Adverse Drug Reaction Profile of SGLT2 Inhibitor-Associated Diabetic Ketosis/Ketoacidosis in Singapore and their Precipitating Factors.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: As of December 2017, 20 diabetic ketosis (DK)/diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) cases associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) had been reported to the Health Sciences Authority (HSA), Singapore. We aimed to provide a detailed analysis of the profile of these cases. METHODS:As part of the emerging safety issue monitoring, the HSA followed up on SGLT2i-associated DK/DKA cases with the reporters to obtain the missing and/or supplementary information. Descriptive statistics were employed to summarise the data collected, while the Mann-Whitney test was employed to evaluate the differences between typical and euglycaemic DKA cases as well as between genders. RESULTS:All cases led to hospitalisation but were non-fatal. Where reported, the majority (71-85%) of DK/DKA cases occurred within 180 days of SGLT2i therapy initiation and involved female patients and/or patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Apart from the difference in blood glucose levels, no differences in the profile between the typical and euglycaemic DKA cases were noted. Known precipitating factors were identified in all cases. Acute illnesses, particularly infections and abscesses, were the most commonly reported precipitating factors, followed by insulin dose reduction/cessation. CONCLUSIONS:Based on the profile of the reported cases, it is imperative to maintain clinical vigilance for DK/DKA, especially during the first 6 months of SGLT2i treatment and more so in female patients and/or patients with long-standing T2DM. Prompt evaluation and management of underlying precipitating factors is also important to assess and mitigate the risk of developing DK/DKA during treatment with SGLT2i.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To compare the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were new users of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) versus other classes of antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs).<h4>Methods</h4>Patients were identified from four large US claims databases using broad (all T2DM patients) and narrow (intended to exclude patients with type 1 diabetes or secondary diabetes misclassified as T2DM) definitions of T2DM. New users of SGLT2i and seven groups of comparator AHAs were matched (1:1) on exposure propensity scores to adjust for imbalances in baseline covariates. Cox proportional hazards regression models, conditioned on propensity score-matched pairs, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of DKA for new users of SGLT2i versus other AHAs. When I<sup>2</sup> <40%, a combined HR across the four databases was estimated.<h4>Results</h4>Using the broad definition of T2DM, new users of SGLT2i had an increased risk of DKA versus sulfonylureas (HR [95% CI]: 1.53 [1.31-1.79]), DPP-4i (1.28 [1.11-1.47]), GLP-1 receptor agonists (1.34 [1.12-1.60]), metformin (1.31 [1.11-1.54]), and insulinotropic AHAs (1.38 [1.15-1.66]). Using the narrow definition of T2DM, new users of SGLT2i had an increased risk of DKA versus sulfonylureas (1.43 [1.01-2.01]). New users of SGLT2i had a lower risk of DKA versus insulin and a similar risk as thiazolidinediones, regardless of T2DM definition.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Increased risk of DKA was observed for new users of SGLT2i versus several non-SGLT2i AHAs when T2DM was defined broadly. When T2DM was defined narrowly to exclude possible misclassified patients, an increased risk of DKA with SGLT2i was observed compared with sulfonylureas.
Project description:Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been considered a key clinical feature of Type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, increasing evidence indicates that DKA is also a common feature of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Many cases of DKA develop under stressful conditions such as trauma or infection but an increasing number of cases without precipitating cause have been reported in children and adults with T2DM. Such patients present with severe hyperglycemia and ketosis as in Type 1 diabetes mellitus but can discontinue insulin after a few months and maintain acceptable glycemic control on diet or oral agents. This subtype of diabetes has been referred to as ketosis-prone T2DM. In this article, we reviewed the literature on ketosis-prone T2DM and summarized the epidemiology, putative pathophysiology and approaches to management.
Project description:Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a promising second-line treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with a developing landscape of both beneficial cardio- and nephroprotective properties and emerging adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), genetic mycotic infections, and amputations among others. A national register study (MHRA Yellow Card, UK) was used to quantify the SGLT2i's suspected ADRs relative to their Rx rate (OpenPrescribing, UK). The polypharmacology profiles of SGLT2i were data-mined (ChEMBL) for the first time. The ADR reports (n = 3629) and prescribing numbers (R<sub>x</sub> n = 5,813,325) for each SGLT2i in the United Kingdom (from launch date to the beginning December 2019) were determined. Empagliflozin possesses the most selective SGLT2/SGLT1 inhibition profile at ~2500-fold, ~10-fold more selective than cangliflozin (~260-fold). Canagliflozin was found to also inhibit CYP at clinically achievable concentrations. We find that for overall ADR rates, empagliflozin versus dapagliflozin and empagliflozin versus canagliflozin are statistically significant (χ<sup>2</sup> , p < .05), while dapagliflozin versus canagliflozin is not. In terms of overall ADRs, there is a greater relative rate for canagliflozin > dapagliflozin > empagliflozin. For fatalities, there is a greater relative rate for dapagliflozin > canagliflozin > empagliflozin. An organ classification that resulted in a statistically significant difference between SGLT2i was suspected infection/infestation ADRs between empagliflozin and dapagliflozin. Our findings at this stage of SGLT2i usage in the United Kingdom suggest that empagliflozin, the most selective SGLT2i, had the lowest suspected ADR incident rate (relative to prescribing) and in all reported classes of ADRs identified including infections, amputations, and DKA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (SGLT2i) showed benefits in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) limits their use. Ability to predict DKA risk and therapeutic responses would enable appropriate patient selection for SGLT2i. We conducted a meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating SGLT2i in T1DM to assess moderators of the relative risk (RR) of DKA, of glycemic (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, continuous glucose monitoring parameters, insulin dose, and insulin sensitivity indices) and non-glycemic (body mass index (BMI), systolic BP, renal function, albuminuria, and diabetic eye disorders) efficacy, and of other safety outcomes (including hypoglycemia, infections, major adverse cardiovascular events, and death).<h4>Methods and findings</h4>We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, and other electronic sources through August 30, 2020, for RCTs comparing SGLT2i with active comparators or placebo in adult patients with T1DM. Reviewers extracted data for relevant outcomes, performed random effects meta-analyses, subgroup analyses, and multivariable meta-regression. The strength of evidence was summarized with the GRADE approach. Among 9,914 records identified, 18 placebo-controlled RCTs (7,396 participants, 50% males, mean age 42 y (range 23 to 55 y), 5 different SGLT2i evaluated), were included. Main outcome measures were effect sizes and moderators of glycemic and non-glycemic efficacy and of safety outcomes. In a multivariable meta-regression model, baseline BMI (? = 0.439 [95% CI: 0.211, 0.666], p < 0.001) and estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) (? = -0.766 [-1.276, -0.256], p = 0.001) were associated with the RR of DKA (RR: 2.81; 95% CI:1.97, 4.01; p < 0.001, R2 = 61%). A model including also treatment-related parameters (insulin dose change-to-baseline insulin sensitivity ratio and volume depletion) explained 86% of variance across studies in the risk of DKA (R2 = 86%). The association of DKA with a BMI >27 kg/m2 and with an eGDR <8.3 mg/kg/min was confirmed also in subgroup analyses. Among efficacy outcomes, the novel findings were a reduction in albuminuria (WMD: -9.91, 95% CI: -16.26, -3.55 mg/g, p = 0.002), and in RR of diabetic eye disorders (RR: 0.27[0.11, 0.67], p = 0.005) associated with SGLT2i. A SGLT2i dose-response gradient was consistently observed for main efficacy outcomes, but not for adverse events (AEs). Overall, predictors of DKA and of other AEs differed substantially from those of glycemic and non-glycemic efficacy. A limitation of our analysis was the relatively short (?52 weeks) duration of included RCTs. The potential relevance for clinical practice needs also to be confirmed by real-world prospective studies.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In T1DM, the risk of DKA and main therapeutic responses to SGLT2i are modified by baseline BMI and insulin resistance, by total insulin dose reduction-to-baseline insulin sensitivity ratio, and by volume depletion, which may enable the targeted use of these drugs in patients with the greatest benefit and the lowest risk of DKA.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>COVID-19 is associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and euglycaemic DKA (EDKA); however, evidence regarding parameters affecting outcome and mortality rates is scarce.<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic literature review was conducted using EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, and Google Scholar from January 2020 to 7 January 2021 to identify all studies describing clinical profile, outcome and mortality rates regarding DKA, HHS, DKA/HHS and EDKA cases in COVID-19 patients. The appropriate Joanna Briggs Institute tools were used for quality assessment; quality of evidence was approached using GRADE. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess correlations between clinical characteristics and outcome based on case reports. Combined mortality rates (CMR) were estimated from data reported in case report series, cross-sectional studies, and meta-analyses. The protocol was submitted to PROSPERO (ID: 229356/230737).<h4>Results</h4>From 312 identified publications, 44 were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Critical COVID-19 necessitating ICU (<i>P</i> = 3 × 10<sup>-8</sup>), DKA/HHS presence (<i>P</i> = 0.021), and AKI (<i>P</i> = 0.037) were independently correlated with death. Increased COVID-19 severity (<i>P</i> = 0.003), elevated lactates (<i>P</i> < 0.001), augmented anion gap (<i>P</i> < 0.001), and AKI (<i>P</i> = 0.002) were associated with DKA/HHS. SGLT-2i were linked with EDKA (<i>P</i> = 0.004) and negatively associated with AKI (<i>P</i> = 0.023). CMR was 27.1% (95% CI 11.2-46.9%) with considerable heterogeneity (<i>I</i> <sup>2</sup> = 67%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Acute diabetes-related metabolic emergencies in COVID-19 patients lead to increased mortality; key determinants are critical COVID-19 illness, coexistence of DKA/HHS and AKI. Previous SGLT-2i treatment, though associated with EDKA, might preserve renal function in COVID-19 patients.<h4>Supplementary information</h4>The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13340-021-00502-9.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>The aim was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitor (SGLT2i) as an adjunct to insulin at different follow-up durations in randomized, double-blind clinical trials in patients with type 1 diabetes.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a search on Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies published before May 2020. According to the duration of follow-up, the subgroup analysis included four periods: 1-4, 12-18, 24-26, and 52 weeks. In the five trials included both 24-26 and 52 weeks of follow-up, we compared the efficacy by the placebo-subtracted difference and changes in SGLT2i groups.<h4>Results</h4>Fifteen trials including 7109 participants were analyzed. The combination of SGLT2i and insulin improved hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), daily insulin dose, body weight, and blood pressure, which varied greatly by different follow-ups. Compared with %HbA1c at 24-26 weeks, placebo-subtracted differences and changes in the SGLT2i groups slightly increased. SGLT2i plus insulin treatment showed no difference in the occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTIs), hypoglycemia, or severe hypoglycemia but increased the risk of genital tract infections (GTIs) in a duration-dependent manner. SGLT2i treatment was associated with a significantly higher rate of ketone-related SAEs and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at 52 weeks.<h4>Conclusion</h4>SGLT2i as an add-on therapy to insulin improved glycemic control and body weight and decreased the required dose of insulin without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia. However, after 6 months the benefits of SGLT2is on glycemic control may weaken and the risks of GTIs and DKA increased.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure (HF), is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). CVD and T2DM share common risk factors for development and progression, and there is significant overlap between the conditions in terms of worsening outcomes. In assessing the cardiovascular (CV) safety profiles of anti-diabetic drugs, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) therapies have emerged with robust evidence for reducing the risk of adverse CVD outcomes in people with T2DM who have either established CVD or are at risk of developing CVD. A previous consensus document from the Improving Diabetes Steering Committee has examined the potential role of SGLT2is in T2DM management and considered the risk-benefit profile of the class and the appropriate place for these medicines within the T2DM pathway. This paper builds on these findings and presents practical guidance for maximising the pleiotropic benefits of this class of medicines in people with T2DM in terms of reducing adverse CVD outcomes. The Improving Diabetes Steering Committee aims to offer evidence-based practical guidance for the use of SGLT2i therapies in people with T2DM stratified by CVD risk. This is of particular importance currently because some treatment guidelines have not been updated to reflect recent evidence from cardiovascular outcomes trials (CVOTs) and real-world studies that complement the CVOTs. The Improving Diabetes Steering Committee seeks to support healthcare professionals (HCPs) in appropriate treatment selection for people with T2DM who are at risk of developing or have established CVD and examines the role of SGLT2i therapy for these people.Funding: Napp Pharmaceuticals Limited.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are licensed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and more recently for heart failure with or without diabetes. They have been shown to be safe (from the cardiovascular (CV) perspective) and effective (in terms of glycaemia, and in some cases, in reducing CV events) in extensive randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, there remain concerns regarding the generalisability of these findings (to those ineligible for RCT participation) and about non-CV safety. For effectiveness, population-based pharmacoepidemiology studies can confirm and extend the findings of RCTs to broader populations and explore safety, for which RCTs are not usually powered, in more detail.<h4>Methods</h4>A pre-planned and registered ((International PROSPEctive Register Of Systematic Reviews) PROSPERO registration CRD42019160792) systematic review of population-based studies investigating SGLT2i effectiveness and safety, following Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines was conducted.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 37 studies were identified (total n = 1,300,184 adults; total follow-up 910,577 person-years; exposures: SGLT2i class, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin) exploring CV disease (CVD) outcomes, acute kidney injury (AKI), lower limb amputation (LLA), diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), bone fracture, urinary tract infection (UTI), genital mycotic infection (GMI), hypoglycaemia, pancreatitis and venous thromboembolism. For CV and mortality outcomes, studies confirmed the associated safety of these drugs and correlated closely with the findings from RCTs, which may extend to primary CVD prevention (major adverse cardiovascular events point estimate range (PER) hazard ratio (HR) 0.78-0.94; hospitalised heart failure PER HR 0.48-0.79). For safety outcomes, SGLT2i exposure was not associated with an increased risk of AKI (PER HR 0.40-0.96), fractures (PER HR 0.87-1.11), hypoglycaemia (PER HR 0.76-2.49) or UTI (PER HR 0.72-0.98). There was a signal for increased association for GMIs (PER HR 2.08-3.15), and possibly for LLA (PER HR 0.74-2.79) and DKA (PER HR 0.96-2.14), but with considerable uncertainty.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In T2D, SGLT2is appear safe from the CV perspective and may have associated benefit in primary as well as secondary CVD prevention. For safety, they may be associated with an increased risk of GMI, LLA and DKA, although longer follow-up studies are needed.
Project description:The impact of tofogliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, on peripheral glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was investigated using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp method in a single-arm, open-label study. The following variables were compared between before and after tofogliflozin administration for 12 weeks in 16 patients with T2DM who were receiving dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor treatment: body weight (BW); blood pressure; glucose metabolism; liver function; lipid profile; and body composition. Peripheral glucose uptake (M value and M/I ratio) was examined by the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp method. After 12 weeks, there was a significant decrease (P < .001) in glycated haemoglobin, BW, body fat mass and lean body mass. Peripheral glucose uptake, which indicates insulin sensitivity, increased significantly (M value by 0.90 and M/I ratio by 0.49; both P < .05). The change in the M value after 12 weeks of tofogliflozin therapy was correlated with the change in body fat mass (P < .05). Tofogliflozin significantly improved insulin sensitivity and peripheral glucose uptake in patients with T2DM. These improvements were significantly correlated with reduction in body fat mass.
Project description:Abstract Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) reduce glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), but randomized controlled trial data on their combined use are limited. The LIRA-ADD2SGLT2i trial compared the effect on glycemic control of liraglutide 1.8 mg/day (a GLP-1 analog) vs placebo as add-on to SGLT2i ± metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this phase 3b trial, patients with T2D on a stable dose of SGLT2i ± metformin and with HbA1c 7.0-9.5% were randomized 2:1 to add either liraglutide 1.8 mg/day or placebo. Exclusion criteria included a history of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) while being treated with SGLT2i and/or estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline at 26 weeks; also assessed after 26 weeks were change in body weight, the proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7%, and safety. All were analyzed regardless of premature trial product discontinuation or initiation of glucoselowering rescue medication. Overall, 412 patients were screened, 303 were randomized and 280 (92.4%) completed treatment (92.1% with liraglutide, 93.0% with placebo). Baseline characteristics were balanced between treatment groups: mean HbA1c 8.0%, mean body weight 91.1 kg, mean duration of diabetes 9.9 years. At week 26, the mean change in HbA1c from baseline with liraglutide was 0.98% (n=203) vs 0.30% with placebo (n=100) (estimated treatment difference [ETD]: 0.68%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89, 0.48; p<0.001). The mean change in body weight from baseline with liraglutide was -2.81 kg vs 1.99 kg with placebo (ETD: 0.82 kg; 95% CI: -1.73, 0.09, p=0.077). In the liraglutide group, 51.8% of patients achieved HbA1c <7.0% vs 23.2% in the placebo group (odds ratio: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.67, 9.87; p<0.001). A higher proportion of patients in the liraglutide group reported ?1 treatment-emergent adverse event (AE) than in the placebo group (66.3% vs 47.0%). Nausea was the most frequent AE, occurring in 26.2% of the liraglutide group and 6.0% of the placebo group, and it generally had early onset in the initial 4 weeks and was transient. Similar incidences of hypoglycemic episodes were reported in both groups (8.9% with liraglutide vs 8.0% with placebo); none were severe. The proportion of patients reporting serious AEs was low in both groups (liraglutide 2.5% vs placebo 1.0%). No fatalities occurred in either group and there were no reports of acute renal failure, DKA, diabetic foot ulcers or amputations with liraglutide in combination with SGLT-2i. In patients with T2D, the addition of liraglutide to SGLT2i therapy (± metformin) provided superior glycemic control vs placebo, and had a safety profile consistent with the known safety profile of both drug classes. The LIRA-ADD2SGLT2i is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02964247.