Gadolinium-Chelated Conjugated Polymer-Based Nanotheranostics for Photoacoustic/Magnetic Resonance/NIR-II Fluorescence Imaging-Guided Cancer Photothermal Therapy.
ABSTRACT: Our exploiting versatile multimodal theranostic agent aims to integrate the complementary superiorities of photoacoustic imaging (PAI), second near-infrared (NIR-II, 1000-1700) fluorescence and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an ultimate objective of perfecting cancer diagnosis, thus improving cancer therapy efficacy. Herein, we engineered and prepared a water-soluble gadolinium-chelated conjugated polymer-based theranostic nanomedicine (PFTQ-PEG-Gd NPs) for in vivo tri-mode PA/MR/NIR-II imaging-guided tumor photothermal therapy (PTT). Methods: We firstly constructed a semiconducting polymer composed of low-bandgap donor-acceptor (D-A) which afforded the strong NIR absorption for PAI/PTT and long fluorescence emission to NIR-II region for in vivo imaging. Then, the remaining carboxyl groups of the polymeric NPs could effectively chelate with Gd3+ ions for MRI. The in vitro characteristics of the PFTQ-PEG-Gd NPs were studied and the in vivo multimode imaging as well as anti-tumor efficacy of the NPs was evaluated using 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. Results: The obtained theranostic agent showed excellent chemical and optical stability as well as low biotoxicity. After 24 h of systemic administration using PQTF-PEG-Gd NPs, the tumor sites of living mice exhibited obvious enhancement in PA, NIR-II fluorescence and positive MR signal intensities. Better still, a conspicuous tumor growth restraint was detected under NIR light irradiation after administration of PQTF-PEG-Gd NPs, indicating the efficient photothermal potency of the nano-agent. Conclusion: we triumphantly designed and synthesized a novel and omnipotent semiconducting polymer nanoparticles-based theranostic platform for PAI, NIR-II fluorescence imaging as well as positive MRI-guided tumor PTT in living mice. We expect that such a novel organic nano-platform manifests a great promise for high spatial resolution and deep penetration cancer theranostics.
Project description:Heavy atom nanoparticles have high X-ray absorption capacity and near infrared (NIR) photothermal conversion efficiency, which could be used as radio-sensitizers. We hypothesized that concave PtCu octopod nanoframes (OPCNs) would be an efficient nanoplatform for synergistic radio-photothermal tumor ablation. Methods: In this study, we newly exploited a folic acid-receptor (FR) mediated photothermal radiotherapy nanoagent base on OPCNs. OPCNs were synthesized with a hydrothermal method and then modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and folic acid (FA). A series of physical and chemical characterizations, cytotoxicity, targeting potential, endocytosis mechanism, biodistribution, systematic toxicological evaluation, pharmacokinetics, applications of OPCNs-PEG-FA for in vitro and in vivo infrared thermal imaging (ITI)/photoacoustic imaging (PAI) dual-modal imaging and synergistic photothermal radiotherapy against tumor were carried out. Results: The OPCNs-PEG-FA demonstrated good biocompatibility, strong NIR absorption and X-ray radio-sensitization, which enabling it to track and visualize tumor in vivo via ITI/PAI dual-modal imaging. Moreover, the as-synthesized OPCNs-PEG-FA exhibited remarkable photothermal therapy (PTT) and radiotherapy (RT) synergistic tumor inhibition when treated with NIR laser and X-ray. Conclusion: A novel multifunctional theranostic nanoplatform based on OPCNs was designed and developed for dual-modal image-guided synergistic tumor photothermal radiotherapy.
Project description:Multifunctional nanoplatforms with integrated diagnostic and therapeutic functions have attracted tremendous attention. Especially, the second near-infrared (NIR-II) light response-based nanoplatforms hold great potential in cancer theranostic applications, which is because the NIR-II window provides larger tissue penetration depth and higher maximum permissible exposure (MPE) than that of the well-studied first near-infrared (NIR-I) window. Herein, we for the first time present a two-dimensional (2D)-nanoplatform based on Cu2MnS2 nanoplates (NPs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) dual-modal imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer in the NIR-II window. Methods: Cu2MnS2 NPs were synthesized through a facile and environmentally friendly process. A series of experiments, including the characterization of Cu2MnS2 NPs, the long-term toxicity of Cu2MnS2 NPs in BALB/c nude mice, the applications of Cu2MnS2 NPs for in vitro and in vivo MRI/MSOT dual-modal imaging and NIR-II PTT of cancer were carried out. Results: The as-synthesized Cu2MnS2 NPs exhibit low cytotoxicity, excellent biocompatibility as well as high photothermal conversion efficiency (~49.38%) and outstanding photostability. Together with their good T1-shortening effect and strong absorbance in the NIR-I and NIR-II region, the Cu2MnS2 NPs display high-contrast imaging performance both in MRI and MSOT (900 nm laser source). Moreover, the subsequent in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that the Cu2MnS2 NPs possess excellent PTT efficacy under 1064 nm laser irradiation with a low power density (0.6 W cm-2). In addition, the detailed long-term toxicity studies further confirming the safety of Cu2MnS2 NPs in vivo. Conclusion: We have developed a new 2D Cu2MnS2 NPs as multifunctional theranostic agents for MRI/MSOT dual-modal imaging-guided PTT of cancer in the NIR-II window. Such biocompatible Cu2MnS2 NPs might provide a new perspective for exploring new 2D-based nanoplatforms with improved properties for clinical applications in the future.
Project description:The optical imaging guided tumor vessels and vascular malformation visualization by using the second near infrared emission beyond 1500 nm (NIR-II) is emerged as the next generation fluorescence imaging technique for early tumor diagnosis and identification of tumor-associated vascular features. On the other hand, developing theranostic probes for NIR-II imaging guided photothermal therapy (PTT) is of great significance, which is rarely explored. Herein, a high performance theranostic nanoplatform based on the core-shell structured NaLuF<sub>4</sub> nanorods@polydopamine (denoted as NRs@PDA) by integrating the new advanced NIR-II imaging beyond 1500 nm with PTT function was developed for tumor-associated vascular malformation visualization and imaging-guided PTT. <b>Methods</b>: In this work, the hydrophilic NaLuF<sub>4</sub> NRs@PDA therapeutic probe was synthesized by using a reverse microemulsion method. The crystal phase, morphology, emission spectra and photothermal performance of the synthesized samples were systematically characterized. The NIR-II optical imaging and photothermal properties were investigated by <i>in vitro</i> and in <i>vivo</i> experiments. <b>Results</b>: The NaLuF<sub>4</sub> NRs@PDA therapeutic probe possessed efficient NIR-II emission centered at 1525 nm with high quantum yield (QY), good photo-stability and high biocompatibility. <i>In vivo</i> NIR-IIb imaging based on the designed probe can clearly visualize the whole-body vessel and brain vessel with high spatial resolution, especially tumor-associated vessels. In addition, <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> experiments also demonstrated that the designed NaLuF<sub>4</sub> NRs@PDA probe possessed efficient photothermal conversion efficiency (40.18%) for PTT ablation of tumor. <b>Conclusion</b>: With the excellent NIR-II imaging ability and PTT of tumor, the designed theranostic nanoplatform successfully realize the simultaneous tumor vessel diagnosis and tumor therapy, which may provide the opportunity of designing new theranostic bioprobes with combination of the NIR-II optical imaging technique and PTT function for tumor diagnosis and therapy.
Project description:Organic chromophores have been well developed for multimodality imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) due to their outstanding optical properties and excellent designability. However, the theranostic efficiencies of most currently available organic chromophores are restricted intrinsically, owing to their poor photostability or complex synthesis procedures. These drawbacks not only increase their cost of synthesis, but also cause side effects in PTT.Method: We presented a facile strategy for constructing a near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing perylenediimide structured with pH-responsive piperazine ring at the bay region. The chromophore was conjugated with carboxyl-end-capped PEG as side chains that can self-assemble into nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous solution. The NIR optical properties and photothermal conversation ability of PPDI-NPs were investigated. We then studied the imaging-guided PTT of PPDI-NPs under NIR light illumination in 4T1 cells and mice respectively.Results: The excellent photostable PPDI-NPs had near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) emission and high photothermal conversion efficiency in acidic microenvironment. Importantly, PPDI-NPs can be utilized for the precise detection of tumors by NIRF/photoacoustic/thermal trimodality imaging. Efficient PTT of PPDI-NPs was applied in vitro and in vivo with high biosafety.Conclusion: In summary, we developed pH-responsive perylenediimide nanoparticles as multifunctional phototheranostic agent with high stability and simple synthesis procedures. This study offers a promising organic chromophore for developing phototheranostics in cancer therapy.
Project description:Cancer theragnosis agents with both cancer diagnosis and therapy abilities would be the next generation of cancer treatment. Recently, nanomaterials with strong absorption in near-infrared (NIR) region have been explored as promising cancer theragnosis agents for bio-imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT). Herein, we reported the synthesis and application of a novel multifunctional theranostic nanoagent based on hyaluronan (HA)-coated FeOOH@polypyrrole (FeOOH@PPy) nanorods (HA-FeOOH@PPy NRs) for photoacoustic imaging (PAI)-guided PTT. The nanoparticles were intentionally designed with rod-like shape and conjugated with tumor-targeting ligands to enhance the accumulation and achieve the entire tumor distribution of nanoparticles. The prepared HA-FeOOH@PPy NRs showed excellent biocompatible and physiological stabilities in different media. Importantly, HA-FeOOH@PPy NRs exhibited strong NIR absorbance, remarkable photothermal conversion capability, and conversion stability. Furthermore, HA-FeOOH@PPy NRs could act as strong contrast agents to enhance PAI, conducting accurate locating of cancerous tissue, as well as precise guidance for PTT. The in vitro and in vivo photothermal anticancer activity results of the designed nanoparticles evidenced their promising potential in cancer treatment. The tumor-bearing mice completely recovered after 17 days of PTT treatment without obvious side effects. Thus, our work highlights the great potential of using HA-FeOOH@PPy NRs as a theranostic nanoplatform for cancer imaging-guided therapy.
Project description:Herein, a tumor-targeted multifunctional theranostic agent was synthetized using a facile method, combining four clinically approved materials: artesunate (Arte), human serum albumin (HSA), folic acid (FA), and indocyanine green (ICG). The obtained nanocomposites (FA-IHA NPs) showed an excellent photo- and physiological stability. The ICG in the FA-IHA NPs was used not only for near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging, but also for photothermal and photodynamic (PTT-PDT) therapy under a single NIR irradiation. In addition, the NIR irradiation (808 nm, 1 W/cm2) could trigger Arte release that showed enhanced chemotherapeutic effect. Through fluorescence imaging, the cell uptake and tumor accumulation of FA-IHA NPs were observed in vitro and in vivo, analyzed by confocal microscopy and NIR fluorescence imaging in tumor xenograft mice. Based on the diagnostic results, FA-IHA NPs at 24 h post injection and combined with NIR irradiation (808 nm, 1 W/cm2) could efficiently suppress tumor growth through a photo-chemo combination therapy, with no tumor recurrence in vitro and in vivo. The obtained results suggested that FA-IHA NPs are promising photo-chemo theranostic agents for future clinical translation.
Project description:Copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS NPs) have been reported as a single-compartment theranostic nanosystem to visualize and treat tumors simultaneously. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo tumor-targeted delivery of this class of nanoparticles. In this study, we introduced a tumor-specific targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), onto the surface of CuS NPs as a model system to demonstrate the feasibility of actively targeted CuS NPs for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and PET image-guided photothermal therapy (PTT). A one-pot synthetic method was used for introducing FA to CuS NPs to yield FA-CuS NPs. Biodistribution studies in mice bearing folate receptor-expressing KB tumor showed significantly higher tumor uptake of FA-CuS NPs than non-targeted polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated PEG-CuS NPs after intravenous injection. Moreover, tumor uptake of FA-CuS NPs could be effectively blocked by free FA. Biodistribution and clearance of 64Cu-labeled FA-CuS NPs (FA-[64Cu]CuS NPs) could be readily visualized by microPET (?PET), which confirmed a significantly higher level of tumor uptake of FA-[64Cu]CuS NPs than non-targeted PEG-[64Cu]CuS NPs. ?PET image-guided PTT with FA-CuS NPs mediated substantially greater tumor damage compared with PTT mediated by PEG-CuS NPs. Thus, FA-CuS NPs is a promising candidate for PTT of folate receptor-positive tumors.
Project description:The visualization of the treatment process in situ could facilitate to accurately monitor cancer photothermal therapy (PTT), and dramatically decrease the risk of thermal damage to normal cells and tissues, which represents a major challenge for cancer precision therapy. Herein, we prepare theranostic nanoprobes (NPs) for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based dual-modal imaging-guided cancer PTT, and clear visualization of the therapeutic process. The FRET-based theranostic NPs exhibit high FRET efficiency (88.2%), good colloidal stability, and tumor-targeting ability. Tumor tissue and surrounding blood vessels are visualized clearly by FRET-based NIR fluorescence imaging with a high signal-to-background ratio (14.5) and photoacoustic imaging with an excellent resolution at 24 h post injection of NPs. Under the guidance of dual-modal imaging, the NPs-induced photothermal effect selectively destructs cancer cells, simultaneously decreasing the FRET efficiency and leading to fluorescence and photoacoustic signal changes. The sensitive self-feedback process enables the in situ visualization of therapeutic process and precision guidance of in vivo cancer PTT. A high therapeutic efficacy and minimum side effects are achieved in C6 tumor-bearing nude mice, holding great promise for precision therapy and cancer theranostics.
Project description:In this study we report semimetal nanomaterials of antimony (Sb) as highly efficient agent for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and photothermal therapy (PTT). The Sb nanorod bundles have been synthesized through a facile route by mixing 1-octadecane (ODE) and oleyl amine (OAm) as the solvent. The aqueous dispersion of PEGylated Sb NPs, due to its broad and strong photoabsorption ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, is applicable as a photothermal agent driven by 808 nm laser with photothermal conversion efficiency up to 41%, noticeably higher than most of the PTT agents reported before. Our in vitro experiments also showed that cancer cell ablation effect of PEGylated Sb NPs was dependent on laser power. By intratumoral administration of PEGylated Sb NPs, 100% tumor ablation can be realized by using NIR laser irradiation with a lower power of 1 W/cm(2) for 5 min (or 0.5 W/cm(2) for 10 min) and no obvious toxic side effect is identified after photothermal treatment. Moreover, intense PA signal was also observed after intratumoral injection of PEGylated Sb NPs and NIR laser irradiation due to their strong NIR photoabsorption, suggesting PEGylated Sb NPs as a potential NIR PA agent. Based on the findings of this work, further development of using other semimetal nanocrystals as highly efficient NIR agents can be achieved for vivo tumor imaging and PTT.
Project description:Phototherapy, including photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), has been considered as a noninvasive option for cancer therapy. However, insufficient penetration depth, tumor hypoxia, and a single treatment method severely limit the effectiveness of treatment. Methods: In this study, a multifunctional theranostic nanoplatform has been fabricated based on Au/Ag-MnO2 hollow nanospheres (AAM HNSs). The Au/Ag alloy HNSs were first synthesized by galvanic replacement reaction and then the MnO2 nanoparticles were deposited on the Au/Ag alloy HNSs by the reaction between Ag and permanganate (KMnO4), finally obtained the AAM HNSs. Then, SH-PEG was modified on the surface of AAM HNSs by the interaction of sulfhydryl and Au/Ag alloy, which improved the dispersibility and biocompatibility of the HNS. Next, the PDT photosensitizer Ce6 was loaded into AAM HNSs, benefiting from the hollow interior of the structure, and the AAM-Ce6 HNSs were obtained. Results: The AAM HNSs exhibit broad absorption at the near infrared (NIR) biological window and remarkable photothermal conversion ability in the NIR-II window. The MnO2 nanoparticles can catalyze endogenous H2O2 to generate O2 and enhance the therapeutic effect of PDT on tumor tissue. Simultaneously, MnO2 nanoparticles intelligently respond to the tumor microenvironment and degrade to release massive Mn2+ ions, which introduce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties. When AAM-Ce6 HNSs are loaded with Ce6, the AAM-Ce6 HNSs can be used for triple-modal imaging (fluorescence/photoacoustic/magnetic resonance imaging, FL/PAI/MRI) guided combination tumor phototherapy (PTT/PDT). Conclusion: This multifunctional nanoplatform shows synergistic therapeutic efficacy better than any single therapy by achieving multimodal imaging guided cancer combination phototherapy, which are promising for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.