Aurora kinase B-phosphorylated HP1α functions in chromosomal instability.
ABSTRACT: Heterochromatin Protein 1 α (HP1α) associates with members of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC) during mitosis, at centromeres where it is required for full Aurora Kinase B (AURKB) activity. Conversely, recent reports have identified AURKB as the major kinase responsible for phosphorylation of HP1α at Serine 92 (S92) during mitosis. Thus, the current study was designed to better understand the functional role of this posttranslationally modified form of HP1α. We find that S92-phosphorylated HP1α is generated in cells at early prophase, localizes to centromeres, and associates with regulators of chromosome stability, such as Inner Centromere Protein, INCENP. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts, HP1α knockout alone or reconstituted with a non-phosphorylatable (S92A) HP1α mutant results in mitotic chromosomal instability characterized by the formation of anaphase/telophase chromatin bridges and micronuclei. These effects are rescued by exogenous expression of wild type HP1α or a phosphomimetic (S92D) variant. Thus, the results from the current study extend our knowledge of the role of HP1α in chromosomal stability during mitosis.
Project description:We have performed a biochemical and double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) analysis of the role of two chromosomal passenger proteins, inner centromere protein (INCENP) and aurora B kinase, in cultured cells of Drosophila melanogaster. INCENP and aurora B function is tightly interlinked. The two proteins bind to each other in vitro, and DmINCENP is required for DmAurora B to localize properly in mitosis and function as a histone H3 kinase. DmAurora B is required for DmINCENP accumulation at centromeres and transfer to the spindle at anaphase. RNAi for either protein dramatically inhibited the ability of cells to achieve a normal metaphase chromosome alignment. Cells were not blocked in mitosis, however, and entered an aberrant anaphase characterized by defects in sister kinetochore disjunction and the presence of large amounts of amorphous lagging chromatin. Anaphase A chromosome movement appeared to be normal, however cytokinesis often failed. DmINCENP and DmAurora B are not required for the correct localization of the kinesin-like protein Pavarotti (ZEN-4/CHO1/MKLP1) to the midbody at telophase. These experiments reveal that INCENP is required for aurora B kinase function and confirm that the chromosomal passengers have essential roles in mitosis.
Project description:The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) coordinates chromosomal and cytoskeletal events of mitosis. The enzymatic core of this complex (Aurora-B) is guided through the mitotic cell by its companion chromosomal passenger proteins, inner centromere protein (INCENP), Survivin and Borealin/Dasra-B, thereby allowing it to act at the right place at the right time. Here, we addressed the individual contributions of INCENP, Survivin and Borealin to the proper functioning of this complex. We show that INCENP has an important role in stabilizing the complex, and that Borealin acts to promote binding of Survivin to INCENP. Importantly, when Survivin is directly fused to INCENP, this hybrid can restore CPC function at the centromeres and midbody, even in the absence of Borealin and the centromere-targeting domain of INCENP. Thus, Survivin is an important mediator of centromere and midbody docking of Aurora-B during mitosis.
Project description:The chromosomal passenger complex protein INCENP is required in mitosis for chromosome condensation, spindle attachment and function, and cytokinesis. Here, we show that INCENP has an essential function in the specialized behavior of centromeres in meiosis. Mutations affecting Drosophila incenp profoundly affect chromosome segregation in both meiosis I and II, due, at least in part, to premature sister chromatid separation in meiosis I. INCENP binds to the cohesion protector protein MEI-S332, which is also an excellent in vitro substrate for Aurora B kinase. A MEI-S332 mutant that is only poorly phosphorylated by Aurora B is defective in localization to centromeres. These results implicate the chromosomal passenger complex in directly regulating MEI-S332 localization and, therefore, the control of sister chromatid cohesion in meiosis.
Project description:Inner centromere protein (INCENP) is a part of a protein complex known as the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) that is essential for correcting non-bipolar chromosome attachments and for cytokinesis. We here demonstrate that a protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT1, which are overexpressed in various types of cancer including lung and bladder cancer, methylates arginine 887 in an Aurora Kinase B (AURKB)-binding region of INCENP both in vitro and in vivo. R887-substituted INCENP revealed lower binding-affinity to AURKB than wild-type INCENP in the presence of PRMT1. Knockdown of PRMT1 as well as overexpression of methylation-inactive INCENP attenuated the AURKB activity in cancer cells, and resulted in abnormal chromosomal alignment and segregation. Furthermore, introduction of methylation-inactive INCENP into cancer cells reduced the growth rate, compared with those introduced wild-type INCENP or Mock. Our data unveils a novel mechanism of PRMT1-mediated CPC regulation through methylation of INCENP.
Project description:Despite the fact that the chromosomal passenger complex is well known to regulate kinetochore behavior in mitosis, no functional link has yet been established between the complex and kinetochore structure. In addition, remarkably little is known about how the complex targets to centromeres. Here, in a study of caspase-8 activation during death receptor-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, we have found that cleaved caspase-8 rapidly translocates to the nucleus and that this translocation is correlated with loss of the centromere protein (CENP)-C, resulting in extensive disruption of centromeres. Caspase-8 activates cytoplasmic caspase-7, which is likely to be the primary caspase responsible for cleavage of CENP-C and INCENP, a key chromosomal passenger protein. Caspase-mediated cleavage of CENP-C and INCENP results in their mislocalization and the subsequent mislocalization of Aurora B kinase. Our results demonstrate that the chromosomal passenger complex is displaced from centromeres as a result of caspase activation. Furthermore, mutation of the primary caspase cleavage sites of INCENP and CENP-C and expression of noncleavable CENP-C or INCENP prevent the mislocalization of the passenger complex after caspase activation. Our studies provide the first evidence for a functional interplay between the passenger complex and CENP-C.
Project description:Human Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1) protects centromeric sister-chromatid cohesion during prophase and prevents premature sister-chromatid separation. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) has been proposed to protect centromeric sister-chromatid cohesion by directly targeting Sgo1 to centromeres in mitosis. Here we show that HP1? is targeted to mitotic centromeres by INCENP, a subunit of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC). Biochemical and structural studies show that both HP1-INCENP and HP1-Sgo1 interactions require the binding of the HP1 chromo shadow domain to PXVXL/I motifs in INCENP or Sgo1, suggesting that the INCENP-bound, centromeric HP1? is incapable of recruiting Sgo1. Consistently, a Sgo1 mutant deficient in HP1 binding is functional in centromeric cohesion protection and localizes normally to centromeres in mitosis. By contrast, INCENP or Sgo1 mutants deficient in HP1 binding fail to localize to centromeres in interphase. Therefore, our results suggest that HP1 binding by INCENP or Sgo1 is dispensable for centromeric cohesion protection during mitosis of human cells, but might regulate yet uncharacterized interphase functions of CPC or Sgo1 at the centromeres.
Project description:The chromosomal passenger complex of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, and Survivin has essential regulatory roles at centromeres and the central spindle in mitosis. Here, we describe Borealin, a novel member of the complex. Approximately half of Aurora B in mitotic cells is complexed with INCENP, Borealin, and Survivin; and Borealin binds Survivin and INCENP in vitro. A second complex contains Aurora B and INCENP, but no Borealin or Survivin. Depletion of Borealin by RNA interference delays mitotic progression and results in kinetochore-spindle misattachments and an increase in bipolar spindles associated with ectopic asters. The extra poles, which apparently form after chromosomes achieve a bipolar orientation, severely disrupt the partitioning of chromosomes in anaphase. Borealin depletion has little effect on histone H3 serine10 phosphorylation. These results implicate the chromosomal passenger holocomplex in the maintenance of spindle integrity and suggest that histone H3 serine10 phosphorylation is performed by an Aurora B-INCENP subcomplex.
Project description:A single inner centromere protein (INCENP) found throughout eukaryotes modulates Aurora B kinase activity and chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) localization, which is essential for timely mitotic progression. It has been proposed that INCENP might act as a rheostat to regulate Aurora B activity through mitosis, with successively higher activity threshold levels for chromosome alignment, the spindle checkpoint, anaphase spindle transfer and finally spindle elongation and cytokinesis. It remains mechanistically unclear how this would be achieved. Here, we reveal that the urochordate, Oikopleura dioica, possesses two INCENP paralogs, which display distinct localizations and subfunctionalization in order to complete M-phase. INCENPa was localized on chromosome arms and centromeres by prometaphase, and modulated Aurora B activity to mediate H3S10/S28 phosphorylation, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly and transfer of the CPC to the central spindle. Polo-like kinase (Plk1) recruitment to CDK1 phosphorylated INCENPa was crucial for INCENPa-Aurora B enrichment on centromeres. The second paralog, INCENPb was enriched on centromeres from prometaphase, and relocated to the central spindle at anaphase onset. In the absence of INCENPa, meiotic spindles failed to form, and homologous chromosomes did not segregate. INCENPb was not required for early to mid M-phase events but became essential for the activity and localization of Aurora B on the central spindle and midbody during cytokinesis in order to allow abscission to occur. Together, our results demonstrate that INCENP paralog switching on centromeres modulates Aurora B kinase localization, thus chronologically regulating CPC functions during fast embryonic divisions in the urochordate O. dioica. Abbreviations: CCAN: constitutive centromere-associated network; CENPs: centromere proteins; cmRNA: capped messenger RNA; CPC: chromosomal passenger complex; INCENP: inner centromere protein; Plk1: polo-like kinase 1; PP1: protein phosphatase 1; PP2A: protein phosphatase 2A; SAC: spindle assembly checkpoint; SAH: single α-helix domain.
Project description:Aurora B is a mitotic protein kinase that phosphorylates histone H3, behaves as a chromosomal passenger protein, and functions in cytokinesis. We investigated a role for Aurora B with respect to human centromere protein A (CENP-A), a centromeric histone H3 homologue. Aurora B concentrates at centromeres in early G2, associates with histone H3 and centromeres at the times when histone H3 and CENP-A are phosphorylated, and phosphorylates histone H3 and CENP-A in vitro at a similar target serine residue. Dominant negative phosphorylation site mutants of CENP-A result in a delay at the terminal stage of cytokinesis (cell separation). The only molecular defects detected in analysis of 22 chromosomal, spindle, and regulatory proteins were disruptions in localization of inner centromere protein (INCENP), Aurora B, and a putative partner phosphatase, PP1gamma1. Our data support a model where CENP-A phosphorylation is involved in regulating Aurora B, INCENP, and PP1gamma1 targeting within the cell. These experiments identify an unexpected role for the kinetochore in regulation of cytokinesis.
Project description:Cell division is orchestrated by a complex protein network that aims to maintenance of genomic stability. Visualisation of mitotic protein-protein associations in space and time has been limited due to the lack of proper biochemical and easy-to-use imaging tools. Here we report adaptation of the in situ proximity ligation assay (is-PLA) to study mitotic protein interactions with spatio-temporal resolution. We examined the composition of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) at various mitotic phases and after chemical treatments using is-PLA with antibodies against the core CPC subunits Aurora B, INCENP, Survivin and Borealin. Our results support the notion that the core CPC functions as a single structural unit at centromeres in early mitosis and at central spindle after the onset of anaphase. Treatment of cells with the Aurora B inhibitor ZM447439 diminished the is-PLA signals at centromeres suggesting that Aurora B activity contributes to structural maintenance and/or proper subcellular localization of the core CPC. Is-PLA-based analysis of interaction between INCENP and Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) proposes that the kinase co-travels with CPC during late mitosis. The data illustrates both the strengths and limitations of the is-PLA in the analysis of mitotic macromolecule associations at sub-organelle level.