N-glycome inheritance from cells to extracellular vesicles in B16 melanomas.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the correlation between metastatic behaviors of tumor cells and asparagine-linked glycosylation (N-glycosylation) of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Three mouse melanoma B16 variants with distinct metastatic potentials show similar gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of glycosyltransferases involved in N-glycosylation. All melanoma variants and EVs have nearly identical profiles of de-sialylated N-glycans. The major de-sialylated N-glycan structures of cells and EVs are core-fucosylated, tetra-antennary N-glycans with ?1,6-N-acetylglucosamine branches. A few N-glycans are extended by N-acetyllactosamine repeats. Sialylation of these N-glycans may generate cell-type-specific N-glycomes on EVs. Taken together, melanoma-derived EVs show high expression of tumor-associated N-glycans, and the core structure profile is inherited during multiple selection cycles of B16 melanomas and from tumor cells to EVs.
Project description:Alterations in protein glycosylation in colorectal cancer (CRC) have been extensively studied using cell lines as models. However, little is known about their O-glycome and the differences in glycan biosynthesis in different cell types. To provide a better understanding of the variation in O-glycosylation phenotypes and their association with other molecular features, an in-depth O-glycosylation analysis of 26 different CRC cell lines was performed. The released O-glycans were analysed on porous graphitized carbon nano-liquid chromatography system coupled to a mass spectrometer via electrospray ionization (PGC-nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS) allowing isomeric separation as well as in-depth structural characterization. Associations between the observed glycan phenotypes with previously reported cell line transcriptome signatures were examined by canonical correlation analysis. Striking differences are observed between the O-glycomes of 26 CRC cell lines. Unsupervized principal component analysis reveals a separation between well-differentiated colon-like and undifferentiated cell lines. Colon-like cell lines are characterized by a prevalence of I-branched and sialyl Lewis x/a epitope carrying glycans, while most undifferentiated cell lines show absence of Lewis epitope expression resulting in dominance of truncated ?2,6-core sialylated glycans. Moreover, the expression of glycan signatures associates with the expression of glycosyltransferases that are involved in their biosynthesis, providing a deeper insight into the regulation of glycan biosynthesis in different cell types. This untargeted in-depth screening of cell line O-glycomes paves the way for future studies exploring the role of glycosylation in CRC development and drug response leading to discovery of novel targets for the development of anti-cancer antibodies.
Project description:Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous modification that affects the structure and function of proteins. Our recent genome wide association study identified transcription factor HNF1A as an important regulator of plasma protein glycosylation. To evaluate the potential impact of epigenetic regulation of HNF1A on protein glycosylation we analyzed CpG methylation in 810 individuals. The association between methylation of four CpG sites and the composition of plasma and IgG glycomes was analyzed. Several statistically significant associations were observed between HNF1A methylation and plasma glycans, while there were no significant associations with IgG glycans. The most consistent association with HNF1A methylation was observed with the increase in the proportion of highly branched glycans in the plasma N-glycome. The hypothesis that inactivation of HNF1A promotes branching of glycans was supported by the analysis of plasma N-glycomes in 61 patients with inactivating mutations in HNF1A, where the increase in plasma glycan branching was also observed. This study represents the first demonstration of epigenetic regulation of plasma glycome composition, suggesting a potential mechanism by which epigenetic deregulation of the glycome may contribute to disease development.
Project description:Glycosylation is a protein post translational modification which plays important role in protein function, stabilization, trafficking, and turnover. Alteration of protein glycosylation is a common phenomenon during tumor progression, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, as well as metastasis. Hence, aberrant glycan structures and the induced corresponding anti-carbohydrate antibodies are potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. In this study, serum N-glycomes and anti-carbohydrate antibodies from normal populations and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients were investigated. Total serum proteins were lyophilized and subjected to chemical reduction, alkylation and trypsin digestion. The N-glycans were released, purified, permethylated, and analyzed using MALDI-TOF-Mass spectrometry. In addition, the serum anti-carbohydrate antibody profiles were also investigated by carbohydrate microarray. We found that the relative abundances of seven N-glycans were decreased or increased in serum of OSCC with diagnostic accuracy greater than 75%. The relative abundances of total tri-antennary and tetra-antennary glycans with varying degrees of fucosylation and sialylation were also increased in serum N-glycomes of OSCC. In an independent validation group of forty-eight OCCC patients, most of the high-molecular weight serum N-glycans showed significantly high sensitivity and specificity according to the identified cutoff values. Furthermore, the serum levels of two IgM antibodies were elevated accompanied with the decreased levels of nine IgG antibodies in patient serum. Taken together, these serum N-glycans and antibodies identified in this study should be considered as the candidates of potential biomarkers for OSCC diagnosis.
Project description:Cells release vesicles to the extracellular environment with characteristic nucleic acid, protein, lipid, and glycan composition. Here we have isolated and characterized extracellular vesicles (EVs) and total cell membranes (MBs) from ovarian carcinoma OVMz cells. EVs were enriched in specific markers, including Tsg101, CD63, CD9, annexin-I, and MBs contained markers of cellular membrane compartments, including calnexin, GRASP65, GS28, LAMP-1, and L1CAM. The glycoprotein galectin-3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) was strongly enriched in EVs and it contained sialylated complex N-glycans. Lectin blotting with a panel of lectins showed that EVs had specific glycosignatures relative to MBs. Furthermore, the presence of glycoproteins bearing complex N-glycans with ?2,3-linked sialic acid, fucose, bisecting-GlcNAc and LacdiNAc structures, and O-glycans with the T-antigen were detected. The inhibition of N-glycosylation processing from high mannose to complex glycans using kifunensine caused changes in the composition of EVs and induced a decrease of several glycoproteins. In conclusion, the results showed that glycosignatures of EVs were specific and altered glycosylation within the cell affected the composition and/or dynamics of EVs release. Furthermore, the identified glycosignatures of EVs could provide novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer.
Project description:Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the most abundant serum antibody which structural characteristics and effector functions are modulated through the attachment of various sugar moieties called glycans. Composition of the IgG N-glycome changes with age of an individual and in different diseases. Variability of IgG glycosylation within a population is well studied and is known to be affected by both genetic and environmental factors. However, global inter-population differences in IgG glycosylation have never been properly addressed. Here we present population-specific N-glycosylation patterns of IgG, analyzed in 5 different populations totaling 10,482 IgG glycomes, and of IgG's fragment crystallizable region (Fc), analyzed in 2,579 samples from 27 populations sampled across the world. Country of residence associated with many N-glycan features and the strongest association was with monogalactosylation where it explained 38% of variability. IgG monogalactosylation strongly correlated with the development level of a country, defined by United Nations health and socioeconomic development indicators, and with the expected lifespan. Subjects from developing countries had low levels of IgG galactosylation, characteristic for inflammation and ageing. Our results suggest that citizens of developing countries may be exposed to environmental factors that can cause low-grade chronic inflammation and the apparent increase in biological age.
Project description:Glycans are known to be involved in many biological processes, while little is known about the expression of N-glycans during vertebrate development. We now report the first quantitative studies of both the expression of N-linked glycans at six early development stages and the expression of N-glycosylated peptides at two early development stages in Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog. N-Glycans were labeled with isobaric tandem mass tags, pooled, separated by capillary electrophoresis, and characterized using tandem mass spectrometry. We quantified 110 N-glycan compositions that spanned four orders of magnitude in abundance. Capillary electrophoresis was particularly useful in identifying charged glycans; over 40% of the observed glycan compositions were sialylated. The glycan expression was relatively constant until the gastrula-neurula transition (developmental stage 13), followed by massive reprogramming. An increase in oligomannosidic and a decrease in the paucimannosidic and phosphorylated oligomannosidic glycans were observed at the late tailbud stage (developmental stage 41). Two notable and opposing regulation events were detected for sialylated glycans. LacdiNAc and Lewis antigen features distinguished down-regulated sialylation from up-regulated species. The level of Lewis antigen decreased at later stages, which was validated by Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) and Ulex europaeus lectin (UEA-I) blots. We also used HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to identify 611 N-glycosylation sites on 350 N-glycoproteins at the early stage developmental stage 1 (fertilized egg), and 1682 N-glycosylation sites on 1023 N-glycoproteins at stage 41 (late tailbud stage). Over two thirds of the N-glycoproteins identified in the late tailbud stage are associated with neuron projection morphogenesis, suggesting a vital role of the N-glycome in neuronal development.
Project description:This laboratory focuses on selectin mediated recruitment during adoptive immunotherapy for metastatic cancer. This study seeks to determine changes in the expression levels of Fucosyltransferases, Selectins, and cytokines in normal and inflamed mouse skin, melanoma tumor tissue of different sizes, and tumor cells grown in culture. Since the ability to treat the tumor effectively is directly related to the size of the tumor, differences in glyco-expression patterns may be of interest. In this study, five groups were hybridized and analyzed using the GLYCOv2 array. Each group was analyzed in triplicate. The groups were: Normal mouse skin, normal mouse skin inflamed by treatment with Oxazolone, B16-OVA melanoma tissue from 6 day tumors, B16-OVA melanoma tissue from 11 day tumors, and B16-OVA grown in cell culture.
Project description:Glycodelin is a human glycoprotein with four reported glycoforms, namely glycodelin-A (GdA), glycodelin-F (GdF), glycodelin-C (GdC), and glycodelin-S (GdS). These glycoforms have the same protein core and appear to differ in their N-glycosylation. The glycosylation of GdA is completely different from that of GdS. GdA inhibits proliferation and induces cell death of T cells. However, the glycosylation and immunomodulating activities of GdF and GdC are not known. This study aimed to use ultra-high sensitivity mass spectrometry to compare the glycomes of GdA, GdC, and GdF and to study the relationship between the immunological activity and glycosylation pattern among glycodelin glycoforms. Using MALDI-TOF strategies, the glycoforms were shown to contain an enormous diversity of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary complex-type glycans carrying Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (lacNAc) and/or GalNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc (lacdiNAc) antennae backbones with varying levels of fucose and sialic acid substitution. Interestingly, they all carried a family of Sda (NeuAcalpha2-3(GalNAcbeta1-4)Gal)-containing glycans, which were not identified in the earlier study because of less sensitive methodologies used. Among the three glycodelins, GdA is the most heavily sialylated. Virtually all the sialic acid on GdC is located on the Sda antennae. With the exception of the Sda epitope, the GdC N-glycome appears to be the asialylated counterpart of the GdA/GdF glycomes. Sialidase activity, which may be responsible for transforming GdA/GdF to GdC, was detected in cumulus cells. Both GdA and GdF inhibited the proliferation, induced cell death, and suppressed interleukin-2 secretion of Jurkat cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In contrast, no immunosuppressive effect was observed for GdS and GdC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Interferon (IFN)-?-mediated immune response plays an important role in tumor immunosurveillance. However, the regulation of IFN-?-mediated tumorigenesis and immune response remains elusive. USP18, an interferon stimulating response element, regulates IFN-?-mediated signaling in anti-viral immune response, but its role in IFN-?-mediated tumorigenesis and anti-tumor immune response is unknown.<h4>Method</h4>In this study, USP18 in tumorigenesis and anti-tumor immune response was comprehensively appraised in vivo by overexpression or downregulation its expression in murine B16 melanoma tumor model in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice.<h4>Results</h4>Ectopic expression or downregulation of USP18 in B16 melanoma tumor cells inhibited or promoted tumorigenesis, respectively, in immunocompetent mice. USP18 expression in B16 melanoma tumor cells regulated IFN-?-mediated immunoediting, including upregulating MHC class-I expression, reducing tumor cell-mediated inhibition of T cell proliferation and activation, and suppressing PD-1 expression in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in tumor-bearing mice. USP18 expression in B16 melanoma tumor cells also enhanced CTL activity during adoptive immunotherapy by prolonging the persistence and enhancing the activity of adoptively transferred CTLs and by reducing CTL exhaustion in the tumor microenvironment. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that USP18 suppressed tumor cell-mediated immune inhibition by activating T cells, inhibiting T-cell exhaustion, and reducing dendritic cell tolerance, thus sensitizing tumor cells to immunosurveillance and immunotherapy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings suggest that stimulating USP18 is a feasible approach to induce B16 melanoma specific immune response.