SAPK10-Mediated Phosphorylation on WRKY72 Releases Its Suppression on Jasmonic Acid Biosynthesis and Bacterial Blight Resistance.
ABSTRACT: Bacterial blight caused by the infection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a devastating disease that severely challenges the yield of rice. Here, we report the identification of a "SAPK10-WRKY72-AOS1" module, through which Xoo infection stimulates the suppression of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis to cause Xoo susceptibility. WRKY72 directly binds to the W-box in the promoter of JA biosynthesis gene AOS1 and represses its transcription by inducing DNA hypermethylation on the target site, which finally led to lower endogenous JA level and higher Xoo susceptibility. Abscisic acid (ABA)-inducible SnRK2-type kinase SAPK10 phosphorylates WRKY72 at Thr 129. The SAPK10-mediated phosphorylation impairs the DNA-binding ability of WRKY72 and releases its suppression on AOS1 and JA biosynthesis. Our work highlights a module of how pathogen stimuli lead to plant susceptibility, as well as a potential pathway for ABA-JA interplay with post-translational modification and epigenetic regulation mechanism involved.
Project description:Antagonism between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) plays pivotal roles in the fine-tuning of plant immunity against pathogen infection. In this study, we compared the phytohormonal responses to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) between the citrus canker-susceptible (S) cultivar Wanjincheng orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and -resistant (R) cultivar Jindan (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle). Upon Xcc infection, SA and JA were strongly induced in Jindan (R) and Wanjincheng orange (S), respectively, and JA appeared to contribute to citrus disease susceptibility by antagonizing SA-mediated effective defenses. A homologous gene encoding the allene oxide synthase (AOS) 1-2 enzyme, which catalyzes the first committed step in JA biosynthesis, was specifically upregulated in Wanjincheng orange (S) but not in Jindan (R). A promoter sequence analysis showed that abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements are enriched in the AOS1-2 of Wanjincheng orange (S) but not in Jindan (R). Accordingly, ABA treatments could induce AOS1-2 expression and JA accumulation, leading to enhanced citrus disease susceptibility in Wanjincheng orange (S), while the synthesis inhibitor sodium tungstate had the opposite effects. Moreover, ABA was specifically induced by Xcc infection in Wanjincheng orange (S) but not in Jindan (R). Thus, Xcc appeared to hijack host ABA biosynthesis to promote JA accumulation, which in turn suppressed effectual SA-mediated defenses to favor disease development in citrus. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential citrus-canker resistance in citrus cultivars, and a new strategy for the biotechnological improvement of citrus canker resistance was discussed.
Project description:The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in a wide variety of plant processes, including the initiation of stress-adaptive responses to various environmental cues. Recently, ABA also emerged as a central factor in the regulation and integration of plant immune responses, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Aiming to advance our understanding of ABA-modulated disease resistance, we have analyzed the impact, dynamics and interrelationship of ABA and the classic defense hormone salicylic acid (SA) during progression of rice infection by the leaf blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Consistent with ABA negatively regulating resistance to Xoo, we found that exogenously administered ABA renders rice hypersusceptible to infection, whereas chemical and genetic disruption of ABA biosynthesis and signaling, respectively, led to enhanced Xoo resistance. In addition, we found successful Xoo infection to be associated with extensive reprogramming of ABA biosynthesis and response genes, suggesting that ABA functions as a virulence factor for Xoo. Interestingly, several lines of evidence indicate that this immune-suppressive effect of ABA is due at least in part to suppression of SA-mediated defenses that normally serve to limit pathogen growth. Resistance induced by the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, however, appears to operate in a SA-independent manner and is likely due to induction of non-specific physiological stress. Collectively, our findings favor a scenario whereby virulent Xoo hijacks the rice ABA machinery to cause disease and highlight the importance of ABA and its crosstalk with SA in shaping the outcome of rice-Xoo interactions.
Project description:Rice suffers dramatic yield losses due to blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105, a bacterium that was isolated from the rice rhizosphere, inhibits M. oryzae. It was shown previously that pre-treatment of rice with EA105 reduced the size of blast lesions through jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene (ETH)-mediated ISR. Abscisic acid (ABA) acts antagonistically toward salicylic acid (SA), JA, and ETH signaling, to impede plant defense responses. EA105 may be reducing the virulence of M. oryzae by preventing the pathogen from up-regulating the key ABA biosynthetic gene NCED3 in rice roots, as well as a ?-glucosidase likely involved in activating conjugated inactive forms of ABA. However, changes in total ABA concentrations were not apparent, provoking the question of whether ABA concentration is an indicator of ABA signaling and response. In the rice-M. oryzae interaction, ABA plays a dual role in disease severity by increasing plant susceptibility and accelerating pathogenesis in the fungus itself. ABA is biosynthesized by M. oryzae. Further, exogenous ABA increased spore germination and appressoria formation, distinct from other plant growth regulators. EA105, which inhibits appressoria formation, counteracted the virulence-promoting effects of ABA on M. oryzae. The role of endogenous fungal ABA in blast disease was confirmed through the inability of a knockout mutant impaired in ABA biosynthesis to form lesions on rice. Therefore, it appears that EA105 is invoking multiple strategies in its protection of rice from blast including direct mechanisms as well as those mediated through plant signaling. ABA is a molecule that is likely implicated in both tactics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The hormone auxin plays an important role not only in the growth and development of rice, but also in its defense responses. We've previously shown that the P450 gene CYP71Z2 enhances disease resistance to pathogens through regulation of phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice, though it remains unclear if auxin is involved in this process or not. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The expression of CYP71Z2 was induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) inoculation was analyzed by qRT-PCR, with GUS histochemical staining showing that CYP71Z2 expression was limited to roots, blades and nodes. Overexpression of CYP71Z2 in rice durably and stably increased resistance to Xoo, though no significant difference in disease resistance was detected between CYP71Z2-RNA interference (RNAi) rice and wild-type. Moreover, IAA concentration was determined using the HPLC/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry system. The accumulation of IAA was significantly reduced in CYP71Z2-overexpressing rice regardless of whether plants were inoculated or not, whereas it was unaffected in CYP71Z2-RNAi rice. Furthermore, the expression of genes related to IAA, expansin and SA/JA signaling pathways was suppressed in CYP71Z2-overexpressing rice with or without inoculation. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE:These results suggest that CYP71Z2-mediated resistance to Xoo may be via suppression of IAA signaling in rice. Our studies also provide comprehensive insight into molecular mechanism of resistance to Xoo mediated by IAA in rice. Moreover, an available approach for understanding the P450 gene functions in interaction between rice and pathogens has been provided.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The function of Arabidopsis enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (AtEDS1) and its sequence homologs in other dicots have been extensively studied. However, it is unknown whether rice EDS1 homolog (OsEDS1) plays a role in regulating the rice-pathogen interaction. RESULTS:In this study, a OsEDS1-knouckout mutant (oseds1) was characterized and shown to have increased susceptibility to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), suggesting the positive role of OsEDS1 in regulating rice disease resistance. However, the following evidence suggests that OsEDS1 shares some differences with AtEDS1 in its way to regulate the host-pathogen interactions. Firstly, OsEDS1 modulates the rice-bacteria interactions involving in jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, while AtEDS1 regulates Arabidopsis disease resistance against biotrophic pathogens depending on salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway. Secondly, introducing AtEDS1 could reduce oseds1 mutant susceptibility to Xoo rather than to Xoc. Thirdly, exogenous application of JA and SA cannot complement the susceptible phenotype of the oseds1 mutant, while exogenous application of SA is capable of complementing the susceptible phenotype of the ateds1 mutant. Finally, OsEDS1 is not required for R gene mediated resistance, while AtEDS1 is required for disease resistance mediated by TIR-NB-LRR class of R proteins. CONCLUSION:OsEDS1 is a positive regulator in rice-pathogen interactions, and shares both similarities and differences with AtEDS1 in its way to regulate plant-pathogen interactions.
Project description:The SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family includes key regulators of osmostress and abscisic acid (ABA) responses in angiosperms and can be classified into three subclasses. Subclass III SnRK2s act in the ABA response while ABA-nonresponsive subclass I SnRK2s are regulated through osmostress. Here we report that an ancient subclass III SnRK2-based signalling module including ABA and an upstream Raf-like kinase (ARK) exclusively protects the moss Physcomitrella patens from drought. Subclass III SnRK2s from both Arabidopsis and from the semiterrestrial alga Klebsormidium nitens, which contains all the components of ABA signalling except ABA receptors, complement Physcomitrella snrk2 - mutants, whereas Arabidopsis subclass I SnRK2 cannot. We propose that the earliest land plants developed the ABA/ARK/subclass III SnRK2 signalling module by recruiting ABA to regulate a pre-existing dehydration response and that subsequently a novel subclass I SnRK2 system evolved in vascular plants conferring osmostress protection independently from the ancient system.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a destructive disease in most of the rice growing regions worldwide. Xoo injects the transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effector protein into the host cell to induce the susceptibility (S) gene(s) for spreading the disease. In the current study, a susceptible rice genotype, JG30, was inoculated with wild Xoo strain PXO99A and its mutant PH without any TAL effector, to retrieve the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) having a role in susceptibility. RESULTS:RNA-Seq data analysis showed that 1143 genes were significantly differentially expressed (p-value ?0.05) at 12, 24, 36 and 48?h post inoculation (hpi). Expression patterns, evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), of randomly selected eight genes were similar to the RNA-Seq data. KEGG pathway classified the DEGs into photosynthesis and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid pathway. Gene ontology (GO) analysis categorized the DEGs into the biological pathway, cellular component, and molecular function. We identified 43 differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) belonging to different families. Also, clusters of the DEGs representing kinase and peroxidase responsive genes were retrieved. MapMan pathway analysis representing the expression pattern of genes expressed highly in biotic stress and metabolic pathways after PXO99A infection relative to PH. CONCLUSIONS:DEGs were identified in susceptible rice genotype inoculated with PXO99A relative to mutant strain PH. The identified 1143 DEGs were predicted to be included in the different biological processes, signaling mechanism and metabolic pathways. The Jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes were identified to be downregulated in PXO99A infected leaves. This study would be useful for the researchers to reveal the potential functions of genes involved in the rice susceptibility to PXO99A infection.
Project description:To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying hormonal regulation in adventitious roots and during their emergence under waterlogged conditions in wheat, the present study investigated transcriptional regulation of genes related to hormone metabolism and transport in the root and stem node tissues. Waterlogging-induced inhibition of axile root elongation and lateral root formation, and promotion of surface adventitious and axile root emergence and aerenchyma formation are associated with enhanced expression levels of ethylene biosynthesis genes, ACS7 and ACO2, in both tissues. Inhibition of axile root elongation is also related to increased root indole acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonate (JA) levels that are associated with up-regulation of specific IAA biosynthesis/transport (TDC, YUC1, and PIN9) and JA metabolism (LOX8, AOS1, AOC1, and JAR1) genes, and transcriptional alteration of gibberellin (GA) metabolism genes (GA3ox2 and GA2ox8). Adventitious root emergence from waterlogged stem nodes is associated with increased levels of IAA and GA but decreased levels of cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA), which are regulated through the expression of specific IAA biosynthesis/transport (TDC, YUC1, and PIN9), cytokinin metabolism (IPT5-2, LOG1, CKX5, and ZOG2), ABA biosynthesis (NCED1 and NCED2), and GA metabolism (GA3ox2 and GA2ox8) genes. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive response of wheat to waterlogging.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Salt stress and bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) are key limiting factors of rice (Oryza sativa L.) yields. Members of sucrose non-fermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2), which is a family of plant-specific Ser/Thr kinases, are important components of signaling pathways involved in plant developmental processes and responses to stresses. There are 10 members of the SnRK2 family in rice; however, their functions are poorly understood, as are the underlying molecular mechanisms. RESULTS:In this study, we found that OsSAPK9, which belongs to the SnRK2 family, positively regulated salt-stress tolerance and strain-specific resistance to bacterial blight in rice. RNA sequencing revealed that there were 404 and 1324 genes differentially expressed in OsSAPK9-RNAi in comparison with wild-type plants under salt-stress conditions and after Xoo inoculation, respectively, which participate in basic metabolic processes. In total, 65 common differentially expressed genes involved mainly in defense responses were detected both under salt-stress conditions and after Xoo inoculation. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that OsSAPK9 forms a protein complex with the molecular chaperones OsSGT1 and OsHsp90, and transgenic plants overexpressing OsSGT1 exhibited decreased tolerances to salt stress and significantly increased resistance levels to bacterial blight. Thus, OsSAPK9 may function as a center node regulator of salt-stress responses and disease-resistance pathways through its interaction with OsSGT1 in rice. CONCLUSION:This study confirms that OsSAPK9 functions as a positive regulator of salt-stress responses and disease resistance through its interaction with OsSGT1 in rice.
Project description:Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone that plays an important role in the defense response and stable growth of rice. In this study, we investigated the role of the JA-responsive valine-glutamine (VQ)-motif-containing protein OsVQ13 in JA signaling in rice. OsVQ13 was primarily located in the nucleus and cytoplasm. The transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsVQ13 exhibited a JA-hypersensitive phenotype and increased JA-induced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which is the bacteria that causes rice bacterial blight, one of the most serious diseases in rice. Furthermore, we identified a mitogen-activated protein kinase, OsMPK6, as an OsVQ13-associating protein. The expression of genes regulated by OsWRKY45, an important WRKY-type transcription factor for Xoo resistance that is known to be regulated by OsMPK6, was upregulated in OsVQ13-overexpressing rice plants. The grain size of OsVQ13-overexpressing rice plants was also larger than that of the wild type. These results indicated that OsVQ13 positively regulated JA signaling by activating the OsMPK6-OsWRKY45 signaling pathway in rice.