Long noncoding RNA MAGI1-IT1 promoted invasion and metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer via the miR-200a/ZEB axis.
ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, and its vulnerability to metastasis contributes to the poor outcomes of EOC patients. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were verified to play a pivotal role in EOC metastasis. However, the potential role of lncRNA membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted 1 (MAGI1) intronic transcript (MAGI1-IT1) in EOC is largely unknown. In this study, the function and mechanisms of MAGI1-IT1 in EOC metastasis were explored profoundly. First, MAGI1-IT1 expression was found to be significantly decreased in overexpressing miR-200a EOC cells. Second, MAGI1-IT1 expression was remarkably increased in metastatic EOC tissues, and high MAGI1-IT1 was dramatically associated with EOC FIGO III-IV stage; in addition, MAGI1-IT1 might be related to EOC dissemination via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Next, a series of gain- and loss-of-function assays verified that, although MAGI1-IT1 has no significant role in EOC proliferation and subcutaneous xenograft growth, the upregulation of MAGI1-IT1 can remarkably facilitate EOC EMT phenotype, cells migration and invasion ability and intraperitoneal metastasis in nude mice, while downregulation of MAGI1-IT1 led to the opposite effect in vitro. Moreover, MAGI1-IT1 was validated to promote EOC metastasis through upregulation of ZEB1 and ZEB2 by competitively binding miR-200a, and the restrictive effects of MAGI1-IT1 depletion on EOC metastasis could be reversed by inhibition of miR-200a and upregulation of ZEB1 and ZEB2. Collectively, these results suggest that MAGI1-IT1 may work as a ceRNA in promoting EOC metastasis through miR-200a and ZEB1/2 and may be a potential therapeutic target for EOC.
Project description:p53 suppresses tumor progression and metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process in tumor progression and metastasis. The transcription factors ZEB1 and ZEB2 promote EMT. Here, we show that p53 suppresses EMT by repressing expression of ZEB1 and ZEB2. By profiling 92 primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and 9 HCC cell lines, we found that p53 up-regulates microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-200 and miR-192 family members. The miR-200 family members transactivated by p53 then repress ZEB1/2 expression. p53-regulated miR-192 family members also repress ZEB2 expression. Inhibition or overexpression of the miRNAs affects p53-regulated EMT by altering ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression. Our findings indicate that p53 can regulate EMT, and that p53-regulated miRNAs are critical mediators of p53-regulated EMT.
Project description:Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with poor prognosis and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma. We have previously demonstrated an in vivo model of liver cancer in which mesenchymal cells post-EMT demonstrate a high rate of invasive growth and metastasis. Here, we investigate the role of microRNA 200 (miR-200) family members and epigenetic modifications on the maintenance of mesenchymal/metastatic phenotype after EMT. Mesenchymal cells post-EMT demonstrates high levels of E-box repressors Zeb1 and Zeb2 and downregulation of four miR-200 family members (miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c and miR-429). In addition, DNA sequencing after bisulfite modification demonstrates that several CpG sites within the E-cadherin promoter are methylated in mesenchymal cells. In mesenchymal cells, forced expression of miR-200b results in a significant increase in E-cadherin and a reduction in cell migration/invasion. Despite these mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) changes in vitro, there is no significant change in metastatic potential after miR-200b upregulation in vivo. After the mesenchymal cells were treated with combination of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor and upregulation of miR-200b, invasive phenotype was significantly reduced and metastatic potential was eliminated. Direct targeting of E-cadherin with short hairpin RNA does not restore metastatic potential after DNMT inhibition and miR-200b re-expression. In addition, restoration of E-cadherin alone was unable to block metastatic potential in primary mesenchymal cells. In conclusion, targeting mesenchymal liver cancer cells with miR-200b and DNMT inhibitor reduces metastatic potential irrespective of E-cadherin expression. Thus, the broader differentiation and MET effects of DNMT inhibition and miR-200b must be considered in terms of rescuing metastatic potential.
Project description:The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays important roles in tumor progression to metastasis. Thus, the development of an imaging probe that can monitor transient periods of the EMT process in live cells is required for a better understanding of metastatic process. Inspired by the fact that the mRNA expression levels of zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) increase when cells adopt mesenchyme characteristics and that microRNA-200a (miR-200a) can bind to ZEB1 mRNA, we conjugated molecular beacon (MB) mimicking mature miR-200a to magnetic nanoparticles (miR-200a-MB-MNPs) and devised an imaging method to observe transitional changes in the cells during EMT. Transforming growth factor-?1 treated epithelial cells and breast cancer cell lines representing both epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were used for the validation of miR-200a-MB-MNPs as an EMT imaging probe. The real-time imaging of live cells acquired with the induction of EMT revealed an increase in fluorescence signals by miR-200a-MB-MNPs, cell morphology alterations, and the loss of cell-cell adhesion. Our results suggest that miR-200a-MB-MNPs can be used as an imaging probe for the real-time monitoring of the EMT process in live cells.
Project description:The WASF3 gene promotes invasion and metastasis in breast cancer cells, which have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT). Overexpression of WASF3 in cells that do not show EMT increases their invasion potential as a result of increased ZEB1/2 levels, which specifically suppress the anti-invasion chromosome 1 miR-200a/200b/429 cluster. ZEB1/2 upregulation by WASF3 results from downregulation of KISS1, leading to the release of inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)?B by I?B?. We further show that ZEB1 expression is regulated by the NF?B transcription factor. Knockdown of WASF3 in breast cancer cells leads to reduced ZEB1 levels and increased miR-200 and E-cadherin levels, resulting in loss of invasion potential. The central regulation of this interactive pathway by WASF3 accounts for the increased invasion associated with increased WASF3 expression seen in aggressive breast cancer cells. WASF3, therefore, is a potential target to suppress invasion and metastasis in breast cancer cells.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that long non?coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play pivotal roles in cancer progression, including in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC). The overexpression of lncRNA ZEB1 antisense 1 (ZEB1?AS1) has been discovered in several types of cancer; however, the clinical significance and functional role of ZEB1?AS1 in IHCC have not yet been determined. In the present study, ZEB1?AS1 was found to be upregulated in IHCC cell lines and tissues. A high ZEB1?AS1 expression was associated with clinical progression and a poor survival of patients with IHCC, and was identified as an independent risk factor for a poor prognosis. In addition, ZEB1?AS1 promoted the proliferation and metastasis of IHCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. ZEB1?AS1 was demonstrated to increase the expression of ZEB1 by sponging miR?200a and to thereby accelerate epithelial?mesenchymal transition (EMT). On the whole, the findings of the present study demonstrate that ZEB1?AS1 promotes proliferation and metastasis in IHCC, and induces EMT through the miR?200a/ZEB1 signaling pathway. ZEB1?AS1 may thus be a promising prognostic biomarker and essential therapeutic target for IHCC.
Project description:Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of death among breast cancer patients. PELP1 (proline, glutamic acid and leucine rich protein 1) is a nuclear receptor coregulator that is upregulated during breast cancer progression to metastasis and is an independent prognostic predictor of shorter survival of breast cancer patients. Here, we show that PELP1 modulates expression of metastasis-influencing microRNAs (miRs) to promote cancer metastasis. Whole genome miR array analysis using PELP1-overexpressing and PELP1-underexpressing model cells revealed that miR-200 and miR-141 levels inversely correlated with PELP1 expression. Consistent with this, PELP1 knockdown resulted in lower expression of miR-200a target genes ZEB1 and ZEB2. PELP1 knockdown significantly reduced tumor growth and metastasis compared with parental cells in an orthotopic xenograft tumor model. Furthermore, re-introduction of miR-200a and miR-141 mimetics into PELP1-overexpressing cells reversed PELP1 target gene expression, decreased PELP1-driven migration/invasion in vitro and significantly reduced in vivo metastatic potential in a preclinical model of experimental metastasis. Our results demonstrated that PELP1 binds to miR-200a and miR-141 promoters and regulates their expression by recruiting chromatin modifier histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, small interfering RNA and HDAC inhibitor assays. Taken together, our results suggest that PELP1 regulates tumor metastasis by controlling the expression and functions of the tumor metastasis suppressors miR-200a and miR-141.
Project description:Histone methylation is implicated in various biological and pathological processes including cancer development. In this study, we discovered that ectopic expression of KDM5B, a histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylase, promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells. KDM5B increased the expression of transcription factors, ZEB1 and ZEB2, followed by downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of mesenchymal marker genes. The expression of the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family, which specifically targets ZEB1 and ZEB2, was reduced in the cells with KDM5B overexpression. We found that KDM5B repressed the expression of the miR-200 family by changing histone H3 methylation status of their regulatory regions. The introduction of miR-200 precursor in the cells inhibited EMT induction by KDM5B, suggesting that miR-200 family was a critical downstream mediator of KDM5B-promoted EMT. Furthermore, knockdown of KDM5B was shown to affect the expression of EMT-related genes, indicating the involvement of endogenous KDM5B. Our study demonstrated a novel role of KDM5B histone lysine demethylase in EMT, which may contribute to malignant progression of cancer.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer is an exceptionally aggressive disease in great need of more effective therapeutic options. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in cancer invasion and metastasis, and there is a gain of stem cell properties during EMT. Here we report increased expression of the putative pancreatic stem cell marker DCAMKL-1 in an established KRAS transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer and in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Colocalization of DCAMKL-1 with vimentin, a marker of mesenchymal lineage, along with 14-3-3 ? was observed within premalignant PanIN lesions that arise in the mouse model. siRNA-mediated knockdown of DCAMKL-1 in human pancreatic cancer cells induced microRNA miR-200a, an EMT inhibitor, along with downregulation of EMT-associated transcription factors ZEB1, ZEB2, Snail, Slug, and Twist. Furthermore, DCAMKL-1 knockdown resulted in downregulation of c-Myc and KRAS through a let-7a microRNA-dependent mechanism, and downregulation of Notch-1 through a miR-144 microRNA-dependent mechanism. These findings illustrate direct regulatory links between DCAMKL-1, microRNAs, and EMT in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, they demonstrate a functional role for DCAMKL-1 in pancreatic cancer. Together, our results rationalize DCAMKL-1 as a therapeutic target for eradicating pancreatic cancers.
Project description:MicroRNAs have been implicated in tumor progression. Recent studies have shown that the miR-200 family regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by targeting zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) and ZEB2. Emerging evidence from our laboratory and others suggests that the processes of EMT can be triggered by various growth factors, such as transforming growth factor beta and platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D). Moreover, we recently reported that overexpression of PDGF-D in prostate cancer cells (PC3 PDGF-D cells) leads to the acquisition of the EMT phenotype, and this model offers an opportunity for investigating the molecular interplay between PDGF-D signaling and EMT. Here, we report, for the first time, significant downregulation of the miR-200 family in PC3 PDGF-D cells as well as in PC3 cells exposed to purified active PDGF-D protein, resulting in the upregulation of ZEB1, ZEB2, and Snail2 expression. Interestingly, re-expression of miR-200b in PC3 PDGF-D cells led to reversal of the EMT phenotype, which was associated with the downregulation of ZEB1, ZEB2, and Snail2 expression, and these results were consistent with greater expression levels of epithelial markers. Moreover, transfection of PC3 PDGF-D cells with miR-200b inhibited cell migration and invasion, with concomitant repression of cell adhesion to the culture surface and cell detachment. From these results, we conclude that PDGF-D-induced acquisition of the EMT phenotype in PC3 cells is, in part, a result of repression of miR-200 and that any novel strategy by which miR-200 could be upregulated would become a promising approach for the treatment of invasive prostate cancer.
Project description:Deregulation of signaling pathways that control differentiation, expansion and migration of neural crest-derived melanoblasts during normal development contributes also to melanoma progression and metastasis. Although several epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transcription factors, such as zinc finger E-box binding protein 1 (ZEB1) and ZEB2, have been implicated in neural crest cell biology, little is known about their role in melanocyte homeostasis and melanoma. Here we show that mice lacking Zeb2 in the melanocyte lineage exhibit a melanoblast migration defect and, unexpectedly, a severe melanocyte differentiation defect. Loss of Zeb2 in the melanocyte lineage results in a downregulation of the Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) and melanocyte differentiation markers concomitant with an upregulation of Zeb1. We identify a transcriptional signaling network in which the EMT transcription factor ZEB2 regulates MITF levels to control melanocyte differentiation. Moreover, our data are also relevant for human melanomagenesis as loss of ZEB2 expression is associated with reduced patient survival.