Anticholinergic and sedative medication use in older community-dwelling people: A national population study in the Netherlands.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To identify the proportion of older adults with a high anticholinergic/sedative load and to identify patient subgroups based on type of central nervous system (CNS)-active medication used. METHODS:A cross-sectional study of a nationwide sample of patients with anticholinergic/sedative medications dispensed by 1779 community pharmacies in the Netherlands (90% of all community pharmacies) in November 2016 was conducted. Patients aged older than 65 years with a high anticholinergic/sedative load defined as having a drug burden index (DBI) greater than 1 were included. Proportion of patients with a high anticholinergic/sedative load was calculated by dividing the number of individuals in our study population by the 2.4 million older patients using medications dispensed from study pharmacies. Patient subgroups based on type of CNS-active medications used were identified with latent class analysis. RESULTS:Overall, 8.7% (209 472 individuals) of older adults using medications had a DBI greater than 1. Latent class analysis identified four patient subgroups (classes) based on the following types of CNS-active medications used: "combined psycholeptic/psychoanaleptic medication" (class 1, 57.9%), "analgesics" (class 2, 17.9%), "antiepileptic medication" (class 3, 17.8%), and "anti-Parkinson medication" (class 4, 6.3%). CONCLUSIONS:A large proportion of older adults in the Netherlands had a high anticholinergic/sedative load. Four distinct subgroups using specific CNS-active medication were identified. Interventions aiming at reducing the overall anticholinergic/sedative load should be tailored to these subgroups.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Anticholinergic/sedative medications are frequently used by older people, despite their negative impacts on cognitive and physical function. We explore the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of an innovative information technology (IT)-based intervention to prevent an increase in anticholinergic/sedative load in older people.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a prospective study in 51 Dutch community pharmacies. Pharmacists used an IT-based tool to identify patients aged ?65?years, with existing high anticholinergic/sedative loads (drug burden index ?2) and a newly initiated anticholinergic/sedative medication. We determined the following. Feasibility: number of eligible patients identified. Acceptability: pharmacists' satisfaction with the intervention, pharmacists' time investment and patients' willingness to reduce medication use. Potential effectiveness: number of recommendations, rate of agreement of general practitioners (GPs) with proposed recommendations and factors associated with agreement. To evaluate the latter, pharmacists conducted medication reviews and proposed recommendations to GPs for 5-10 patients selected by the IT-based tool.<h4>Results</h4>We included 305 patients from 47 pharmacies. Feasibility: a mean of 17.0 (standard deviation, 8.8) patients were identified per pharmacy. Acceptability: 43 pharmacists (91.5%) were satisfied with the intervention. The median time investment per patient was 33?min (range 6.5-210). Of 35 patients, 30 (85.7%) were willing to reduce medication use. Potential effectiveness: pharmacists proposed 351 recommendations for 212 patients (69.5%). GPs agreed with recommendations for 108 patients (35.4%). Agreement to stop a medication was reached in 19.8% of recommendations for newly initiated medications (37 of 187) and for 15.2% of recommendations for existing medications (25 of 164). Agreement was more likely for recommendations on codeine [odds ratio (OR) 3.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-9.57] or medications initiated by a specialist (OR 2.85; 95% CI 1.19-6.84) and less likely for pharmacies with lower level of collaboration with GPs (OR 0.15; 95% CI 0.02-0.97).<h4>Conclusion</h4>This innovative IT-based intervention was feasible, acceptable and potentially effective. In one-third of patients an increase in anticholinergic/sedative load was prevented within reasonable time investment.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Older people often use medications with anticholinergic or sedative side effects which increase the risk of falling and worsen cognitive impairment. The Drug Burden Index (DBI) is a measure of the burden of anticholinergic and sedative medications. Medication reviews are typically done by a pharmacist in collaboration with a general practitioner to optimise the medication use and reduce these adverse drug events. We will evaluate whether a Multidisciplinary Multistep Medication Review (3MR) is an effective intervention to reduce a patient's DBI. METHODS:A randomised controlled trial including 160 patients from 15 community pharmacies will be conducted. Per pharmacy, 1 pharmacist will perform a structured 3MR in close collaboration with the general practitioner, including the objective to reduce the DBI. ANALYSIS:Primary outcome--the difference in proportion of patients having a decrease in DBI ? 0.5 in the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Secondary outcomes--anticholinergic and sedative side effects, falls, cognitive function, activities of daily living, quality of life, hospital admission, and mortality. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The burden of patients will be kept at a minimum. The 3MR can be considered as usual care by the pharmacist and general practitioner. Medical specialists will be consulted, if necessary. The intervention is specifically aimed at older community-dwelling patients in an attempt to optimise prescribing, in particular, to reduce medication with anticholinergic and sedative properties. Study results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be distributed through information channels targeting professionals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02317666; Pre-results.
Project description:Objectives:Medications with anticholinergic or sedative effects are frequently used by older people but can increase risk of falls and adverse events; however, less is known about their effect on movement behaviour. Here we examine the cross-sectional association between medication use and movement behaviour in older adults living in residential aged care. Materials and Methods:Twenty-eight older adults living in residential aged care in metropolitan Australia participated. Medication data were collected from participants' medical charts and sedative load and anticholinergic burden were determined. Seven-day movement behaviour was objectively assessed by a wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer. Raw accelerations were converted to sleep, sedentary time, and time in light, moderate, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. To explore the relationship between medication and movement behaviour, Spearman's Rho correlations were conducted, as the data were not normally distributed. Results:Analyses indicated that while anticholinergic burden was not associated with movement behaviour, sedative load was negatively correlated with a number of variables, accounting for 14% variance in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and 17% in the bout length of MVPA (p < .02). Conclusion:The findings of this study showed a negative association between sedative load, due to medicines, and an individual's movement behaviour. The impact of this could be a reduction in the ability of this population to maintain or improve their functional mobility, which may overshadow any benefits of the medicine in some circumstances.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate if a pharmacist-led medication review is effective at reducing the anticholinergic/sedative load, as measured by the Drug Burden Index (DBI). DESIGN:Randomised controlled single blind trial. SETTING:15 community pharmacies in the Northern Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS:157 community-dwelling patients aged ?65 years who used ?5 medicines for ?3 months, including at least one psycholeptic/psychoanaleptic medication and who had a DBI?1. INTERVENTION:A medication review by the community pharmacist in collaboration with the patient's general practitioner and patient. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES MEASURES:The primary outcome was the proportion of patients whose DBI decreased by at least 0.5. Secondary outcomes were the presence of anticholinergic/sedative side effects, falls, cognitive function, activities of daily living, quality of life, hospital admission and mortality. Data were collected at baseline and 3?months follow-up. RESULTS:Mean participant age was 75.7 (SD, 6.9) years in the intervention arm and 76.6 (SD, 6.7) years in the control arm, the majority were female (respectively 69.3% and 72.0%). Logistic regression analysis showed no difference in the proportion of patients with a?0.5?decrease in DBI between intervention arm (17.3%) and control arm (15.9%), (OR 1.04, CI 0.47 to 2.64, p=0.927). Intervention patients scored higher on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, measure of cognitive function (OR 2.02, CI 1.11 to 3.67, p=0.021) and reported fewer sedative side effects (OR 0.61, CI 0.40 to 0.94, p=0.024) at follow-up. No significant difference was found for other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Pharmacist-led medication review as currently performed in the Netherlands was not effective in reducing the anticholinergic/sedative load, measured with the DBI, within the time frame of 3 months. Preventive strategies, signalling a rising load and taking action before chronic use of anticholinergic/sedative medication is established may be more successful. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02317666.
Project description:Improving the quality of medication use and medication safety is an important priority for prescribers who care for older adults. The objective of this article was to identify key articles from 2018 that address these issues. In addition, we selected four of these articles to annotate, critique, and discuss their broader implications for clinical practice. The first study highlights a cluster-randomized trial that utilized a pharmacist-led education-based intervention delivered to both patients and physicians to deprescribe four types of inappropriate medications (sedative-hypnotics, first-generation antihistamines, selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and glyburide). The second study, a nested case-control study using data from within the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, examined the association between anticholinergic exposure, overall and by anticholinergic medication class, and dementia risk in 40?770 older adults. The third study, a longitudinal cohort study of 1028 Swedish older adults, examined the association between antihypertensive medications and incident dementia. The last study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that investigated the effect of daily low-dose aspirin (100?mg) for primary prevention on cardiovascular events and major hemorrhage in 19?144 community-dwelling older adults. Collectively, this current article provides insight into the pertinent topics of medication use quality and safety in older adults and helps raise awareness about optimal prescribing in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2458-2462, 2019.
Project description:The Drug Burden Index (DBI) tool quantifies individual exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medications. The DBI has been internationally validated against adverse health outcomes in older people. DBI exposure has not been reported in the Irish older population. This study aimed to: (1) develop a list of drugs with clinically significant anticholinergic and/or sedative effects (DBI medications) relevant to Ireland; (2) examine, using the DBI formula, the prevalence of exposure to DBI medications in Irish older people and (3) explore patient factors associated DBI exposure.A cross-sectional national pharmacy claims database study.Community setting using the General Medical Services (GMS) scheme pharmacy claims database maintained by the Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Services.Irish older individuals (aged ?65 years) enrolled in the GMS scheme and dispensed at least one prescription item in 2016 (n=428?516).Prevalence of exposure to DBI medications and patient factors associated with DBI exposure.282?874 (66%) of the GMS population aged ?65 years were exposed to at least one DBI medication in 2016. Prevalence of exposure to DBI medications was significantly higher in females than males (females 71.6% vs males 58.7%, adjusted OR 1.65, 95%?CI 1.63 to 1.68). Prevalence of DBI exposure increased progressively with the number of chronic drugs used, rising from 42.7% of those prescribed 0-4 chronic drugs to 95.4% of those on ?12?chronic drugs (adjusted OR 27.8, 95%?CI 26.7 to 29.0). The most frequently used DBI medications were codeine/paracetamol combination products (20.1% of patients), tramadol (11.5%), zopiclone (9.5%), zolpidem (8.5%), pregabalin (7.9%) and alprazolam (7.8%).The majority of older people in Ireland are exposed to medications with anticholinergic and/or sedative effects, particularly females and those with multiple comorbidities. The high use of low-dose codeine/paracetamol combination products, Z-drugs and benzodiazepines, suggests there are opportunities for deprescribing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although the risks of using central nervous system depressant (CNS-D) medications with alcohol are well documented, little is known about trends in prescribed use of these medications among individuals who regularly consume alcohol (i.e., trends in "concurrent use"). We examined changes in the prevalence of prescribed CNS-D medications among individuals who drank alcohol on 52 or more occasions in the past year ("regular drinking"). CNS-D medications included sedative-hypnotics (subclassified as anxiolytics or sleep medications) and opioids. METHODS:We used 8 cross-sectional cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2000 to 2013-2014) from participants aged 20 and older (n = 37,709). We used log-binomial regression to examine (i) prevalence trends of prescribed CNS-D medication use, (ii) trend differences by drinking status, and (iii) correlates of CNS-D medication use. RESULTS:Among those who drink regularly, the relative annual increase in prevalence of sedative-hypnotic use was 5.3% (95% CI: 2.7 to 7.9): Anxiolytic and sleep medication use increased annually by 3.7% (95% CI: 0.8 to 6.7) and 11.2% (95% CI: 6.5 to 16.0), respectively. Opioid use trends among those who drink regularly were not statistically significant but were nonlinear. Differences in CNS-D medication trends between those who drink regularly and those who drink infrequently/abstain were not statistically significant. Those who drink regularly were less likely than those who drink infrequently/abstain to use opioids (adjusted relative risk [ARR]: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.78) and anxiolytics (ARR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.81), but not sleep medications (ARR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.35). Those aged 40 and older were 2 to 5 times as likely as those aged 20 to 29 to use sedative-hypnotics. CONCLUSIONS:Among those who drink regularly, the prevalence of prescribed sedative-hypnotic use increased and prescribed opioid use remained common. These trends indicate that a substantial portion of the population is at risk of alcohol-related adverse drug reactions-particularly those aged 40 and older.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Drugs with anticholinergic properties are considered potentially inappropriate in patients with cognitive impairment because harms-including delirium, falls, and fractures-may outweigh benefits. OBJECTIVE:To highlight opportunities to improve clinical decision making and care for patients with cognitive impairment and multiple chronic conditions, we identified distinct subgroups of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia who had high cumulative anticholinergic burden and specific patterns of anticholinergic use. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a not-for-profit, integrated delivery system. Participants included community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older (n = 13,627) with MCI or dementia and at least two other chronic diseases. We calculated the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) score for each participant from pharmacy and electronic health record (EHR) data. Among individuals with a mean 12-month ACB score ? 2, we used agglomerative hierarchical clustering to identify groups or clusters of individuals with similar anticholinergic prescription patterns. RESULTS:Twenty-four percent (3257 participants) had high anticholinergic burden, defined as an ACB score ? 2. Clinically meaningful clusters based upon anchoring medications or drug classes included a cluster of cardiovascular medications (n = 1497; 46%); two clusters of antidepressant medications (n = 633; 20%); and a cluster based on use of bladder antimuscarinics (n = 431; 13%). Several clusters comprised multiple central nervous system (CNS)-active drugs. CONCLUSIONS:Cardiovascular and CNS-active medications comprise a substantial portion of anticholinergic burden in people with cognitive impairment and multiple chronic conditions. Antidepressants were highly prevalent. Clinical profiles elucidated by these clusters of anticholinergic medications can inform targeted approaches to care.
Project description:Importance:High rates of inappropriate prescribing persist among older adults in many outpatient settings, increasing the risk of adverse drug events and drug-related hospitalizations. Objective:To compare the effectiveness of a consumer-targeted, pharmacist-led educational intervention vs usual care on discontinuation of inappropriate medication among community-dwelling older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants:A cluster randomized trial (D-PRESCRIBE [Developing Pharmacist-Led Research to Educate and Sensitize Community Residents to the Inappropriate Prescriptions Burden in the Elderly]) that recruited community pharmacies in Quebec, Canada, from February 2014 to September 2017, with follow-up until February 2018, and randomly allocated them to intervention or control groups. Patients included were adults aged 65 years and older who were prescribed 1 of 4 Beers Criteria medications (sedative-hypnotics, first-generation antihistamines, glyburide, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), recruited from 69 community pharmacies. Patients were screened and enrolled before randomization. Interventions:Pharmacists in the intervention group were encouraged to send patients an educational deprescribing brochure in parallel to sending their physicians an evidence-based pharmaceutical opinion to recommend deprescribing. The pharmacists in the control group provided usual care. Randomization occurred at the pharmacy level, with 34 pharmacies randomized to the intervention group (248 patients) and 35 to the control group (241 patients). Patients, physicians, pharmacists, and evaluators were blinded to outcome assessment. Main Outcomes and Measures:Discontinuation of prescriptions for inappropriate medication at 6 months, ascertained by pharmacy medication renewal profiles. Results:Among 489 patients (mean age, 75 years; 66% women), 437 (89%) completed the trial (219 [88%] in the intervention group vs 218 [91%] in the control group). At 6 months, 106 of 248 patients (43%) in the intervention group no longer filled prescriptions for inappropriate medication compared with 29 of 241 (12%) in the control group (risk difference, 31% [95% CI, 23% to 38%]). In the intervention vs control group, discontinuation of inappropriate medication occurred among 63 of 146 sedative-hypnotic drug users (43.2%) vs 14 of 155 (9.0%), respectively (risk difference, 34% [95% CI, 25% to 43%]); 19 of 62 glyburide users (30.6%) vs 8 of 58 (13.8%), respectively (risk difference, 17% [95% CI, 2% to 31%]); and 19 of 33 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users (57.6%) vs 5 of 23 (21.7%), respectively (risk difference, 35% [95% CI, 10% to 55%]) (P for interaction = .09). Analysis of the antihistamine drug class was not possible because of the small sample size (n?=?12). No adverse events requiring hospitalization were reported, although 29 of 77 patients (38%) who attempted to taper sedative-hypnotics reported withdrawal symptoms. Conclusions and Relevance:Among older adults in Quebec, a pharmacist-led educational intervention compared with usual care resulted in greater discontinuation of prescriptions for inappropriate medication after 6 months. The generalizability of these findings to other settings requires further research. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02053194.