Project description:Wheat straw was fermented by Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, a lignin degrading fungus, under solid state fermentation conditions. The fungus degraded 18.38% lignin at the expense of 10.37% cellulose within 9 days. However, when wheat straw fermented for different duration was evaluated in vitro, the 5 day fungal fermented wheat straw called here "Biotech Feed" was found to possess 36.74% organic matter digestibility (OMD) and 5.38 (MJ/Kg Dry matter) metabolizable energy (ME). The Biotech Feed was also observed to be significantly enriched with essential amino acids and fungal protein by fungal fermentation, eventually increasing its nutritional value. The Biotech Feed upon in vitro analysis showed potential to replace 50% grain from concentrate mixture. Further, the calves fed on Biotech Feed based diets exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI: 3.74 Kg/d), dry matter digestibility (DMD: 57.82%), total digestible nutrients (TDN: 54.76%) and comparatively gained 50 g more daily body weight.
Project description:Background:During the process of bioethanol production, cellulose is hydrolyzed into its monomeric soluble units. For efficient hydrolysis, a chemical and/or mechanical pretreatment step is required. Such pretreatment is designed to increase enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose chains inter alia by de-crystallization of the cellulose chains and by removing barriers, such as lignin from the plant cell wall. Biological pretreatment, in which lignin is decomposed or modified by white-rot fungi, has also been considered. One disadvantage in biological pretreatment, however, is the consumption of the cellulose by the fungus. Thus, fungal species that attack lignin with only minimal cellulose loss are advantageous. The secretomes of white-rot fungi contain carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) including lignin-modifying enzymes. Thus, modification of secretome composition can alter the ratio of lignin/cellulose degradation. Results:Pleurotus ostreatus PC9 was genetically modified to either overexpress or eliminate (by gene replacement) the transcriptional regulator CRE1, known to act as a repressor in the process of carbon catabolite repression. The cre1-overexpressing transformant demonstrated lower secreted cellulolytic activity and slightly increased selectivity (based on the chemical composition of pretreated wheat straw), whereas the knockout transformant demonstrated increased cellulolytic activity and significantly reduced residual cellulose, thereby displaying lower selectivity. Pretreatment of wheat straw using the wild-type PC9 resulted in 2.8-fold higher yields of soluble sugar compared to untreated wheat straw. The overexpression transformant showed similar yields (2.6-fold), but the knockout transformant exhibited lower yields (1.2-fold) of soluble sugar. Based on proteomic secretome analysis, production of numerous CAZymes was affected by modification of the expression level of cre1. Conclusions:The gene cre1 functions as a regulator for expression of fungal CAZymes active against plant cell wall lignocelluloses, hence altering the substrate preference of the fungi tested. While the cre1 knockout resulted in a less efficient biological pretreatment, i.e., less saccharification of the treated biomass, the converse manipulation of cre1 (overexpression) failed to improve efficiency. Despite the inverse nature of the two genetic alterations, the expected "mirror image" (i.e., opposite regulatory response) was not observed, indicating that the secretion level of CAZymes, was not exclusively dependent on CRE1 activity.
Project description:Background:The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural waste into biofuels and chemicals is considered a promising way to provide sustainable low carbon products without compromising food security. However, the use of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel and chemical production is limited by the cost-effectiveness of the production process due to its recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentable sugar release (i.e., saccharification). Rice straw is a particularly attractive feedstock because millions of tons are currently burned in the field each year for disposal. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying natural genetic variation that impacts the recalcitrance of rice (Oryza sativa) straw to enzymatic saccharification. Ultimately, we wanted to investigate whether we could identify genetic markers that could be used in rice breeding to improve commercial cultivars for this trait. Here, we describe the development and characterization of a Vietnamese rice genome-wide association panel, high-throughput analysis of rice straw saccharification and lignin content, and the results from preliminary genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the combined data sets. We identify both QTL and plausible candidate genes that may have an impact on the saccharification of rice straw. Results:We assembled a diversity panel comprising 151 rice genotypes (Indica and Japonica types) from commercial, historical elite cultivars, and traditional landraces grown in Vietnam. The diversity panel was genotyped using genotype by sequencing (GBS) methods yielding a total of 328,915 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We collected phenotypic data from stems of these 151 genotypes for biomass saccharification and lignin content. Using GWAS on the indica genotypes over 2 years we identified ten significant QTL for saccharification (digestibility) and seven significant QTL for lignin. One QTL on chromosome 11 occurred in both GWAS for digestibility and for lignin. Seven QTL for digestibility, on CH2, CH6, CH7, CH8, and CH11, were observed in both years of the study. The QTL regions for saccharification include three potential candidate genes that have been previously reported to influence digestibility: OsAT10; OsIRX9; and OsMYB58/63-L. Conclusions:Despite the difficulties associated with multi-phasic analysis of complex traits in novel germplasm, a moderate resolution GWAS successfully identified genetic associations encompassing both known and/or novel genes involved in determining the saccharification potential and lignin content of rice straw. Plausible candidates within QTL regions, in particular those with roles in cell wall biosynthesis, were identified but will require validation to confirm their value for application in rice breeding.
Project description:Background:The white-rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (Cs), Pleurotus eryngii (Pe), and Lentinula edodes (Le) have been shown to be high-potential species for selective delignification of plant biomass. This delignification improves polysaccharide degradability, which currently limits the efficient lignocellulose conversion into biochemicals, biofuels, and animal feed. Since selectivity and time efficiency of fungal delignification still need optimization, detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms at molecular level is required. The recently developed methodologies for lignin quantification and characterization now allow for the in-depth mapping of fungal modification and degradation of lignin and, thereby, enable resolving underlying mechanisms. Results:Wheat straw treated by two strains of Cs (Cs1 and Cs12), Pe (Pe3 and Pe6) and Le (Le8 and Le10) was characterized using semi-quantitative py-GC-MS during fungal growth (1, 3, and 7 weeks). The remaining lignin after 7 weeks was quantified and characterized using 13C lignin internal standard based py-GC-MS and whole cell wall HSQC NMR. Strains of the same species showed similar patterns of lignin removal and degradation. Cs and Le outperformed Pe in terms of extent and selectivity of delignification (Cs???Le?>>?Pe). The highest lignin removal [66% (w/w); Cs1] was obtained after 7 weeks, without extensive carbohydrate degradation (factor 3 increased carbohydrate-to-lignin ratio). Furthermore, though after treatment with Cs and Le comparable amounts of lignin remained, the structure of the residual lignin vastly differed. For example, C?-oxidized substructures accumulated in Cs treated lignin up to 24% of the total aromatic lignin, a factor two higher than in Le-treated lignin. Contrarily, ferulic acid substructures were preferentially targeted by Le (and Pe). Interestingly, Pe-spent lignin was specifically depleted of tricin (40% reduction). The overall subunit composition (H:G:S) was not affected by fungal treatment. Conclusions:Cs and Le are both able to effectively and selectively delignify wheat straw, though the underlying mechanisms are fundamentally different. We are the first to identify that Cs degrades the major ?-O-4 ether linkage in grass lignin mainly via C?-O-aryl cleavage, while C?-C? cleavage of inter-unit linkages predominated for Le. Our research provides a new insight on how fungi degrade lignin, which contributes to further optimizing the biological upgrading of lignocellulose.
Project description:Background:Urea pretreatment is an efficient strategy to improve fiber digestibility of low quality roughages for ruminants. Nitrate and oil are usually used to inhibit enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. The objective of this study was to examine the combined effects of urea plus nitrate pretreated rice straw and corn oil supplementation to the diet on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbiota in goats. Nine female goats were used in a triple 3?×?3 Latin Square design (27 d periods). The treatments were: control (untreated rice straw, no added corn oil), rice straw pretreated with urea and nitrate (34 and 4.7?g/kg of rice straw on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively, UN), and UN diet supplemented with corn oil (15?g/kg soybean and 15?g/kg corn were replaced by 30?g/kg corn oil, DM basis, UNCO). Results:Compared with control, UN increased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (P?<?0.001) and copies of protozoa (P?<?0.001) and R. albus (P?<?0.05) in the rumen, but decreased N retention (-21.2%, P?<?0.001), dissolved hydrogen concentration (-22.8%, P?<?0.001), molar proportion of butyrate (-18.2%, P?<?0.05), (acetate + butyrate) to propionate ratio (P?<?0.05) and enteric CH4 emissions (-10.2%, P?<?0.05). In comparison with UN, UNCO increased N retention (+34.9%, P?<?0.001) and decreased copies of protozoa (P?<?0.001) and methanogens (P?<?0.001). Compared with control, UNCO increased NDF digestibility (+8.3%, P?<?0.001), reduced ruminal dissolved CH4 concentration (-24.4%, P?<?0.001) and enteric CH4 emissions (-12.6%, P?<?0.05). Conclusions:A combination of rice straw pretreated with urea plus nitrate and corn oil supplementation of the diet improved fiber digestibility and lowered enteric CH4 emissions without negative effects on N retention. These strategies improved the utilization of rice straw by goats.
Project description:Background:Maize brown midrib (bm) mutants associated with impaired lignin biosynthesis are a potential source for the breed of novel germplasms with improved cell wall digestibility. The spontaneous bm5 mutants had been identified since 2008. However, the gene responsible for the bm5 locus, and the comprehensive effects of bm5 mutation on lignin biosynthesis, soluble phenolics accumulation, and cell wall degradation have yet to be elucidated. Results:The bm5 locus was identified to encode a major 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase (Zm4CL1) through analyzing MutMap-assisted gene mapping data. Two alleles of Zm4CL1 isolated from bm5 mutants contained two transposons inserted in the first exon and the second intron, respectively, and consequently, the activities of 4CLs in the crude enzyme extracts from bm5 midribs were reduced by 51-62% compared with the wild type. Furthermore, five 4CLs were retrieved from maize genome, and Zm4CL1 was the most highly expressed one in the lignified tissues. Mutation of Zm4CL1 mainly impeded the biosynthesis of guaiacyl (G) lignins and increased the level of soluble feruloyl derivatives without impacting maize growth and development. Moreover, both neutral detergent fiber digestibility and saccharification efficiency of cell walls were significantly elevated in the bm5 mutant. Conclusions:Zm4CL1 was identified as the Bm5 gene, since two independent alleles of Zm4CL1 were associated with the same mutant phenotype. Mutation of Zm4CL1 mainly affected G lignin biosynthesis and soluble feruloyl derivatives accumulation in maize lignified tissues. The reduced recalcitrance of the bm5 mutant suggests that Zm4CL1 is an elite target for cell wall engineering, and genetic manipulation of this gene will facilitate the utilization of crop straw and stover that have to be dealt with for environmental protection.
Project description:The fungus Polyporus brumalis is a wood decay fungus previously evidenced as efficient lignin degrader with high potential for plant biomass pre-treatment before conversion into bio-energy. Here we used an RNASeq approach that highlighted the active transcription of an unparalleled number of lignin active peroxidases and H2O2 generating enzymes during growth on wheat straw. These enzymes, together with metabolic processes related to detoxification appear as key determinants of the fungal adaption to lignin degradation. Overall design: To identify the enzymatic determinants responsible for the observed selective degradation of lignin, we compared the transcription profiles of P. brumalis after 10-day growth on 2% malt extract (control) with the transcription profiles after 6-days growth on 2% malt extract followed by 4, 10 and 15 days fermentation on wheat straw.
Project description:Plant lignocellulose constitutes an abundant and sustainable source of polysaccharides that can be converted into biofuels. However, the enzymatic digestion of native plant cell walls is inefficient, presenting a considerable barrier to cost-effective biofuel production. In addition to the insolubility of cellulose and hemicellulose, the tight association of lignin with these polysaccharides intensifies the problem of cell wall recalcitrance. To determine the extent to which lignin influences the enzymatic digestion of cellulose, specifically in secondary walls that contain the majority of cellulose and lignin in plants, we used a model system consisting of cultured xylem cells from Zinniaelegans. Rather than using purified cell wall substrates or plant tissue, we have applied this system to study cell wall degradation because it predominantly consists of homogeneous populations of single cells exhibiting large deposits of lignocellulose. We depleted lignin in these cells by treating with an oxidative chemical or by inhibiting lignin biosynthesis, and then examined the resulting cellulose digestibility and accessibility using a fluorescent cellulose-binding probe. Following cellulase digestion, we measured a significant decrease in relative cellulose content in lignin-depleted cells, whereas cells with intact lignin remained essentially unaltered. We also observed a significant increase in probe binding after lignin depletion, indicating that decreased lignin levels improve cellulose accessibility. These results indicate that lignin depletion considerably enhances the digestibility of cellulose in the cell wall by increasing the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic attack. Although other wall components are likely to contribute, our quantitative study exploits cultured Zinnia xylem cells to demonstrate the dominant influence of lignin on the enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This system is simple enough for quantitative image analysis, but realistic enough to capture the natural complexity of lignocellulose in the plant cell wall. Consequently, these cells represent a suitable model for analyzing native lignocellulose degradation.
Project description:Agricultural straws, such as rice straw, wheat straw, and corn straw, are produced abundantly every year but not utilized efficiently in China. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of recombinant xylanase on ruminal fermentation and microbial community structure in in vitro incubation of these straws. The recombinant xylanase from Lentinula edodes (rLeXyn11A) was produced in Pichia pastoris. The optimal temperature and pH for rLeXyn11A were 40°C and 4.0, respectively. The rLeXyn11A featured resistance to high temperature and showed broad temperature adaptability (>50% of the maximum activity at 20-80°C). Supplemental rLeXyn11A enhanced the hydrolysis of three agricultural straws. After in vitro ruminal incubation, regardless of agricultural straws, the fiber digestibility, acetate concentration, total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production, and fermentation liquid microbial protein were increased by rLeXyn11A. Supplemental rLeXyn11A increased the ammonia-N concentration for corn straw and rice straw. High throughput sequencing and real-time PCR data showed that the effects of rLeXyn11A on ruminal microbial community depended on the fermentation substrates. With rice straw, rLeXyn11A increased the relative abundance of fibrolytic bacteria including Firmicutes, Desulfovibrio, Ruminococcaceae and its some genus, and Fibrobacter succinogenes. With wheat straw, rLeXyn11A increased the relative abundance of Ruminococcus_1 and its three representative species F. succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus. With corn straw, the fibrolytic bacteria Firmicutes, Christensenellaceae_R_7_group, Saccharofermentans, and Desulfovibrio were increased by rLeXyn11A. This study demonstrates that rLeXyn11A could enhance in vitro ruminal digestion and fermentation of agricultural straws, showing the potential of rLeXyn11A for improving the utilization of agricultural straws in ruminants.