Predictors of teenage pregnancy among girls aged 13-19 years in Uganda: a community based case-control study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Teenage pregnancy is a serious public health and social problem, with 95% occurring in developing countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the behavioural, familial and social factors associated with teenage pregnancy among girls aged 13-19 years in Lira District, Uganda. METHODS:Primary data from a case-control study of teenage girls (aged 13-19 years) in Lira District, Uganda was analysed. A Structured questionnaire was administered using face-to-face interviews to collect data on 495 participants, identified through simple random sampling from 32 villages in two counties in Lira District. Data analyses were done using SPSS Statistics 23 for descriptive, bivariate (i.e. Chi-square tests) and multivariable analyses (i.e. logistics regression) used for determining independent associations. RESULTS:A total of 495 teenage girls participated in the study, however, final analyses were undertaken for 480 respondents. At bivariable analysis, all variables except alcohol consumption were significantly associated with teenage pregnancy. Among the behavioural factors assessed, multivariable analyses showed that having multiple sexual partners, frequent sex and irregular contraceptive use increased the likelihood of teenage pregnancy. Among familial factors, being married was found to increase the likelihood of teenage pregnancy. Peer pressure, sexual abuse and lack of control over sex was observed to increase the likelihood of teenage pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS:Demographic, behavioural, familial and social factors are important predictors of teenage pregnancy in Lira District. Interventions focussing on: retaining pregnant and married girls at school, information on sexual and reproductive health of teenage girls, improving access to and information about contraceptive use among teenage girls, improving socio-economic status of households, and law enforcement on sexual abuse among girls may come a long way to improving adolescent sexual and health services in the low-income settings.
Project description:PURPOSE:Earlier ages at menarche are associated with elevations in internalizing and externalizing that persist into adulthood. The present study examines whether early pubertal timing precipitates experiences during adolescence that account for long-term elevations in depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior among early maturing girls. METHODS:Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health (Add Health), the study examines significant postmenarcheal life events that might mediate associations of age at menarche with depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior in adulthood: teenage criminal arrest, teenage pregnancy and childbearing, high school dropout, and different forms of postpubertal physical and sexual traumatic assault. RESULTS:Results indicate that earlier menarche was associated with greater likelihood of postmenarcheal discontinued education, physical and sexual assault, and teenage pregnancy and childbearing. Discontinued education, physical assault, and sexual assault mediated associations of pubertal timing with adult depressive symptoms; sexual assault mediated associations of pubertal timing with adult antisocial behavior. CONCLUSIONS:Earlier menarche seems to precipitate postpubertal stressful events that, in turn, account for higher rates of psychological problems in adulthood. These results suggest that the adolescent experiences of early maturing girls channel them into life paths where stress, adversity, and other risks to psychological well-being are more likely to be a continuing facet of daily life.
Project description:Truancy has been linked to risky sexual behaviours in teenagers. However, no studies in England have examined the association between truancy and teenage pregnancy, and the use of truancy as a marker of teenagers at risk of pregnancy.Using logistic regression, we investigated the association between truancy at age 15 and the likelihood of teenage pregnancy by age 19 among 3837 female teenagers who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Young People of England. We calculated the areas under the ROC curves of four models to determine how useful truancy would be as a marker of future teenage pregnancy.Truancy showed a dose-response association with teenage pregnancy after adjusting for ethnicity, educational intentions at age 16, parental socioeconomic status and family composition ('several days at a time' versus 'none', odds ratio 3.48 95% confidence interval 1.90-6.36, P < 0.001). Inclusion of risk behaviours improved the accuracy of predictive models only marginally (area under the ROC curve 0.76 full model versus 0.71 sociodemographic characteristics only).Truancy is independently associated with teenage pregnancy among English adolescent girls. However, the discriminatory powers of models were low, suggesting that interventions addressing the whole population, rather than targeting high-risk individuals, might be more effective in reducing teenage pregnancy rates.
Project description:Teenage pregnancy and child marriage are prevalent in Zambia and are complexly interrelated issues with common causes and effects. The aim of this study was to explore factors in the social and cultural environment shaping young people's sexual behaviour, with specific attention to teenage pregnancy and child marriage in Eastern Zambia. The study was conducted in selected wards in Petauke, Chadiza and Katete districts, using an exploratory mixed-method design including a household survey, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The participants included 1,434 young females and males aged 15 to 24, female and male parents and caregivers; grandmothers; traditional leaders; teachers; health and social workers; representatives from youth associations, community-based and non-governmental organizations; and district level policy makers. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis and NVivo was used to manage the data, while survey data were analysed using Stata. The study revealed a high prevalence rate of teenage pregnancy (48%) and child marriage (13%) among young women. The mean age at first pregnancy or fatherhood was lower among female (17) than male respondents (20). A clear interlinkage between teenage pregnancy and child marriage was found, the two issues were mutually reinforcing. While teenage pregnancy appeared both as a cause and consequence of child marriage, marriage was mostly a common response to pregnancy. Early sexual debut, limited knowledge and use of contraception, poverty and limited future perspectives as well as sexual and gender norms were identified as the main causative factors of teenage pregnancy and therefore, child marriage. Based on the findings, a conceptual model to explain the interrelationships between young people's sexual behaviour, teenage pregnancy and child marriage is discussed. To address teenage pregnancy and child marriage in Eastern Zambia, there is a need to look into the realities and needs of young people regarding sex and relationships.
Project description:School dropout has been linked to early pregnancy and marriage but less is known about the effect of school performance. We aimed to assess whether school performance influenced age at sexual debut, pregnancy and marriage, and from what age school drop-out and performance were associated with these later life events.Data from 2007-2016 from a demographic surveillance site in northern Malawi with annual updating of schooling status and grades, and linked sexual behaviour surveys, were analysed to assess the associations of age-specific school performance (measured as age-for-grade) and status (in or out of school) on subsequent age at sexual debut, pregnancy and marriage. Landmark analysis with Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of sexual debut, pregnancy and marriage by schooling at selected (landmark) ages, controlling for socio-economic factors.Information on at least one outcome was available for >16,000 children seen at ages 10-18. Sexual debut was available on a subset aged ?15 by 2011. For girls, being out of school was strongly associated with earlier sexual debut, pregnancy and marriage. For example, using schooling status at age 14, compared to girls in primary, those who had dropped out had adjusted hazard ratios of subsequent sexual debut, pregnancy and marriage of 5.39 (95% CI 3.27-8.86), 2.39 (1.82-3.12), and 2.76 (2.08-3.67) respectively. For boys, the equivalent association with sexual debut was weak, 1.92 (0.81-4.55), but that with marriage was strong, 3.74 (2.28-6.11), although boys married later. Being overage-for-grade was not associated with sexual debut for girls or boys. For girls, being overage-for-grade from age 10 was associated with earlier pregnancy and marriage (e.g. adjusted hazard ratio 2.84 (1.32-6.17) for pregnancy and 3.19 (1.47-6.94) for marriage, for those ?3 years overage compared to those on track at age 10). For boys, overage-for-grade was associated with earlier marriage from age 12, with stronger associations at older ages (e.g. adjusted hazard ratio 2.41 (1.56-3.70) for those ?3 years overage compared to those on track at age 14). For girls ?3 years overage at age 14, 39% were pregnant before they were 18, compared to 18% of those who were on track. The main limitation was the use of reported ages of sexual debut, pregnancy and marriage.School progression at ages as young as 10 can predict teenage pregnancy and marriage, even after adjusting for socio-economic factors. Early education interventions may reduce teenage pregnancy and marriage as well as improving learning.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Peer-led sex education is widely believed to be an effective approach to reducing unsafe sex among young people, but reliable evidence from long-term studies is lacking. To assess the effectiveness of one form of school-based peer-led sex education in reducing unintended teenage pregnancy, we did a cluster (school) randomised trial with 7 y of follow-up.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>Twenty-seven representative schools in England, with over 9,000 pupils aged 13-14 y at baseline, took part in the trial. Schools were randomised to either peer-led sex education (intervention) or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control). Peer educators, aged 16-17 y, were trained to deliver three 1-h classroom sessions of sex education to 13- to 14-y-old pupils from the same schools. The sessions used participatory learning methods designed to improve the younger pupils' skills in sexual communication and condom use and their knowledge about pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), contraception, and local sexual health services. Main outcome measures were abortion and live births by age 20 y, determined by anonymised linkage of girls to routine (statutory) data. Assessment of these outcomes was blind to sex education allocation. The proportion of girls who had one or more abortions before age 20 y was the same in each arm (intervention, 5.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0%-6.3%]; control, 5.0% [95% CI 4.0%-6.4%]). The odds ratio (OR) adjusted for randomisation strata was 1.07 (95% CI 0.80-1.42, p = 0.64, intervention versus control). The proportion of girls with one or more live births by 20.5 y was 7.5% (95% CI 5.9%-9.6%) in the intervention arm and 10.6% (95% CI 6.8%-16.1%) in the control arm, adjusted OR 0.77 (0.51-1.15). Fewer girls in the peer-led arm self-reported a pregnancy by age 18 y (7.2% intervention versus 11.2% control, adjusted OR 0.62 [95% CI 0.42-0.91], weighted for non-response; response rate 61% intervention, 45% control). There were no significant differences for girls or boys in self-reported unprotected first sex, regretted or pressured sex, quality of current sexual relationship, diagnosed sexually transmitted diseases, or ability to identify local sexual health services.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Compared with conventional school sex education at age 13-14 y, this form of peer-led sex education was not associated with change in teenage abortions, but may have led to fewer teenage births and was popular with pupils. It merits consideration within broader teenage pregnancy prevention strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Approximately 16 million teenagers aged 15-19 years and 2 million teenagers under the age of 15 years give birth annually, with 95% of these births occurring in developing countries. Ethiopia has one of the highest teenage fertility rates in Sub-Saharan Africa; however determinants of teenage pregnancy are not well studied. Therefore, this study aimed to identify determinants of teenage pregnancy among female teenagers in Degua Tembien district, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, in 2015. METHODS:A community-based case-control study was conducted in Degua' Tembien district from February 01, 2015 to March 15, 2015 with a randomly selected total sample size of 414 females (with a ratio of 1:2 case to control, 138 and 276 respectively). Data were entered in to Epi-Info and analyzed using SPSS software. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess predictors of the outcome variable; variables with a p-value <0.25 in bivariable analysis were included in the model. Statistically significance was considered at a p-value ?0.05 in both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULT:The mean ages (plus or minus standard deviation (±SD)) of cases and controls were 18.47 (0.72) and 17.09 (1.2) years, respectively. After adjustment for other variables, predictors of teenage pregnancy included: lower monthly income below ~$25 and ~$25-50 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 23.96; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 4.89-117.29 and AOR = 4.91; 95%CI 1.64-14.66, respectively); aged 18-19 years (AOR = 16.75; 95%CI 6.45-43.47); being married (AOR = 15.91; 95%CI 7.43-34.04); not communicating with parents on reproductive health issues (AOR = 6.52; 95%CI 3.12-13.64) and having a history of maternal teenage pregnancy (AOR = 4.14; 95%CI 1.84-9.33). CONCLUSION:The factors associated with teenage pregnancy in our study were lower family monthly income, being married, being in the 18-19 year age group, not communicating with parents on reproductive health issues and having a maternal history of teenage pregnancy. Programs that encourage parent-teenage communication of reproductive health issues, starting from early adolescence, in order to build skills to prevent pregnancy in the late teenage years, are very important. In addition, multi-pronged activities across sectors that encourage delayed marriage and improve health service utilizations for girls are essential.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pregnancy health literacy (PHL) among teenagers is considered a major protective factor for teenage pregnancy. In Lao PDR, 18% of girls aged 15-19 have begun childbearing and 15% of maternal deaths occur to teenage girls, particularly in rural areas. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to describe PHL and its related factors among teenagers in Kaysone district. METHOD:This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Oudomvilay and Kheuakhaokat in Kaysone district in January 2019. The Teenage Pregnancy Health Literacy (TPHL) score was collected via face to face interviews covering 33 items with 262 adolescents. Calculation of the TPHL index score was based on the European Health Literacy Survey (HLS-EU) index formula. The TPHL index was also based on the HLS-EU standard level and descriptive statistics were used to explain the score and levels. Descriptive analyses were performed to analyse the individual, family, peer and school variables and to investigate level of TPHL and linear regression was used to identify factors related to TPHL. RESULTS:The overall score for TPHL was a mean of 27/50. Most (60%) of the adolescents had problematic TPHL levels and only 0.4% had excellent TPHL levels. TPHL was positively and significantly associated with living in urban areas (? = 2.42; p = 0.002), higher education (? = 2.93; p = 0.004), schooling (? = 0.96; p = 0.018), being single (? = 2.9; p = 0.029) and attending classes where sex education content was included (? = 4.72; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:Low TPHL scores show the importance of improving sex education for adolescents as a means of increasing TPHL for better health outcomes in Lao PDR.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Unintended pregnancy has dire consequences on the health and socioeconomic wellbeing of adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) (aged 15-24?years). While most studies tend to focus on lack of access to contraceptive information and services, and poverty as the main contributing factor to early-unintended pregnancies, the influence of sexual violence has received limited attention. Understanding the link between sexual violence and unintended pregnancy is critical towards developing a multifaceted intervention to reduce unintended pregnancies among AGYW in South Africa, a country with high teenage pregnancy rate. Thus, we estimated the magnitude of unintended pregnancy among AGYW and also examined the effect of sexual violence on unintended pregnancy. METHODS:Our study adopted a cross-sectional design, and data were obtained from AGYW in a South African university between June and November 2018. A final sample of 451 girls aged 17-24?years, selected using stratified sampling, were included in the analysis. We used adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression analysis to examine the effect of sexual violence on unintended pregnancy. RESULTS:The analysis shows that 41.9% of all respondents had experienced an unintended pregnancy, and 26.3% of those unintended pregnancies ended in abortions. Unintended pregnancy was higher among survivors of sexual violence (54.4%) compared to those who never experienced sexual abuse (34.3%). In the multivariable analysis, sexual violence was consistently and robustly associated with increased odds of having an unintended pregnancy (AOR:1.70; 95% CI: 1.08-2.68). CONCLUSION:Our study found a huge magnitude of unintended pregnancy among AGYW. Sexual violence is an important predictor of unintended pregnancy in this age cohort. Thus, addressing unintended pregnancies among AGYW in South Africa requires interventions that not only increase access to contraceptive information and services but also reduce sexual violence and cater for survivors.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of pregnancies in a national cohort of teenage (<20 years) and young adult women (?20 years) with and without childhood-onset (<15 years) type 1 diabetes. We hypothesised that, owing to poor glycaemic control during the teenage years, pregnancy outcomes would be poorer in teenage mothers with type 1 diabetes than young adult mothers with type 1 diabetes and mothers without diabetes. METHODS:The Brecon Register of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes diagnosed in Wales since 1995 was linked to population-based datasets in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank, creating an electronic cohort (e-cohort) of legal births (live or stillbirths beyond 24 weeks' gestation) to women aged less than 35 years between 1995 and 2013 in Wales. Teenage pregnancy rates were calculated based on the number of females in the same birth cohort in Wales. Pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, low birthweight, macrosomia, congenital malformations, stillbirths and hospital admissions during the first year of life, were obtained from electronic records for the whole Welsh population. We used logistic and negative binomial regression to compare outcomes among teenage and young adult mothers with and without type 1 diabetes. RESULTS:A total of 197,796 births were eligible for inclusion, including 330 to girls and women with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes, of whom 68 were teenagers (age 14-19 years, mean 17.9 years) and 262 were young adults (age 20-32 years, mean 24.0 years). The mean duration of diabetes was 14.3 years (9.7 years for teenagers; 15.5 years for young adults). Pregnancy rates were lower in teenagers with type 1 diabetes than in teenagers without diabetes (mean annual teenage pregnancy rate between 1999 and 2013: 8.6 vs 18.0 per 1000 teenage girls, respectively; p?<?0.001). In the background population, teenage pregnancy was associated with deprivation (p?<?0.001), but this was not the case for individuals with type 1 diabetes (p?=?0.85). Glycaemic control was poor in teenage and young adult mothers with type 1 diabetes (mean HbA1c based on closest value to conception: 81.3 and 80.2 mmol/mol [9.6% and 9.5%], respectively, p?=?0.78). Glycaemic control improved during pregnancy in both groups but to a greater degree in young adults, who had significantly better glycaemic control than teenagers by the third trimester (mean HbA1c: 54.0 vs 67.4 mmol/mol [7.1% vs 8.3%], p?=?0.01). All adverse outcomes were more common among mothers with type 1 diabetes than mothers without diabetes. Among those with type 1 diabetes, hospital admissions during the first year of life were more common among babies of teenage vs young adult mothers (adjusted OR 5.91 [95% CI 2.63, 13.25]). Other outcomes were no worse among teenage mothers with type 1 diabetes than among young adult mothers with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Teenage girls with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in Wales are less likely to have children than teenage girls without diabetes. Teenage pregnancy in girls with type 1 diabetes, unlike in the background population, is not associated with social deprivation. In our cohort, glycaemic control was poor in both teenage and young adult mothers with type 1 diabetes. Pregnancy outcomes were comparable between teenage and young adult mothers with type 1 diabetes, but hospital admissions during the first year of life were five times more common among babies of teenage mothers with type 1 diabetes than those of young adult mothers with diabetes.
Project description:Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices.Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative data on births and termination to self-report survey data to measure our primary outcome (unintended teenage pregnancy) will also be tested.This will be the first UK-based pilot trial of a school-wide social marketing intervention to reduce unintended teenage pregnancy and improve sexual health. If this study indicates feasibility and acceptability of the optimised Positive Choices intervention in English secondary schools, plans will be initiated for a phase III trial and economic evaluation of the intervention.ISRCTN registry (ISCTN12524938. Registered 03/07/2017).