Preventing Alcohol and Tobacco Exposed Pregnancies: CHOICES Plus in Primary Care.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Alcohol and tobacco use are common among U.S. women, yet if used during pregnancy these substances present significant preventable risks to prenatal and perinatal health. Because use of alcohol and tobacco often continue into the first trimester and beyond, especially among women with unintended pregnancies, effective evidence-based approaches are needed to decrease these risk behaviors. This study was designed to test the efficacy of CHOICES Plus, a preconception intervention for reducing the risk of alcohol- and tobacco-exposed pregnancies (AEPs and TEPs). STUDY DESIGN:RCT with two intervention groups: CHOICES Plus (n=131) versus Brief Advice (n=130). Data collected April 2011 to October 2013. Data analysis finalized February 2016. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS:Settings were 12 primary care clinics in a large Texas public healthcare system. Participants were women who were non-sterile, non-pregnant, aged 18-44 years, drinking more than three drinks per day or more than seven drinks per week, sexually active, and not using effective contraception (N=261). Forty-five percent were smokers. INTERVENTION:Interventions were two CHOICES Plus sessions and a contraceptive visit or Brief Advice and referral to community resources. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Primary outcomes were reduced risk of AEP and TEP through 9-month follow-up. RESULTS:In intention-to-treat analyses across 9 months, the CHOICES Plus group was more likely than the Brief Advice group to reduce risk of AEP with an incidence rate ratio of 0.620 (95% CI=0.511, 0.757) and absolute risk reduction of -0.233 (95% CI=-0.239, -0.226). CHOICES Plus group members at risk for both exposures were more likely to reduce TEP risk (incidence rate ratio, 0.597; 95% CI=0.424, 0.840 and absolute risk reduction, -0.233; 95% CI=-0.019, -0.521). CONCLUSIONS:CHOICES Plus significantly reduced AEP and TEP risk. Addressing these commonly co-occurring risk factors in a single preconception program proved both feasible and efficacious in a low-income primary care population. Intervening with women before they become pregnant could shift the focus in clinical practice from treatment of substance-exposed pregnancies to prevention of a costly public health concern. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT01032772.
Project description:The previously published randomized controlled trial, EARLY, tested the efficacy of a motivational interviewing (MI) plus feedback condition against a video information (VI) condition and an informational brochure (IB) condition in reducing drinking and/or increasing contraception effectiveness, and found that drinking and rates of effective contraception improved in all conditions. In this reanalysis of the data from EARLY, potential moderating effects of depressive, global distress, and anxiety symptoms in response to the three brief interventions to reduce alcohol exposed pregnancy risk were examined. Women with higher levels of depression at baseline reported greater improvements in the MI plus feedback condition versus the VI and IB conditions with depression moderating both drinking and contraceptive effectiveness. Global distress moderated only drinking behavior in the MI plus feedback but not other groups and anxiety was not a moderator of outcome in any of the intervention groups. Depressed or distressed women at risk for AEP may benefit from an AEP risk reduction intervention that incorporates interaction with a treatment provider versus educational information provided via video or written materials.
Project description:Background: measure the efficacy of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) measurement plus brief advisory sessions to reduce smoking exposure and smoking behaviour in kidney transplant recipients. Methods: Randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial at a Spanish hospital.Smoking kidney transplant recipients giving their consent to participate were randomized to control (brief advice, n=63) or intervention group (brief advisory session plus measuring exhaled CO, n=59). Measurements: Sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, treatment, rejection episodes, infections, self-reported smoking, drug use, level of dependence and motivation to stop smoking (Fagerström's and Richmond's test) and stage of change (Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages). Efficacy was assessed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months as: cotinine test, CO levels in exhaled air, nicotine dependence, motivational stages of change, motivation to stop smoking, pattern of tobacco use and smoking cessation rates. Logistic regression models were computed. Results: At 12 months of follow-up, differences were found in exhaled CO between the intervention and control group(6.1±6.8vs.10.2±9.7ppm;p=0.028). Carboxyhemoglobin levels were lower in the intervention group as well as the positive cotinine test (1.2±1.2%vs.2.0±2.4%;p=0.039),(53.4%vs.74.2%). At 12 months, intervention reduces the probability of a positive urine test by 28%. Conclusions: Co-oximetry is a clinically relevant intervention for reduction of tobacco exposure in kidney transplant recipients.
Project description:Brief clinician delivered advice helps in tobacco cessation efforts. This study assessed the impact of our intervention on instances of advice given to dental patients during visits on tobacco use quit rates 6 months after the intervention.The intervention was cluster randomized trial at the dental practice level. Intervention dental practices were provided a longitudinal technology-assisted intervention, oralcancerprevention.org that included a series of interactive educational cases and motivational email cues to remind dental provides to complete guideline-concordant brief behavioral counseling at the point of care. In all dental practices, exit cards were given to the first 100 consecutive patients, in which tobacco users provided contact information for a six month follow-up telephone survey.A total of 564 tobacco using dental patients completed a six month follow-up survey. Among intervention patients, 55% reported receiving advice to quit tobacco, and 39% of control practice patients reported receiving advice to quit tobacco (p < 0.01). Six-month tobacco use quit rates were not significantly between the Intervention (9%) and Control (13%) groups, (p = 0.088).Although we increased rates of cessation advice delivered in dental practices, this study shows no evidence that brief advice by dentist's increases long-term abstinence in smokers.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00627185.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:More than half of the smoking population in Hong Kong are unmotivated to quit. Only about 2% of tobacco users in the territory have ever used cessation aids such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of delivering 1-week free NRT sample plus brief intervention to smokers at outdoor smoking hotspots on quit attempts and use of smoking cessation services. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a two-arm, pragmatic, multisite, cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) on the effectiveness of increasing quit attempts, use of cessation service and recruitment outcomes. Trained smoking cessation ambassadors will approach smokers at outdoor smoking hotspots, and deliver brief smoking cessation advice. Recruitment sessions are randomised to intervention or control group (allocation ratio 1:1). Participants in the intervention group (n=550) will receive 1-week free NRT sample (either patch or gum), brief medication advice from an onsite nurse and cessation service referral, whereas participants in control group (n=275) will only receive the brief advice and service referral. The primary outcomes are the proportion of participants who enrol in any cessation service in Hong Kong within 1?month of the recruitment, and the proportion of participants who report quit attempts at 1-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include self-reported use of NRT, self-reported 7-day tobacco abstinence, 30-day abstinence at 3 months and 6?months, biochemically validated abstinence at 6?months, perceived importance, difficulty and confidence to quit (scale 0-10), and Incremental Behavior Change towards Smoking Cessation. Process outcomes include number of smokers who will be approached, will accept the brief smoking cessation advice or be recruited to participate in the RCT. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster approved the trial (UW 18-118). Findings will be disseminated through funding website, publication and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03717051.
Project description:The cardiovascular risk in renal transplant patients is increased in patients who continue to smoke after transplantation. The aim of the study is to measure the effectiveness of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) measurement plus brief advisory sessions, in comparison to brief advice, to reduce smoking exposure and smoking behavior in kidney transplant recipients who smoke. The effectiveness will be measured by: (1) abandonment of smoking, (2) increase in motivation to stop smoking, and (3) reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day.a randomized, controlled, open clinical trial with blinded evaluation.A Coruña Hospital (Spain), reference to renal transplantation in the period 2012-2015.renal transplant patients who smoke in the precontemplation, contemplation or preparation stages according to the Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change model, and who give their consent to participate.smokers attempting to stop smoking, patients with terminal illness or mental disability that prevents them from participating.patients will be randomized to the control group (brief advisory session) or the intervention group (brief advisory session plus measuring exhaled CO). The sample target size is n?=?112, with 56 patients in each group. Allowing for up to 10 % loss to follow-up, this would provide 80 % power to detect a 13 % difference in attempting to give up smoking outcomes at a two-tailed significance level of 5 %.sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, treatment, rejection episodes, infections, self-reported smoking habit, drug use, level of dependence (the Fagerström test), stage of change (Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change model), and motivation to giving up smoking (the Richmond test).the effectiveness will be evaluated every 3, 6, 9 and 12 months as: pattern of tobacco use (self-reported tobacco use), smoking cessation rates, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in exhaled air measured by CO-oximetry, urinary cotinine tests, nicotine dependence (Fagerström test), motivational stages of change (Prochaska and DiClemente's stages) and motivation to stop smoking (the Richmond test).descriptive statistics and linear/logistic multiple regression models will be performed. Clinical relevance will be measured as relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction and the number needed to treat.informed consent of the patients and Ethical Review Board was obtained (code 2011/061).Tobacco is a modifiable risk factor that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. If effectiveness of CO-oximetry is confirmed to reduce tobacco exposure, we would have an intervention that is easy to use, low cost and with great implications about cardiovascular risk prevention in these patients.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16615772 . EudraCT number: 2015-002009-12.
Project description:The dental visit is a unique opportunity for tobacco control. Despite evidence of effectiveness in dental settings, brief provider-delivered cessation advice is underutilized.To evaluate an Internet-delivered intervention designed to increase implementation of brief provider advice for tobacco cessation in dental practice settings.Dental practices (N = 190) were randomized to the intervention website or wait-list control. Pre-intervention and after 8 months of follow-up, each practice distributed exit cards (brief patient surveys assessing provider performance, completed immediately after the dental visit) to 100 patients. Based on these exit cards, we assessed: whether patients were asked about tobacco use (ASK) and, among tobacco users, whether they were advised to quit tobacco (ADVISE). All intervention practices with follow-up exit card data were analyzed as randomized regardless of whether they participated in the Internet-delivered intervention.Of the 190 practices randomized, 143 (75%) dental practices provided follow-up data. Intervention practices' mean performance improved post-intervention by 4% on ASK (29% baseline, adjusted odds ratio = 1.29 [95% CI 1.17-1.42]), and by 11% on ADVISE (44% baseline, OR = 1.55 [95% CI 1.28-1.87]). Control practices improved by 3% on ASK (Adj. OR 1.18 [95% CI 1.07-1.29]) and did not significantly improve in ADVISE. A significant group-by-time interaction effect indicated that intervention practices improved more over the study period than control practices for ADVISE (P = 0.042) but not for ASK.This low-intensity, easily disseminated intervention was successful in improving provider performance on advice to quit.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00627185, http://www.webcitation.org/5c5Kugvzj.
Project description:Introduction:Disparities in receiving advice to quit smoking and other tobacco use from health professionals may contribute to the continuing gap in smoking prevalence among priority populations. Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), beginning in 2010, tobacco cessation services are currently covered in private and public health insurance plans. Providers and hospitals are also incentivized through the Meaningful Use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) to screen and document patients' tobacco use and deliver brief cessation counseling. This study analyzes trends and correlates of receiving health professionals' advice to quit and potential disparities among US adult smokers from 2010 to 2015. Methods:Data were from the National Health Interview Survey in 2010 and 2015. We analyzed the weighted prevalence of smokers' receipt of advice to quit smoking and other tobacco use from a health professional in 2010 and 2015 and correlates of receiving advice to quit. Results:Prevalence of receiving advice to quit from a health professional increased from 51.4% in 2010 to 60.6% in 2015. This positive trend was observed across tobacco disparity population groups. Survey year (2015), age (older), ethnicity (non-Hispanic), region (Northeast), poverty level (above 100% poverty level), past quit attempt, daily smoking, cigarettes per day (11+ per day), and psychological distress were associated with higher odds of receiving advice to quit. Conclusion:Based on national level data, receipt of advice to quit from health professionals increased between 2010 and 2015. However, disparities in receiving advice to quit from health professionals persist in certain populations. Implications:This study provides important data on the national trends in receipt of health professional advice to quit smoking and other tobacco use in the context of the ACA and Meaningful Use implementation and whether these policies helped to narrow the gaps in receipt of health professional advice among vulnerable populations.
Project description:Tobacco use is one of the most common preventable causes of death, but more than half of the Chinese men still use tobacco products. Moreover, 63.6% of Chinese smokers have stated that they would not consider quitting. Specialized and intensive smoking-cessation services are too expensive and passive to have major clinical and public health impacts in developing countries like China. Smoking cessation medications are not covered by medical insurance, and their high price prevents Chinese smokers from using them. Brief interventions are needed to provide cost-effective and timesaving tobacco dependence treatments in China mainland.We describe a two-arm randomized controlled trial for smokers who have no intention to quit. The project will be conducted in outpatient clinics at a large hospital in Beijing, China. Both arms include one face-to-face interview plus five follow-up interventions. Each intervention will last approximately one minute. Subjects allocated to the smoking-reduction intervention arm (SRI) will be advised to reduce smoking consumption to at least half of their current consumption level within the next month. All subjects in the SRI will be warned to bear in mind that an attempt to reduce smoking is an intermediate step before complete cessation. Smokers who have successfully reduced their smoking consumption will be encouraged to completely cease smoking. Controls are subjects allocated to the exercise- and diet-advice arm (EDA) and will be given advice about healthy diet and physical activity, but the advice will not include smoking cessation or reduction. Data collection will be done at baseline and at each follow-up interview using standardized questionnaires. The primary outcomes include self-reported and biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence and prolonged abstinence rates at 12-month follow-up.We expect that an intention to quit in smoking outpatients can be motivated by physicians in the clinic setting. If this very brief smoking-reduction intervention can be demonstrated to have a positive impact on long-term smoking cessation, this strategy has the potential to be a viable and acceptable approach and may be used widely in China and elsewhere.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02370147 (date of registration: 23 th February, 2015).
Project description:Home births in high risk pregnancies and unassisted childbirth seem to be increasing in the Netherlands. There is a lack of qualitative data on women's partners' involvement in these choices in the Dutch maternity care system, where integrated midwifery care and home birth are regular options in low risk pregnancies. The majority of available literature focuses on the women's motivations, while the partner's influence on these decisions is much less well understood. We aimed to examine partners' involvement in the decision to birth outside the system, in order to provide medical professionals with insight and recommendations regarding their interactions with these partners in the outpatient clinic. An exploratory qualitative research design with a constructivist approach and a grounded theory method were used. In-depth interviews were performed with twenty-one partners on their involvement in the decision to go against medical advice in choosing a high risk childbirth setting. Open, axial and selective coding of the interview data was done in order to generate themes. Four main themes were found: 1) Talking it through, 2) A shared vision, 3) Defending our views, and 4) Doing it together. One overarching theme emerged that covered all other themes: 'She convinced me'. These data show that the idea to choose a high risk birth setting almost invariably originated with the women, who did most of the research online, filtered the information and convinced the partners of the merit of their plans. Once the partners were convinced, they took a very active and supportive role in defending the plan to the outside world, as well as in preparing for the birth. Maternity care providers can use these findings in cases where there is a discrepancy between the wishes of the woman and the advice of the professional, so they can attempt to involve partners actively during consultations in pregnancy. That will ensure that partners also receive information on all options, risks and benefits of possible birth choices, and that they are truly in support of a final plan.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Primary health care (PHC) settings offer opportunities for tobacco use screening and brief cessation advice, but data on such activities in South Africa are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which participants were screened for and advised against tobacco use during consultations. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 500 participants, 18 years and older, attended by doctors or PHC nurses. Using an exit-interview questionnaire, information was obtained on participants' tobacco use status, reason(s) for seeking medical care, whether participants had been screened for and advised about their tobacco use and patients' level of comfort about being asked about and advised to quit tobacco use. Main outcome measures included patients' self-reports on having been screened and advised about tobacco use during their current clinic visit and/or any other visit within the last year. Data analysis included the use of chi-square statistics, t-tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 500 participants, 14.9% were current smokers and 12.1% were smokeless tobacco users. Only 12.9% of the participants were screened for tobacco use during their current visit, indicating the vast majority were not screened. Among the 134 tobacco users, 11.9% reported being advised against tobacco use during the current visit and 35.1% during any other visit within the last year. Of the participants not screened, 88% indicated they would be 'very comfortable' with being screened. A pregnancy-related clinic visit was the single most significant predictor for being screened during the current clinic visit (OR = 4.59; 95%CI = 2.13-9.88). CONCLUSION: Opportunities for tobacco use screening and brief cessation advice were largely missed by clinicians. Incorporating tobacco use status into the clinical vital signs as is done for pregnant patients during antenatal care visits in South Africa has the potential to improve tobacco use screening rates and subsequent cessation.