Adoption of Health Information Technology Among US Nursing Facilities.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Nursing facilities have lagged behind in the adoption of interoperable health information technology (ie technologies that allow the sharing and use of electronic patient information between different information systems). The objective of this study was to estimate the nationwide prevalence of electronic health record (EHR) adoption among nursing facilities and to identify the factors associated with adoption. DESIGN:Cross-sectional survey. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:We surveyed members of the Society for Post-Acute & Long-Term Care Medicine (AMDA) about their organizations' health information technology usage and characteristics. MEASUREMENTS:Using questions adopted from existing instruments, the survey measured nursing home's EHR adoption, the ability to send, receive, search and integrate electronic information, as well as barriers to usage. Additionally, we linked survey responses to public use secondary data sources to construct measurements for 8 determinants known to be associated with organizational adoption: innovativeness, functional differentiation, role specialization, administrative intensity, professionalism, complexity, technical knowledge resources, and slack resources. A series of regression models estimated the association between potential determinants and technology adoption. RESULTS:84% of nursing facilities reported using an EHR. After controlling for all other factors, respondents who characterized their organization as more innovative had more than 6 times the odds (adjusted odds ratio = 6.39, 95% confidence interval = 2.69, 15.21) of adopting an EHR. Organization innovativeness was also associated with an increased odds of being able to send, integrate, and search for electronic information. The most commonly identified barrier to sharing clinical information among nursing facilities with an EHR was a reported absence of interoperability (57%). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS:An organizational culture that fosters innovation and awareness campaigns by professional societies may facilitate further adoption and effective use of technology. This will be increasingly important as policy makers continue to emphasize the use of EHRs and interoperability to improve the quality of care in nursing facilities.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine rates of electronic health record (EHR) adoption and health information exchange (HIE) among New York State (NYS) nursing homes.<h4>Data sources/study setting</h4>Primary data collected from a novel survey administered between November 2011 and March 2012 to all NYS nursing homes.<h4>Study design</h4>We used a cross-sectional study design to assess level of EHR implementation, automation of key functionalities, participation in HIE, and barriers to adoption.<h4>Data collection/extraction methods</h4>We used descriptive statistics to characterize rates of EHR adoption and participation in HIE and logistic regression to identify nursing home characteristics associated with EHR adoption and HIE.<h4>Principal findings</h4>We received responses from 375 of 632 nursing homes (59.3 percent). Of respondents, almost one in five (n=66, 18.0 percent) reported having a fully implemented and operational EHR and a majority (n=192, 54.4 percent) reported electronically exchanging information. Nursing homes with 100-159 beds were significantly less likely than other facilities to have implemented or be in the process of implementing an EHR (p=.011).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings present an important systematic look at EHR adoption and HIE by NYS nursing homes. Although the nursing home sector has been reported to lag in health information technology adoption, our results are encouraging. However, they suggest much room for growth and highlight the need for targeted initiatives to achieve more widespread adoption in this important health care sector.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act created incentives for adopting electronic health records (EHRs) for some healthcare organisations, but long-term care (LTC) facilities are excluded from those incentives. There are realisable benefits of EHR adoption in LTC facilities; however, there is limited research about this topic. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to identify EHR adoption factors for LTC facilities that are ineligible for the HITECH Act incentives. SETTING:We conducted systematic searches of Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) Complete via Ebson B. Stephens Company (EBSCO Host), Google Scholar and the university library search engine to collect data about EHR adoption factors in LTC facilities since 2009. PARTICIPANTS:Search results were filtered by date range, full text, English language and academic journals (n=22). INTERVENTIONS:Multiple members of the research team read each article to confirm applicability and study conclusions. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Researchers identified common themes across the literature: specifically facilitators and barriers to adoption of the EHR in LTC. RESULTS:Results identify facilitators and barriers associated with EHR adoption in LTC facilities. The most common facilitators include access to information and error reduction. The most prevalent barriers include initial costs, user perceptions and implementation problems. CONCLUSIONS:Similarities span the system selection phases and implementation process; of those, cost was the most common mentioned. These commonalities should help leaders in LTC facilities align strategic decisions to EHR adoption. This review may be useful for decision-makers attempting successful EHR adoption, policymakers trying to increase adoption rates without expanding incentives and vendors that produce EHRs.
Project description:To test for correlation between the growth in adoption of ambulatory electronic health records (EHRs) in the United States during 2010-2013 and hospital admissions and readmissions for elderly Medicare beneficiaries with at least one of four common ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs).SK&A Information Services Survey of Physicians, American Hospital Association General Survey and Information Technology Supplement; and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse Geographic Variation Database for 2010 through 2013.Fixed effects model estimated the relationship between hospital referral region (HRR) level measures of physician EHR adoption and ACSC admissions and readmissions. Analyzed rates of admissions and 30-day readmissions per beneficiary at the HRR level (restricting the denominator to beneficiaries in our sample), adjusted for differences across HRRs in Medicare beneficiary age, gender, and race. Calculated physician EHR adoption rates as the percentage of physicians in each HRR who report using EHR in ambulatory care settings.Each percentage point increase in market-level EHR adoption by physicians is correlated with a statistically significant decline of 1.06 ACSC admissions per 10,000 beneficiaries over the study period, controlling for the overall time trend as well as market fixed effects and characteristics that changed over time. This finding implies 26,689 fewer ACSC admissions in our study population during 2010 to 2013 that were related to physician ambulatory EHR adoption. This represents 3.2 percent fewer ACSC admissions relative to the total number of such admissions in our study population in 2010. We found no evidence of a correlation between EHR use, by either physicians or hospitals, and hospital readmissions at either the market level or hospital level.This study extends knowledge about EHRs' relationship with quality of care and utilization. The results suggest a significant association between EHR use in ambulatory care settings and ACSC admissions that is consistent with policy goals to improve the quality of ambulatory care for patients with chronic conditions. The null findings for readmissions support the need for improved interoperability between ambulatory care EHRs and hospital EHRs to realize improvements in readmissions.
Project description:Long-term care (LTC) facilities are an important part of the health care industry, providing care to the fastest-growing group of the population. However, the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) in LTC facilities lags behind other areas of the health care industry. One of the reasons for the lack of widespread adoption in the United States is that LTC facilities are not eligible for incentives under the Meaningful Use program. Implementation of an EHR system in an LTC facility can potentially enhance the quality of care, provided it is appropriately implemented, used, and maintained. Unfortunately, the lag in adoption of the EHR in LTC creates a paucity of literature on the benefits of EHR implementation in LTC facilities.The objective of this systematic review was to identify the potential benefits of implementing an EHR system in LTC facilities. The study also aims to identify the common conditions and EHR features that received favorable remarks from providers and the discrepancies that needed improvement to build up momentum across LTC settings in adopting this technology.The authors conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), and MEDLINE databases. Papers were analyzed by multiple referees to filter out studies not germane to our research objective. A final sample of 28 papers was selected to be included in the systematic review.Results of this systematic review conclude that EHRs show significant improvement in the management of documentation in LTC facilities and enhanced quality outcomes. Approximately 43% (12/28) of the papers reported a mixed impact of EHRs on the management of documentation, and 33% (9/28) of papers reported positive quality outcomes using EHRs. Surprisingly, very few papers demonstrated an impact on patient satisfaction, physician satisfaction, the length of stay, and productivity using EHRs.Overall, implementation of EHRs has been found to be effective in the few LTC facilities that have implemented them. Implementation of EHRs in LTC facilities caused improved management of clinical documentation that enabled better decision making.
Project description:Objectives:Electronic health record (EHR) data are increasingly used for biomedical discoveries. The nature of the data, however, requires expertise in both data science and EHR structure. The Observational Medical Out-comes Partnership (OMOP) common data model (CDM) standardizes the language and structure of EHR data to promote interoperability of EHR data for research. While the OMOP CDM is valuable and more attuned to research purposes, it still requires extensive domain knowledge to utilize effectively, potentially limiting more widespread adoption of EHR data for research and quality improvement. Materials and methods:We have created ROMOP: an R package for direct interfacing with EHR data in the OMOP CDM format. Results:ROMOP streamlines typical EHR-related data processes. Its functions include exploration of data types, extraction and summarization of patient clinical and demographic data, and patient searches using any CDM vocabulary concept. Conclusion:ROMOP is freely available under the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) license and can be obtained from GitHub (http://github.com/BenGlicksberg/ROMOP). We detail instructions for setup and use in the Supplementary Materials. Additionally, we provide a public sandbox server containing synthesized clinical data for users to explore OMOP data and ROMOP (http://romop.ucsf.edu).
Project description:Stagnation in hospitals' adoption of data integration functionalities coupled with reduction in the number of operational health information exchanges could become a significant impediment to hospitals' adoption of 3 critical capabilities: electronic health information exchange, interoperability, and medication reconciliation, in which electronic systems are used to assist with resolving medication discrepancies and improving patient safety. Against this backdrop, we assessed the relationships between the 3 capabilities.We conducted an observational study applying partial least squares-structural equation modeling technique to 27 variables obtained from the 2013 American Hospital Association annual survey Information Technology (IT) supplement, which describes health IT capabilities.We included 1330 hospitals. In confirmatory factor analysis, out of the 27 variables, 15 achieved loading values greater than 0.548 at P?<?.001, as such were validated as the building blocks of the 3 capabilities. Subsequent path analysis showed a significant, positive, and cyclic relationship between the capabilities, in that decreases in the hospitals' adoption of one would lead to decreases in the adoption of the others.These results show that capability for high quality medication reconciliation may be impeded by lagging adoption of interoperability and health information exchange capabilities. Policies focused on improving one or more of these capabilities may have ancillary benefits.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Nationwide initiatives have promoted greater adoption of health information technology as a means to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs). Hospital adoption of electronic health records with Meaningful Use (MU) capabilities expected to improve medication safety has grown rapidly. However, evidence that MU capabilities are associated with declines in in-hospital ADEs is lacking.<h4>Methods</h4>Data came from the 2010-2013 Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System and the 2008-2013 Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Analytics Database. Two-level random intercept logistic regression was used to estimate the association of MU capabilities and occurrence of ADEs, adjusting for patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, and year of observation.<h4>Results</h4>Rates of in-hospital ADEs declined by 19% from 2010 to 2013. Adoption of MU capabilities was associated with 11% lower odds of an ADE (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-0.96). Interoperability capability was associated with 19% lower odds of an ADE (95% CI, 0.67- 0.98). Adoption of MU capabilities explained 22% of the observed reduction in ADEs, or 67,000 fewer ADEs averted by MU.<h4>Discussion</h4>Concurrent with the rapid uptake of MU and interoperability, occurrence of in-hospital ADEs declined significantly from 2010 to 2013. MU capabilities and interoperability were associated with lower occurrence of ADEs, but the effects did not vary by experience with MU. About one-fifth of the decline in ADEs from 2010 to 2013 was attributable to MU capabilities.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Findings support the contention that adoption of MU capabilities and interoperability spurred by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act contributed in part to the recent decline in ADEs.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:An increasing number of electronic health record (EHR) systems have been implemented in clinical practice environments where nurses work. Findings from previous studies have found that a number of intended benefits of the technology have not yet been realised to date, partially due to poor system adoption among health professionals such as nurses. Previous studies have suggested that nurse managers can support the effective adoption and use of the technology by nurses. However, no known studies have identified what role nurse managers have in supporting technology adoption, nor the specific strategies that managers can employ to support their staff. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to better understand the role of the nurse manager in point-of-care nurses' use of EHRs, and to identify strategies that may be effective in supporting clinical adoption. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This study will use a qualitative descriptive design. Interviews with both nurse managers and point-of-care nursing staff will be conducted in a Canadian mental health and addiction healthcare organisation where an EHR has been implemented. A semistructured interview guide will be used, and interviews will be audio recorded. Transcripts will be analysed using a directed content analysis technique. Strategies to ensure the trustworthiness of the data analysis procedure and findings will be employed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval for this study has been obtained. Dissemination strategies may include a paper submission to a peer-reviewed journal, a conference submission and meetings to share findings with the study site leadership team. Findings from this research will be used to inform a future study which aims to assess levels of competencies and perform a psychometric analysis of the Nursing Informatics Competency Assessment for the Nurse Leader instrument in a Canadian context.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was threefold. First, we gathered and synthesized the historic literature regarding electronic health record (EHR) adoption rates among physicians in small practices (ten or fewer members). Next, we constructed models to project estimated future EHR adoption trends and timelines. We then determined the likelihood of achieving universal EHR adoption in the near future and articulate how barriers can be overcome in the small and solo practice medical environment. DESIGN: This study used EHR adoption data from six previous surveys of small practices to estimate historic market penetration rates. Applying technology diffusion theory, three future adoption scenarios, optimistic, best estimate, and conservative, are empirically derived. MEASUREMENT: EHR adoption parameters, external and internal coefficients of influence, are estimated using Bass diffusion models. RESULTS: All three EHR scenarios display the characteristic diffusion S curve that is indicative that the technology is likely to achieve significant market penetration, given enough time. Under current conditions, EHR adoption will reach its maximum market share in 2024 in the small practice setting. CONCLUSION: The promise of improved care quality and cost control has prompted a call for universal EHR adoption by 2014. The EHR products now available are unlikely to achieve full diffusion in a critical market segment within the time frame being targeted by policy makers.
Project description:Adoption and meaningful use of electronic health record (EHR) systems is an important national goal. We undertook a pilot study to determine the level of adoption and barriers to implementation of meaningful use (MU) of EHR systems as defined by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in US radiation oncology practices.We administered a Web-based survey instrument to a convenience sample of 40 departments of radiation oncology. We determined the current status of EHR system use at each facility, attitudes toward EHR systems, knowledge of MU criteria, plans and barriers to implementation, and whether selected interventions would be helpful with regard to compliance with MU criteria.Twenty-one of 40 radiation oncology facilities completed the survey, for a 53% response rate. Respondents were mostly large academic practices with a median of six (range, one to 32) full-time physicians and 70 (range, eight to 650) patients treated daily. Most facilities (81%) currently used an EHR system. The majority (84%) of facilities were aware of MU criteria, and of these, 67% expected to implement MU-compliant systems by the year 1 reporting deadline of October 1, 2011. The most frequently cited barriers to implementation were high cost, difficulty integrating with hospital systems, and a lack of national guidelines for implementation.Most large academic radiation oncology practices have already incorporated EHR systems into practice and plan to meet MU requirements. Further work should focus on assessment of needs for smaller practices. Radiation oncology-specific guidelines may improve widespread adoption.