Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria: Diagnostic Challenges in Pediatric Patient.
ABSTRACT: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, life-threatening hematologic stem cell disorder characterized by hemoglobinuria, thrombosis, and tendency for bone marrow failure. The rare incidence of PNH in children, its nonspecific clinical presentation, and occasional absence of hemoglobinuria make the diagnosis challenging. We present a case of a 17-year-old boy who was hospitalized with a history of recurrent abdominal pain, fever, and dark-colored urine. Laboratory tests revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated inflammatory markers. Urinalysis was positive for protein and red blood cells, too many to be counted. Complement studies were within normal limits. Abdominal computed tomography showed a segment of the small bowel with wall thickening and signs of possible microperforation. Exploratory laparotomy revealed necrosis of the small bowel, and histological evaluation was suggestive of an autoimmune process with small vessel vasculitis. Bone marrow biopsy showed hypocellular marrow with a decreased number of myeloid cells, normal number of megakaryocytes, and signs of erythroid hyperplasia. Flow cytometry detected deficiency of CD59 leading to the diagnosis of PNH. The patient was treated with eculizumab infusions resulting in significant improvement. This case highlights the need for high clinical suspicion for rare entities such as PNH in patients presenting without hemoglobinuria.
Project description:Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare bone marrow failure disorder that manifests with hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, and peripheral blood cytopenias. The absence of two glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, CD55 and CD59, leads to uncontrolled complement activation that accounts for hemolysis and other PNH manifestations. GPI anchor protein deficiency is almost always due to somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIGA), a gene involved in the first step of GPI anchor biosynthesis; however, alternative mutations that cause PNH have recently been discovered. In addition, hypomorphic germ-line PIGA mutations that do not cause PNH have been shown to be responsible for a condition known as multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2. Eculizumab, a first-in-class monoclonal antibody that inhibits terminal complement, is the treatment of choice for patients with severe manifestations of PNH. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only cure for PNH but should be reserved for patients with suboptimal response to eculizumab.
Project description:Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder caused by somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene, leading to the production of blood cells with absent or decreased expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, including CD55 and CD59. Clinically, PNH is classified into three variants: classic (hemolytic), in the setting of another specified bone marrow disorder (such as aplastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome) and subclinical (asymptomatic). PNH testing is recommended for patients with intravascular hemolysis, acquired bone marrow failure syndromes and thrombosis with unusual features. Despite the availability of consensus guidelines for PNH diagnosis and monitoring, there are still discrepancies on how PNH tests are carried out, and these technical variations may lead to an incorrect diagnosis. Herein, we provide a brief historical overview of PNH, focusing on the laboratory tests available and on the current recommendations for PNH diagnosis and monitoring based in flow cytometry.
Project description:Clinical and hematological parameters in six cases of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) are presented. The mean delay in diagnosis after onset of symptoms was 3.7 years. Initial diagnoses considered were: (a) hematuria; (b) iron-deficiency; hemolytic; megaloblastic or refractory anemia and (c) myelodysplastic syndrome. Clinical features included; reddish urine (5/6), unexplained abdominal pain (4/6) and pallor (6/6). Laboratory investigations showed anemia (6/6), leucopenia (3/6), thrombocytopenia (3/6), unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia at some stage (6/6), and bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia (6/6). Complications encountered were (a) gall stones needing cholecystectomy, hemosiderosis and proximal tubular acidosis in 1 case, (b) disseminated tuberculosis in 1 case and (c) abortion with congestive cardiac failure in one. PNH may present with atypical features and tests for hemosiderinuria, sucrose lysis test and HAM's test are required to establish the diagnosis.
Project description:Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare stem cell disorder characterized by hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure, and thrombosis. Until recently, the complement inhibitor, eculizumab, was the only United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA)-approved therapy for the treatment of PNH. Although effective, eculizumab requires a frequent dosing schedule that can be burdensome for some patients and increases the risk of breakthrough intravascular hemolysis. Ravulizumab, an eculizumab-like monoclonal antibody engineered to have a longer half-life, is intended to provide the same benefits as eculizumab but with a more convenient and effective dosing schedule. In two recently published phase III non-inferiority trials, ravulizumab was found to be non-inferior to eculizumab both in efficacy and safety for the treatment of patients with PNH. Based on these results, ravulizumab was approved by the US FDA on 21 December 2018 and is currently under regulatory review in both the European Union and Japan.
Project description:Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, clonal, hematopoietic stem cell disorder that manifests with a complement-mediated hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure, and a propensity for thrombosis. These patients experience both intra- and extravascular hemolysis in the context of underlying complement activation. Currently eculizumab effectively blocks the intravascular hemolysis PNH. There remains an unmet clinical need for a complement inhibitor with activity early in the complement cascade to block complement at the classical and alternative pathways. C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) is an endogenous human plasma protein that has broad inhibitory activity in the complement pathway through inhibition of the classical pathway by binding C1r and C1s and inhibits the mannose-binding lectin-associated serine proteases in the lectin pathway. In this study, we show that commercially available plasma derived C1INH prevents lysis induced by the alternative complement pathway of PNH erythrocytes in human serum. Importantly, C1INH was able to block the accumulation of C3 degradation products on CD55 deficient erythrocytes from PNH patient on eculizumab therapy. This could suggest a role for inhibition of earlier phases of the complement cascade than that currently inhibited by eculizumab for incomplete or nonresponders to that therapy.
Project description:Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired disorder originating from hematopoietic stem cells and is a life-threating disease characterized by intravascular hemolysis, bone marrow (BM) failure, and venous thrombosis. The etiology of PNH is a somatic mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene (PIG-A) on the X chromosome, which blocks synthesis of the glycolipid moiety and causes deficiency in GPI-anchored proteins. PNH is closely related to aplastic anemia, in which T cells mediate destruction of BM. To identify aberrant molecular mechanisms involved in immune targeting of hematopoietic stem cells in BM, we applied RNA-seq to examine the transcriptome of T cell subsets (CD4+ naive, CD4+ memory, CD8+ naive, and CD8+ memory) from PNH patients and healthy control subjects. Differentially expressed gene analysis in four different T cell subsets from PNH and healthy control subjects showed distinct transcriptional profiles, depending on the T cell subsets. By pathway analysis, we identified novel signaling pathways in T cell subsets from PNH, including increased gene expression involved in TNFR, IGF1, NOTCH, AP-1, and ATF2 pathways. Dysregulation of several candidate genes (JUN, TNFAIP3, TOB1, GIMAP4, GIMAP6, TRMT112, NR4A2, CD69, and TNFSF8) was validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry. We have demonstrated molecular signatures associated with positive and negative regulators in T cells, suggesting novel pathophysiologic mechanisms in PNH. These pathways may be targets for new strategies to modulate T cell immune responses in BM failure.
Project description:Somatic mutation of PIGA in hematopoietic stem cells causes deficiency of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) that underlies the intravascular hemolysis but does not account for expansion of the PNH clone. Immune mechanisms may mediate clonal selection but appear insufficient to account for the clonal dominance necessary for PNH to become clinically apparent. Herein, we report 2 patients with PNH whose PIGA-mutant cells had a concurrent, acquired rearrangement of chromosome 12. In both cases, der(12) had a break within the 3' untranslated region of HMGA2, the architectural transcription factor gene deregulated in many benign mesenchymal tumors, that caused ectopic expression of HMGA2 in the bone marrow. These observations suggest that aberrant HMGA2 expression, in concert with mutant PIGA, accounts for clonal hematopoiesis in these 2 patients and suggest the concept of PNH as a benign tumor of the bone marrow.
Project description:Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a progressive, systemic, life-threatening disease, characterized by chronic uncontrolled complement activation. A retrospective analysis of 301 Korean PNH patients who had not received eculizumab was performed to systematically identify the clinical symptoms and signs predictive of mortality. PNH patients with hemolysis (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] ? 1.5 × the upper limit of normal [ULN]) have a 4.8-fold higher mortality rate compared with the age- and sex-matched general population (P < 0.001). In contrast, patients with LDH < 1.5 × ULN have a similar mortality rate as the general population (P = 0.824). Thromboembolism (TE) (odds ratio [OR] 7.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] (3.052-16.562), renal impairment (OR, 2.953; 95% CI, 1.116-7.818) and PNH-cytopenia (OR, 2.547; 95% CI, 1.159-5.597) are independent risk factors for mortality, with mortality rates 14-fold (P < 0.001), 8-fold (P < 0.001), and 6.2-fold (P < 0.001) greater than that of the age- and sex-matched general population, respectively. The combination of hemolysis and 1 or more of the clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain, chest pain, or dyspnea, resulted in a much greater increased mortality rate when compared with patients with just the individual symptom alone or just hemolysis. Early identification of risk factors related to mortality is crucial for the management of PNH. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01224483.
Project description:Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a rare clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder, is characterized by chronic, uncontrolled complement activation leading to intravascular hemolysis and an inflammatory prothrombotic state. The EXPLORE study aimed to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed PNH in patients with aplastic anemia (AA), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and/or other bone marrow failure (BMF) syndromes and the effect of PNH clone size on hemolysis.Patients, selected from medical office chart reviews, had blood samples collected for hematologic panel testing and for flow cytometry detection of PNH clones.Granulocyte PNH clones ? 1% were detected in 199 of all 5,398 patients (3.7%), 93 of 503 AA patients (18.5%), 50 of 4,401 MDS patients (1.1%), and 3 of 130 other BMF patients (2.3%). Higher-sensitivity analyses detected PNH clones ? 0.01% in 167 of 1,746 patients from all groups (9.6%) and in 22 of 1,225 MDS patients (1.8%), 116 of 294 AA patients (39.5%), and four of 54 other BMF patients (7.8%). Among patients with PNH clones ? 1%, median clone size was smaller in patients with AA (5.1%) than in those with MDS (17.6%) or other BMF (24.4%), and the percentage of patients with lactate dehydrogenase levels (a marker for intravascular hemolysis) ? 1.5 × upper limit of normal was smaller in patients with AA (18.3%) than in those with MDS (42.0%).These results confirm the presence of PNH clones in high-risk patient groups and suggest that screening of such patients may facilitate patient management and care.
Project description:Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare clonal disease that presents an estimated incidence of 1.3 cases per million per year, with a prevalence of 15.9 cases per million. It is characterized by hemolysis, bone marrow dysfunction with peripheral blood cytopenia, hypercoagulability, thrombosis, renal impairment and arterial and pulmonary hypertension. Hemolysis and subsequent hemosiderin accumulation in tubular epithelium cells induce tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The origin of PNH is the somatic mutation in the X-linked phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIG-A) gene located on Xp22: this condition leads to the production of clonal blood cells with a deficiency in those surface proteins that protect against the lytic action of the activated complement system. Despite the increased knowledge of this syndrome, therapies for PNH were still only experimental and symptomatic, until the introduction of the C5 complement blockade agent Eculizumab. A second generation of anti-complement agents is currently under investigation, representing future promising therapeutic strategies for patients affected by PNH. In the case of chronic hemolysis and renal iron deposition, a multidisciplinary approach should be considered to avoid or treat acute tubular injury or acute kidney injury (AKI). New promising perspectives derive from complement inhibitors and iron chelators, as well as more invasive treatments such as immunoadsorption or the use of dedicated hemodialysis filters in the presence of AKI.