obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, compared with offspring from chow diet-fed dams. Furthermore, increased islet sizes and islet densities were observed in male offspring from HFD-fed dams at weaning. There were increases in the insulin-positive area, ? cell mass and ? cell proliferation in male offspring from HFD-fed dams at weaning age. Next, we further determined whether a maternal HFD could affect ? cell apoptosis in mouse offspring and found that there was no significant change in ? cell apoptosis between the HFD and control groups. Conclusion:Our study is novel in showing that a maternal HFD predisposes offspring to impaired glucose metabolism and has a profound effect on ? cell mass and proliferation in offspring mice, which is observed in mice as early as at weaning age. However, further study to clarify the underlying mechanisms is warranted.
Project description:SCOPE:We investigated the long-term effects of maternal high-fat consumption and post-weaning exercise on offspring obesity susceptibility and insulin resistance. METHODS:C57BL/6J dams were fed either a high-fat (HFD, 40% kcal fat) or low-fat (LFD, 10% kcal fat) semi-synthetic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both maternal diet groups (mLFD; mHFD) received a LFD. At week 7, half of the mice got access to a running wheel (+RW) as voluntary exercise training. To induce obesity, all offspring groups (mLFD +/-RW and mHFD +/-RW) received HFD from week 15 until week 25. RESULTS:Compared to mLFD, mHFD offspring were more prone to HFD-induced body fat gain and exhibited an increased liver mass which was not due to increased hepatic triglyceride levels. RW improved the endurance capacity in mLFD, but not in mHFD offspring. Additionally, mHFD offspring +RW exhibited higher plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test and an elevated basal pancreatic insulin production compared to mLFD offspring. CONCLUSION:Taken together, maternal HFD reduced offspring responsiveness to the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise training regarding the improvement of endurance capacity, reduction of fat mass gain, and amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance.
Project description:Obesity is well known to be a major cause of several chronic metabolic diseases, which can be partially counteracted by exercise. This is due, in part, to an upregulation of mitochondrial activity through increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). Recent studies have shown that NAD(+) levels can be increased by using the NAD(+) precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) leading to the suggestion that NMN could be a useful intervention in diet related metabolic disorders. In this study we compared the metabolic, and especially mitochondrial-associated, effects of exercise and NMN in ameliorating the consequences of high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in mice. Sixty female 5 week old C57BL6/J mice were allocated across five groups: Chow sedentary: CS; Chow exercise: CEX; HFD sedentary: HS; HFD NMN: HNMN; HFD exercise: HEX (12/group). After 6 weeks of diet, exercise groups underwent treadmill exercise (15 m/min for 45 min), 6 days per week for 6 weeks. NMN or vehicle (500 mg/kg body weight) was injected (i.p.) daily for the last 17 days. No significant alteration in body weight was observed in response to exercise or NMN. The HFD significantly altered adiposity, glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, NADH levels and citrate synthase activity in muscle and liver. HEX and HNMN groups both showed significantly improved glucose tolerance compared to the HS group. NAD(+) levels were increased significantly both in muscle and liver by NMN whereas exercise increased NAD(+) only in muscle. Both NMN and exercise ameliorated the HFD-induced reduction in liver citrate synthase activity. However, exercise, but not NMN, ameliorated citrate synthase activity in muscle. Overall these data suggest that while exercise and NMN-supplementation can induce similar reversal of the glucose intolerance induced by obesity, they are associated with tissue-specific effects and differential alterations to mitochondrial function in muscle and liver.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To utilize a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and pre-pregnancy obesity on offspring intake of palatable food and to examine whether maternal HFD consumption impaired development of the dopamine system, critical for the regulation of hedonic feeding. METHODS:The impact of exposure to maternal HFD and obesity on offspring consumption of diets of varying composition was assessed after weaning. The influence of maternal HFD consumption on the development of the prefrontal cortex-dopaminergic system at 13 months of age was also examined. RESULTS:During a preference test, offspring exposed to maternal HFD consumption and obesity displayed increased intake of food high in fat and sugar content relative to offspring from lean control mothers. Maternal HFD consumption suppressed offspring dopamine signaling (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) relative to control offspring. Specifically, there was decreased abundance of dopamine fibers and of dopamine receptor 1 and 2 proteins. CONCLUSIONS:This study reveals that offspring exposed to both maternal HFD consumption and maternal obesity during early development are at increased risk for obesity due to overconsumption of palatable energy-dense food, a behavior that may be related to reduced central dopamine signaling.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that maternal diet-induced obesity leads to increased risk of type 2 diabetes in offspring. The current study investigated if weaning onto an obesogenic diet exaggerated the detrimental effects of maternal diet-induced obesity in adipose tissue. Maternal obesity and offspring obesity led to reduced expression of key insulin signalling proteins, including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). The effects of maternal obesity and offspring obesity were, generally, independent and additive. Irs1 mRNA levels were similar between all four groups of offspring, suggesting that in both cases post-transcriptional regulation was involved. Maternal diet-induced obesity increased miR-126 expression however levels of this miR were not influenced by a post-weaning obesogenic diet. In contrast, a post-weaning obesogenic diet was associated with increased levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1, implicating increased degradation of IRS-1 as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that whilst programmed reductions in IRS-1 are associated with increased levels of miR-126 and consequently reduced translation of Irs1 mRNA, the effects of a post-weaning obesogenic diet on IRS-1 are mediated by miR-126 independent mechanisms, including increased IRS-1 protein degradation. These divergent mechanisms explain why the combination of maternal obesity and offspring obesity leads to the most pronounced effects on offspring metabolism.