Plasma High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), Osteopontin (OPN), and Hyaluronic Acid (HA) as Admissible Biomarkers for Endometriosis.
ABSTRACT: Identification of biomarkers for endometriosis is an unmet medical need that demands to be fulfilled. In this study, we first used a mouse model of endometriosis and evaluated the potential utility of select biomarkers based on serial observations. Since fibrosis is the end result of lesional development, we chose high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), osteopontin (OPN), and hyaluronic acid (HA), all three of them have been well documented to be involved in endometriosis and fibrosis, as potential biomarkers. In addition, we performed immunohistochemistry analysis of HMGB1, OPN, and the receptors for HMGB1, such as toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), interleukin-33 (IL-33), and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE)-a pattern recognition receptor, with HMGB1 being its important ligand. We then evaluated the same set of putative markers in 30 women with ovarian endometriomas and 20 without endometriosis, and reevaluated the 3 plasma markers 3 months after the surgical removal of all visible endometriotic lesions. In mouse, the lesional staining levels of OPN, RAGE, and IL-33 were all significantly higher than that of normal endometrium, and increased progressively as lesions progressed. In contrast to HMGB1, TLR4, p-p65 and PCNA staining levels were decreased progressively. In humans, lesional staining levels of OPN correlated positively, while that of HMGB1 correlated negatively with the extent of fibrosis. All three plasma markers correlated positively with the extent of lesional fibrosis. Through this integrated approach, we identified plasma HMGB1, OPN and HA as promising admissible biomarkers for endometriosis.
Project description:The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the seizure-induced P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression and the underlying mechanism. Kainic acid (KA)-induced mouse seizure model was used for in vivo experiments. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: normal saline control (NS) group, KA-induced epileptic seizure (EP) group, and EP group pretreated with HMGB1 (EP+HMGB1 group) or BoxA (HMGB1 antagonist, EP+BoxA group). Compared to the NS group, increased levels of HMGB1 and P-gp in the brain were observed in the EP group. Injection of HMGB1 before the induction of KA further increased the expression of P-gp while pre-treatment with BoxA abolished this up-regulation. Next, the regulatory role of HMGB1 and its potential involved signal pathways were investigated in mouse microvascular endothelial bEnd.3 cells in vitro. Cells were treated with HMGB1, HMGB1 plus lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (LPS-RS) [toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist], HMGB1 plus FPS-ZM1 [receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) inhibitor], HMGB1 plus SN50 [nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor], or vehicle. Treatment with HMGB1 increased the expression levels of P-gp, TLR4, RAGE and the activation of NF-κB in bEnd.3 cells. These effects were inhibited by the pre-treatment with either LPS-RS or FPS-ZM1, and were abolished by the pre-treatment of SN50 or a combination treatment of both LPS-RS and FPS-ZM1. Luciferase reporter assays showed that exogenous expression of NF-κB p65 increased the promoter activity of multidrug resistance 1a (P-gp-encoding gene) in endothelial cells. These data indicate that HMGB1 contributes to the overexpression of P-gp in mouse epileptic brain tissues via activation of TLR4/RAGE receptors and the downstream transcription factor NF-κB in brain microvascular endothelial cells.
Project description:High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) increased in response to liver injury. Because HMGB1 is a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), we hypothesized that induction of HMGB1 could participate in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis though RAGE cell-specific signaling mechanisms. Liver HMGB1 protein expression correlated with fibrosis stage in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). Hepatic HMGB1 protein expression and secretion increased in five mouse models of liver fibrosis attributed to drug-induced liver injury (DILI), cholestasis, ASH, or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). HMGB1 was up-regulated and secreted mostly by hepatocytes and Kupffer cells (KCs) following CCl4 treatment. Neutralization of HMGB1 protected, whereas injection of recombinant HMGB1 promoted liver fibrosis. Hmgb1 ablation in hepatocytes (Hmgb1?Hep ) or in myeloid cells (Hmgb1?Mye ) partially protected, whereas ablation in both (Hmgb1?Hep?Mye ) prevented liver fibrosis in vivo. Coculture with hepatocytes or KCs from CCl4 -injected wild-type (WT) mice up-regulated Collagen type I production by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs); yet, coculture with hepatocytes from CCl4 -injected Hmgb1?Hep or with KCs from CCl4 -injected Hmgb1?Mye mice partially blunted this effect. Rage ablation in HSCs (Rage?HSC ) and RAGE neutralization prevented liver fibrosis. Last, we identified that HMGB1 stimulated HSC migration and signaled through RAGE to up-regulate Collagen type I expression by activating the phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (pMEK)1/2, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)1/2 and pcJun signaling pathway. Conclusion: Hepatocyte and KC-derived HMGB1 participates in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis by signaling through RAGE in HSCs to activate the pMEK1/2, pERK1/2 and pcJun pathway and increase Collagen type I deposition.
Project description:Endometriotic lesions are known to be hyperinnervated, especially in lesions of deep endometriosis (DE), which are frequently in close proximity to various nerve plexuses. DE lesions typically have higher fibromuscular content than that of ovarian endometriomas (OE) lesions, but the underlying reason remains elusive. Aside from their traditional role of pain transduction, however, whether or not sensory nerves play any role in the development of endometriosis is unclear. Here, we show that, thorough their respective receptors neurokinin receptor 1 (NK1R), calcitonin receptor like receptor (CRLR), and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP-1), neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (FMT) and further turn stromal cells into smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in endometriotic lesions, resulting ultimately in fibrosis. We show that SP and CGRP, or the rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) supernatant, through the induction of NK1R and CGRP/CRLR/RAMP-1 signaling pathways, promoted EMT, FMT and SMM in endometriosis, resulting in increased migratory and invasive propensity, cell contractility, production of collagen, and eventually to fibrosis. Neutralization of NK1R and/or CGRP/CRLR/RAMP-1 abrogated these processes. Extended exposure of endometriotic stromal cells to SP and/or CGRP or the DRG supernatant induced increased expression of α-SMA, desmin, oxytocin receptor, and smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain. Finally, we show that DE lesions had significantly higher nerve fiber density, increased staining levels of α-SMA, NK1R, CRLR, and RAMP-1, concomitant with higher lesional fibrotic content than that of OE lesions. The extent of lesional fibrosis correlated positively with the staining levels of NK1R, CRLR, and RAMP-1, as well as the nerve fiber density in lesions. Thus, this study provides another piece of evidence that sensory nerves play an important role in promoting the development and fibrogenesis of endometriosis. It explains as why DE frequently have higher fibromuscular content than that of OE, highlights the importance of lesional microenvironment in shaping the lesional fate, gives more credence to the idea that ectopic endometrium is fundamentally wounds that go through repeated tissue injury and repair, and should shed much needed light into the pathophysiology of endometriosis.
Project description:Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) facilitate eosinophilic mucosal type 2 immunopathology, especially in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), by incompletely understood mechanisms. We now demonstrate that platelets, activated through the type 2 cysLT receptor (CysLT2R), cause IL-33-dependent immunopathology through a rapidly inducible mechanism requiring the actions of high mobility box 1 (HMGB1) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) induces surface HMGB1 expression by mouse platelets in a CysLT2R-dependent manner. Blockade of RAGE and neutralization of HMGB1 prevent LTC4-induced platelet activation. Challenges of AERD-like Ptges-/- mice with inhaled lysine aspirin (Lys-ASA) elicit LTC4 synthesis and cause rapid intrapulmonary recruitment of platelets with adherent granulocytes, along with platelet- and CysLT2R-mediated increases in lung IL-33, IL-5, IL-13, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid HMGB1. The intrapulmonary administration of exogenous LTC4 mimics these effects. Platelet depletion, HMGB1 neutralization, and pharmacologic blockade of RAGE eliminate all manifestations of Lys-ASA challenges, including increase in IL-33, mast cell activation, and changes in airway resistance. Thus, CysLT2R signaling on platelets prominently utilizes RAGE/HMGB1 as a link to downstream type 2 respiratory immunopathology and IL-33-dependent mast cell activation typical of AERD. Antagonists of HMGB1 or RAGE may be useful to treat AERD and other disorders associated with type 2 immunopathology.
Project description:Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular protein with proinflammatory and profibrotic properties. Previous reports demonstrate a role for OPN in wound healing and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we determined whether OPN levels are increased in a large cohort of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and whether OPN contributes to the development of dermal fibrosis. The plasma OPN levels were increased in SSc patients, including patients with limited and diffuse disease, compared with healthy controls. Immunohistology demonstrated OPN on fibroblast-like and inflammatory cells in SSc skin and lesional skin from mice in the bleomycin (bleo)-induced dermal fibrosis model. OPN-deficient (OPN(-/-)) mice developed less dermal fibrosis compared with wild-type (WT) mice in the bleo-induced dermal fibrosis model. Additional in vivo studies have demonstrated that lesional skin from OPN(-/-)mice had fewer Mac-3-positive cells, fewer myofibroblasts, decreased transforming growth factor (TGF)-? and genes in the TGF-? pathway, and decreased numbers of cells expressing phosphorylated SMAD2 (pSMAD) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In vitro, OPN(-/-) dermal fibroblasts had decreased migratory capacity but similar phosphorylation of SMAD2 by TGF-?. Finally, TGF-? production by OPN-deficient macrophages was reduced compared with WT. These data demonstrate an important role for OPN in the development of dermal fibrosis and suggest that it may be a new therapeutic target in SSc.
Project description:We evaluated whether physiological and pre-eclamptic (PE) placentae, characterized by exacerbated inflammation, presented alterations in pro-inflammatory High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) and its Receptor of Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) expression. Moreover, we investigated, in physiological placental tissue, the ability of Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) to modify HMGB1 structural conformation thus inhibiting RAGE binding and HMGB1/RAGE axis inflammatory activity. HMGB1, RAGE, IL-6 and TNF? (HMGB1/RAGE targets) mRNA expression were assessed by Real Time PCR. HMGB1, RAGE protein levels were assessed by western blot assay. Physiological term placental explants were treated by 0.5 U LMWH for 24 or 48 h. HMGB1 and RAGE expression and association were evaluated in LMWH explants by RAGE immunoprecipitation followed by HMGB1 immunoblot. HMGB1 spatial localization was evaluated by immuofluorescent staining (IF). HMGB1 expression was increased in PE relative to physiological placentae while RAGE was unvaried. 24 h LMWH treatment significantly up-regulated HMGB1 expression but inhibited HMGB1/RAGE complex formation in physiological explants. RAGE expression decreased in treated relative to untreated explants at 48 h. IF showed HMGB1 localization in both cytoplasm and nucleus of mesenchymal and endothelial cells but not in the trophoblast. IL-6 and TNF? gene expression were significantly increased at 24 h relative to controls, while they were significantly down-regulated in 48 h vs. 24 h LMWH explants. Our data depicted a new molecular mechanism through which LMWH exerts its anti-inflammatory effect on PE placentae, underlying the importance of HMGB1/RAGE axis in PE inflammatory response.
Project description:Autoimmune response to cardiac troponin I (TnI) induces inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a multifunctional protein that exerts proinflammatory activity by mainly binding to receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). The involvement of the HMGB1-RAGE axis in the pathogenesis of inflammatory cardiomyopathy is yet not fully understood. Using the well-established model of TnI-induced experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), we demonstrated that both local and systemic HMGB1 protein expression was elevated in wild-type (wt) mice after TnI immunization. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of HMGB1 using glycyrrhizin or anti-HMGB1 antibody reduced inflammation in hearts of TnI-immunized wt mice. Furthermore, RAGE knockout (RAGE-ko) mice immunized with TnI showed no structural or physiological signs of cardiac impairment. Moreover, cardiac overexpression of HMGB1 using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors induced inflammation in the hearts of both wt and RAGE-ko mice. Finally, patients with myocarditis displayed increased local and systemic HMGB1 and soluble RAGE (sRAGE) expression. Together, our study highlights that HMGB1 and its main receptor, RAGE, appear to be crucial factors in the pathogenesis of TnI-induced EAM, because inhibition of HMGB1 and ablation of RAGE suppressed inflammation in the heart. Moreover, the proinflammatory effect of HMGB1 is not necessarily dependent on RAGE only. Other receptors of HMGB1 such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may also be involved in disease pathogenesis. These findings could be confirmed by the clinical relevance of HMGB1 and sRAGE. Therefore, blockage of one of these molecules might represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of autoimmune myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Spinal cord injury (SCI) favors a persistent pro-inflammatory macrophages/microglia-mediated response with only a transient appearance of anti-inflammatory phenotype of immune cells. However, the mechanisms controlling this special sterile inflammation after SCI are still not fully elucidated. It is known that damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released from necrotic cells after injury can trigger severe inflammation. High mobility group box 1(HMGB1), a ubiquitously expressed DNA binding protein, is an identified DAMP, and our previous study demonstrated that reactive astrocytes could undergo necroptosis and release HMGB1 after SCI in mice. The present study aimed to explore the effects and the possible mechanism of HMGB1on macrophages/microglia polarization, as well as the neuroprotective effects by HMGB1 inhibition after SCI. METHODS:In this study, the expression and the concentration of HMGB1 was determined by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. Glycyrrhizin was applied to inhibit HMGB1, while FPS-ZM1 to suppress receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). The polarization of macrophages/microglia in vitro and in vivo was detected by qRT-PCR, immunostaining, and western blot. The lesion area was detected by GFAP staining, while neuronal survival was examined by Nissl staining. Luxol fast blue (LFB) staining, DAB staining, and western blot were adopted to evaluate the myelin loss. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scoring and rump-height Index (RHI) assay was applied to evaluate locomotor functional recovery. RESULTS:Our data showed that HMGB1 can be elevated and released from necroptotic astrocytes and HMGB1 could induce pro-inflammatory microglia through the RAGE-nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway. We further demonstrated that inhibiting HMGB1 or RAGE effectively decreased the numbers of detrimental pro-inflammatory macrophages/microglia while increased anti-inflammatory cells after SCI. Furthermore, our data showed that inhibiting HMGB1 or RAGE significantly decreased neuronal loss and demyelination, and improved functional recovery after SCI. CONCLUSIONS:The data implicated that HMGB1-RAGE axis contributed to the dominant pro-inflammatory macrophages/microglia-mediated pro-inflammatory response, and inhibiting this pathway afforded neuroprotection for SCI. Thus, therapies designed to modulate immune microenvironment based on this cascade might be a prospective treatment for SCI.
Project description:Sensory and sympathetic nerves have been shown to promote the progression of endometriosis through the release of neuromediators and the lesional activation of respective receptors. The role of vagus nerves (VN) in lesional progression, however, is completely unclear, despite the signs suggestive of increased sympathetic tone in women with endometriosis. This study was undertaken to investigate whether VN plays any role in the progression of endometriosis. We recruited 45 patients with endometriosis and 42 healthy women, who were given electrocardiogram test and their heart rate variability was evaluated. In addition, three prospective, and randomized mouse experiments were conducted that evaluated, respectively, the effect of vagotomy, the effect of VN stimulation (VNS), and the therapeutic potential of VNS after the endometriosis was well established. All lesions were excised, weighed, and processed for immunohistochemistry and histochemistry analysis of select markers for lesional progression and fibrosis. We found that endometriosis patients exhibited reduced vagal activity as compared with controls, indicative of disrupted autonomic balance. Vagotomy increased while VNS decreased the lesion weight as compared with control mice, concomitant with more progressive and retarded lesion development and fibrogenesis, respectively. In addition, VNS demonstrated promising therapeutic effect, as evidenced by significantly reduced lesion weight, more attenuated lesional progression concomitant with improved hyperalgesia. Taken together, our data indicate that VN activity may play a dampening role in the progression of endometriosis. Consequently, boosting the VN activity may have therapeutic potentials for patients with endometriosis.
Project description:AIM: High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) and receptor for the advanced glycation end product (RAGE) play pivotal roles in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the HMGB1-RAGE axis was involved in the actions of simvastatin on vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. METHODS: Five-week old ApoE(-/-) mice and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were fed a Western diet. At 8 weeks of age, ApoE(-/-) mice were administered simvastatin (50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) or vehicle by gavage, and the wild-type mice were treated with vehicle. The mice were sacrificed at 11 weeks of age, and the atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinus were assessed with Oil Red O staining. Macrophage migration was determined with scanning EM and immunohistochemistry. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used for in vitro study. Western blots were used to quantify the protein expression of HMGB1, RAGE, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). RESULTS: Vehicle-treated ApoE(-/-) mice exhibited significant increases in aortic inflammation and atherosclerosis as well as enhanced expression of HMGB1, RAGE, VCAM-1, and MCP-1 in aortic tissues as compared to the wild-type mice. Furthermore, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels were markedly increased, while serum HDL level was decreased in vehicle-treated ApoE(-/-) mice. Administration with simvastatin in ApoE(-/-) mice markedly attenuated the vascular inflammation and atherosclerotic lesion area, and decreased the aortic expression of HMGB1, RAGE, VCAM-1, and MCP-1. However, simvastatin did not affect the abnormal levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL in ApoE(-/-) mice. Exposure of HUVECs to HMGB1 (100 ng/mL) markedly increased the expression of HMGB1, RAGE and VCAM-1, whereas pretreatment of the cells with simvastatin (10 μmol/L) blocked the HMGB1-caused changes. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin inhibits vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice, which may be mediated through downregulation of the HMGB1-RAGE axis.