Staphylococcus aureus Uses the Bacilliredoxin (BrxAB)/Bacillithiol Disulfide Reductase (YpdA) Redox Pathway to Defend Against Oxidative Stress Under Infections.
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and has to cope with reactive oxygen and chlorine species (ROS, RCS) during infections. The low molecular weight thiol bacillithiol (BSH) is an important defense mechanism of S. aureus for detoxification of ROS and HOCl stress to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm. Under HOCl stress, BSH forms mixed disulfides with proteins, termed as S-bacillithiolations, which are reduced by bacilliredoxins (BrxA and BrxB). The NADPH-dependent flavin disulfide reductase YpdA is phylogenetically associated with the BSH synthesis and BrxA/B enzymes and was recently suggested to function as BSSB reductase (Mikheyeva et al., 2019). Here, we investigated the role of the complete bacilliredoxin BrxAB/BSH/YpdA pathway in S. aureus COL under oxidative stress and macrophage infection conditions in vivo and in biochemical assays in vitro. Using HPLC thiol metabolomics, a strongly enhanced BSSB level and a decreased BSH/BSSB ratio were measured in the S. aureus COL ?ypdA deletion mutant under control and NaOCl stress. Monitoring the oxidation degree (OxD) of the Brx-roGFP2 biosensor revealed that YpdA is required for regeneration of the reduced BSH redox potential (E BSH) upon recovery from oxidative stress. In addition, the ?ypdA mutant was impaired in H2O2 detoxification as measured with the novel H2O2-specific Tpx-roGFP2 biosensor. Phenotype analyses further showed that BrxA and YpdA are required for survival under NaOCl and H2O2 stress in vitro and inside murine J-774A.1 macrophages in infection assays in vivo. Finally, NADPH-coupled electron transfer assays provide evidence for the function of YpdA in BSSB reduction, which depends on the conserved Cys14 residue. YpdA acts together with BrxA and BSH in de-bacillithiolation of S-bacillithiolated GapDH. In conclusion, our results point to a major role of the BrxA/BSH/YpdA pathway in BSH redox homeostasis in S. aureus during recovery from oxidative stress and under infections.
Project description:Bacillithiol (BSH) is utilized as a major thiol-redox buffer in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Under oxidative stress, BSH forms mixed disulfides with proteins, termed as S-bacillithiolation, which can be reversed by bacilliredoxins (Brx). In eukaryotes, glutaredoxin-fused roGFP2 biosensors have been applied for dynamic live imaging of the glutathione redox potential. Here, we have constructed a genetically encoded bacilliredoxin-fused redox biosensor (Brx-roGFP2) to monitor dynamic changes in the BSH redox potential in S. aureus.The Brx-roGFP2 biosensor showed a specific and rapid response to low levels of bacillithiol disulfide (BSSB) in vitro that required the active-site Cys of Brx. Dynamic live imaging in two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 and COL strains revealed fast and dynamic responses of the Brx-roGFP2 biosensor under hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress and constitutive oxidation of the probe in different BSH-deficient mutants. Furthermore, we found that the Brx-roGFP2 expression level and the dynamic range are higher in S. aureus COL compared with the USA300 strain. In phagocytosis assays with THP-1 macrophages, the biosensor was 87% oxidized in S. aureus COL. However, no changes in the BSH redox potential were measured after treatment with different antibiotics classes, indicating that antibiotics do not cause oxidative stress in S. aureus. Conclusion and Innovation: This Brx-roGFP2 biosensor catalyzes specific equilibration between the BSH and roGFP2 redox couples and can be applied for dynamic live imaging of redox changes in S. aureus and other BSH-producing Firmicutes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 835-848.
Project description:The intracellular redox environment of Staphylococcus aureus is mainly buffered by bacillithiol (BSH), a low molecular weight thiol. The identity of enzymes responsible for the recycling of oxidized bacillithiol disulfide (BSSB) to the reduced form (BSH) remains elusive. We examined YpdA, a putative bacillithiol reductase, for its role in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis. The ypdA mutant showed increased levels of BSSB and a lower bacillithiol redox ratio vs. the isogenic parent, indicating a higher level of oxidative stress within the bacterial cytosol. We showed that YpdA consumed NAD(P)H; and YpdA protein levels were augmented in response to stress. Wild type strains overexpressing YpdA showed increased tolerance to oxidants and electrophilic agents. Importantly, YpdA overexpression in the parental strain caused an increase in BSH levels accompanied by a decrease in BSSB concentration in the presence of stress, resulting in an increase in bacillithiol redox ratio vs. the vector control. Additionally, the ypdA mutant exhibited decreased survival in human neutrophils (PMNs) as compared with the parent, while YpdA overexpression protected the resulting strain from oxidative stress in vitro and from killing by human neutrophils ex vivo. Taken together, these data present a new role for YpdA in S. aureus physiology and virulence through the bacillithiol system.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus produces bacillithiol (BSH) as major low molecular weight (LMW) thiol which functions in thiol-protection and redox-regulation by protein S-bacillithiolation under hypochlorite stress. The aldehyde dehydrogenase AldA was identified as S-bacillithiolated at its active site Cys279 under NaOCl stress in S. aureus. Here, we have studied the expression, function, redox regulation and structural changes of AldA of S. aureus. Transcription of aldA was previously shown to be regulated by the alternative sigma factor SigmaB. Northern blot analysis revealed SigmaB-independent induction of aldA transcription under formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, diamide and NaOCl stress. Deletion of aldA resulted in a NaOCl-sensitive phenotype in survival assays, suggesting an important role of AldA in the NaOCl stress defense. Purified AldA showed broad substrate specificity for oxidation of several aldehydes, including formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, acetaldehyde and glycol aldehyde. Thus, AldA could be involved in detoxification of aldehyde substrates that are elevated under NaOCl stress. Kinetic activity assays revealed that AldA is irreversibly inhibited under H2O2 treatment in vitro due to overoxidation of Cys279 in the absence of BSH. Pre-treatment of AldA with BSH prior to H2O2 exposure resulted in reversible AldA inactivation due to S-bacillithiolation as revealed by activity assays and BSH-specific Western blot analysis. Using molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation, we further show that BSH occupies two different positions in the AldA active site depending on the AldA activation state. In conclusion, we show here that AldA is an important target for S-bacillithiolation in S. aureus that is up-regulated under NaOCl stress and functions in protection under hypochlorite stress.
Project description:Low G+C Gram-positive Firmicutes, such as the clinically important pathogens <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> and <i>Bacillus cereus</i>, use the low-molecular weight thiol bacillithiol (BSH) as a defense mechanism to buffer the intracellular redox environment and counteract oxidative stress encountered by human neutrophils during infections. The protein YpdA has recently been shown to function as an essential NADPH-dependent reductase of oxidized bacillithiol disulfide (BSSB) resulting from stress responses and is crucial for maintaining the reduced pool of BSH and cellular redox balance. In this work, we present the first crystallographic structures of YpdAs, namely, those from <i>S. aureus</i> and <i>B. cereus</i>. Our analyses reveal a uniquely organized biological tetramer; however, the structure of the monomeric subunit is highly similar to those of other flavoprotein disulfide reductases. The absence of a redox active cysteine in the vicinity of the FAD isoalloxazine ring implies a new direct disulfide reduction mechanism, which is backed by the presence of a potentially gated channel, serving as a putative binding site for BSSB in the proximity of the FAD cofactor. We also report enzymatic activities for both YpdAs, which along with the structures presented in this work provide important structural and functional insight into a new class of FAD-containing NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, related to the emerging fight against pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:Bacillithiol (BSH) is the major low-molecular-weight thiol of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we used OxICAT and Voronoi redox treemaps to quantify hypochlorite-sensitive protein thiols in S. aureus USA300 and analyzed the role of BSH in protein S-bacillithiolation.The OxICAT analyses enabled the quantification of 228 Cys residues in the redox proteome of S. aureus USA300. Hypochlorite stress resulted in >10% increased oxidation of 58 Cys residues (25.4%) in the thiol redox proteome. Among the highly oxidized sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)-sensitive proteins are five S-bacillithiolated proteins (Gap, AldA, GuaB, RpmJ, and PpaC). The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase Gap represents the most abundant S-bacillithiolated protein contributing 4% to the total Cys proteome. The active site Cys151 of Gap was very sensitive to overoxidation and irreversible inactivation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or NaOCl in vitro. Treatment with H2O2 or NaOCl in the presence of BSH resulted in reversible Gap inactivation due to S-bacillithiolation, which could be regenerated by the bacilliredoxin Brx (SAUSA300_1321) in vitro. Molecular docking was used to model the S-bacillithiolated Gap active site, suggesting that formation of the BSH mixed disulfide does not require major structural changes. Conclusion and Innovation: Using OxICAT analyses, we identified 58 novel NaOCl-sensitive proteins in the pathogen S. aureus that could play protective roles against the host immune defense and include the glycolytic Gap as major target for S-bacillithiolation. S-bacillithiolation of Gap did not require structural changes, but efficiently functions in redox regulation and protection of the active site against irreversible overoxidation in S. aureus. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 410-430.
Project description:Protein S-bacillithiolations are mixed disulfides between protein thiols and the bacillithiol (BSH) redox buffer that occur in response to NaOCl in Bacillus subtilis. We used BSH-specific immunoblots, shotgun liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis and redox proteomics to characterize the S-bacillithiolomes of B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. amyloliquefaciens, and Staphylococcus carnosus and also measured the BSH/oxidized bacillithiol disulfide (BSSB) redox ratio after NaOCl stress.In total, 54 proteins with characteristic S-bacillithiolation (SSB) sites were identified, including 29 unique proteins and eight proteins conserved in two or more of these bacteria. The methionine synthase MetE is the most abundant S-bacillithiolated protein in Bacillus species after NaOCl exposure. Further, S-bacillithiolated proteins include the translation elongation factor EF-Tu and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ThrS), the DnaK and GrpE chaperones, the two-Cys peroxiredoxin YkuU, the ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase YumC, the inorganic pyrophosphatase PpaC, the inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase GuaB, proteins involved in thiamine biosynthesis (ThiG and ThiM), queuosine biosynthesis (QueF), biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids (AroA and AroE), serine (SerA), branched-chain amino acids (YwaA), and homocysteine (LuxS and MetI). The thioredoxin-like proteins, YphP and YtxJ, are S-bacillithiolated at their active sites, suggesting a function in the de-bacillithiolation process. S-bacillithiolation is accompanied by a two-fold increase in the BSSB level and a decrease in the BSH/BSSB redox ratio in B. subtilis.Many essential and conserved proteins, including the dominant MetE, were identified in the S-bacillithiolome of different Bacillus species and S. carnosus using shotgun-LC-MS/MS analyses.S-bacillithiolation is a widespread redox control mechanism among Firmicutes bacteria that protects conserved metabolic enzymes and essential proteins against overoxidation.
Project description:Recent advances in the design of genetically encoded redox biosensors, such as redox-sensitive GFP (roGFP) have facilitated the real-time imaging of the intracellular redox potential in eukaryotic cells at high sensitivity and at spatiotemporal resolution. To increase the specificity of roGFP2 for the interaction with the glutathione (GSH)/ glutathione disulfide (GSSG) redox couple, roGFP2 has been fused to glutaredoxin (Grx) to construct the Grx-roGFP2 biosensor. We have previously designed the related Brx-roGFP2 redox biosensor for dynamic measurement of the bacillithiol redox potential (E BSH) in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we describe the detailed method for measurements of the oxidation degree (OxD) of the Brx-roGFP2 biosensor in S. aureus using the microplate reader. In particularly, we provide details for determination of the E BSH changes during the growth and after oxidative stress. For future biosensor applications at the single cell level, we recommend the design of genome-encoded roGFP2 biosensors enabling stable expression and fluorescence in bacteria.•Brx-roGFP2 is specific for measurements of the bacillithiol redox potential in Staphylococcus aureus cells•Control samples for fully reduced and oxidized states of Brx-roGFP2 are required for calibration during OxD measurements•Easy to measure fluorescence excitation intensities at the 405 and 488 nm excitation maxima using microplate readers.
Project description:Mycothiol (MSH) functions as major low molecular weight (LMW) thiol in the industrially important Corynebacterium glutamicum. In this study, we genomically integrated an Mrx1-roGFP2 biosensor in C. glutamicum to measure dynamic changes of the MSH redox potential (EMSH) during the growth and under oxidative stress. C. glutamicum maintains a highly reducing intrabacterial EMSH throughout the growth curve with basal EMSH levels of ~-?296?mV. Consistent with its H2O2 resistant phenotype, C. glutamicum responds only weakly to 40?mM H2O2, but is rapidly oxidized by low doses of NaOCl. We further monitored basal EMSH changes and the H2O2 response in various mutants which are compromised in redox-signaling of ROS (OxyR, SigH) and in the antioxidant defense (MSH, Mtr, KatA, Mpx, Tpx). While the probe was constitutively oxidized in the mshC and mtr mutants, a smaller oxidative shift in basal EMSH was observed in the sigH mutant. The catalase KatA was confirmed as major H2O2 detoxification enzyme required for fast biosensor re-equilibration upon return to non-stress conditions. In contrast, the peroxiredoxins Mpx and Tpx had only little impact on EMSH and H2O2 detoxification. Further live imaging experiments using confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the stable biosensor expression and fluorescence at the single cell level. In conclusion, the stably expressed Mrx1-roGFP2 biosensor was successfully applied to monitor dynamic EMSH changes in C. glutamicum during the growth, under oxidative stress and in different mutants revealing the impact of Mtr and SigH for the basal level EMSH and the role of OxyR and KatA for efficient H2O2 detoxification under oxidative stress.
Project description:In Staphylococcus aureus, the low-molecular-weight thiol called bacillithiol (BSH), together with cognate S-transferases, is believed to be the counterpart to the glutathione system of other organisms. To explore the physiological role of BSH in S. aureus, we constructed mutants with the deletion of bshA (sa1291), which encodes the glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the first step of BSH biosynthesis, and fosB (sa2124), which encodes a BSH-S-transferase that confers fosfomycin resistance, in several S. aureus strains, including clinical isolates. Mutation of fosB or bshA caused a 16- to 60-fold reduction in fosfomycin resistance in these S. aureus strains. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis, which quantified thiol extracts, revealed some variability in the amounts of BSH present across S. aureus strains. Deletion of fosB led to a decrease in BSH levels. The fosB and bshA mutants of strain COL and a USA300 isolate, upon further characterization, were found to be sensitive to H2O2 and exhibited decreased NADPH levels compared with those in the isogenic parents. Microarray analyses of COL and the isogenic bshA mutant revealed increased expression of genes involved in staphyloxanthin synthesis in the bshA mutant relative to that in COL under thiol stress conditions. However, the bshA mutant of COL demonstrated decreased survival compared to that of the parent in human whole-blood survival assays; likewise, the naturally BSH-deficient strain SH1000 survived less well than its BSH-producing isogenic counterpart. Thus, the survival of S. aureus under oxidative stress is facilitated by BSH, possibly via a FosB-mediated mechanism, independently of its capability to produce staphyloxanthin.
Project description:This article contains representative fluorescence excitation spectra of roGFP2-based probes used for ratiometric analysis of redox changes as presented in the article "Systematic in vitro assessment of responses of roGFP2-based probes to physiologically relevant oxidant species" . The recombinant probes roGFP2, roGFP2-Orp1, and Grx1-roGFP2 were exposed to various oxidative and nitrosative species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), aldrithiol-2 (AT-2), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), potassium polysulfide (K2Sx), spermine NONOate (SperNO), and diethyl amino NONOate (DeaNO) at different molar ratios. Fluorescence excitation spectra of the probes were recorded in the excitation wavelength range between 350 and 500 nm and for a total of 60 min. Analysis and interpretation of the data is presented in an associated article .