Improvements in Lung Function with Nebulized Revefenacin in the Treatment of Patients with Moderate to Very Severe COPD: Results from Two Replicate Phase III Clinical Trials.
ABSTRACT: Background:Revefenacin, a novel, lung-selective, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, has been developed for nebulized therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We present the results of replicate Phase III efficacy and safety studies of revefenacin in patients with moderate to very severe COPD. Methods:In 2 double-blind, parallel-group studies, (Study 0126 and Study 0127), patients ≥ 40 years old were randomized to revefenacin 88 μg, revefenacin 175 μg or placebo administered once daily by standard jet nebulizer for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was 24-hour trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) on day 85. Secondary efficacy endpoints included overall treatment effect (OTE) on trough FEV1 and peak FEV1 (0-2 hours after first dose). Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events. Results:At day 85, revefenacin 88 µg and 175 µg improved trough FEV1 versus placebo in Study 0126 (by 79 mL [p=0.0003] and 146 mL [p<0.0001]) and Study 0127 (by 160 mL and 147 mL; both p<0.0001). Compared with placebo, pooled data of revefenacin 88 µg and 175 µg increased OTE trough FEV1 by 115 mL and 142 mL (both p<0.001) and increased peak FEV1 by 127 mL and 129 mL (both p<0.0001). Revefenacin 175 µg demonstrated greater improvements in FEV1 in concomitant long-acting beta2-agonist patients and in more severe patients than revefenacin 88 µg. Adverse events were minor. Conclusion:Revefenacin, administered once daily for 12 weeks to patients with moderate to very severe COPD, demonstrated clinically significant improvements in trough FEV1 and OTE FEV1. Revefenacin was generally well tolerated with no major safety concerns.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Revefenacin is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist that was recently approved for the nebulized treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although shorter duration studies have documented the efficacy of revefenacin in COPD, longer-term efficacy has not been described. In a recent 52-week safety trial, revefenacin was well tolerated and had a favorable benefit-risk profile. Here we report exploratory efficacy and health outcomes in patients receiving revefenacin 175 μg or 88 μg daily during the 52-week trial. METHODS:In this randomized, parallel-group, 52-week trial (NCT02518139), 1055 participants with moderate to very severe COPD received revefenacin 175 μg or 88 μg in a double-blind manner, or open-label active control tiotropium. RESULTS:Over the 52-week treatment period, both doses of revefenacin, as well as tiotropium, elicited significant (all p < 0.0003) improvements from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The trough FEV1 profile (least squares mean change from baseline) for revefenacin 175 μg ranged from 52.3-124.3 mL and the trough FEV1 profile for tiotropium ranged from 79.7-112.8 mL. In subgroup comparisons, the effect of revefenacin on trough FEV1 was comparable in patients taking concomitant long-acting β-agonists, with or without inhaled corticosteroids, with patients who were not taking these medications. There were statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvements in all measured health status outcomes (evaluated using St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test, Clinical COPD Questionnaire and Baseline and Transition Dyspnea Index) from 3 months onward, in all treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS:Significant sustained improvements from baseline in trough FEV1 and respiratory health outcomes were demonstrated for 175-μg revefenacin over 52 weeks, further supporting its use as a once-daily bronchodilator for the nebulized treatment of patients with COPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02518139 ; Registered 5 August 2015.
Project description:Revefenacin is a once-daily long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) in clinical development for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a dose-ranging study, nebulized once-daily revefenacin had a long duration of action in patients after 7 days' administration of doses up to 700 μg. In this multiple-dose study, the bronchodilation efficacy and adverse events profile were characterized in patients administered nebulized revefenacin once daily for 28 days.A total of 355 COPD patients (mean age 62 years, mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] 44% of predicted) were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study. Inhaled corticosteroids as well as short-acting bronchodilators were permitted. Once-daily treatments (44, 88, 175 or 350 μg revefenacin or matching placebo) were administered by a standard jet nebulizer, for 28 days. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in D28 trough FEV1, and secondary endpoints included weighted mean FEV1 over 0 to 24 h and rescue medication (albuterol) use. Safety evaluations included adverse events, laboratory assessments, electrocardiograms and 24-h Holter profiles.Revefenacin (88, 175 and 350 μg) significantly improved D28 trough FEV1 over placebo (187.4, 166.6 and 170.6 mL, respectively, all p < 0.001); 44 μg produced a sub-therapeutic response. At doses ≥88 μg, more than 80% of patients achieved at least a 100-mL increase from baseline FEV1 in the first 4 h post dose compared with 33% of placebo patients. For doses ≥88 μg, D28 24 h weighted mean differences from placebo for FEV1 were numerically similar to respective trough FEV1 values, indicating bronchodilation was sustained for 24 h post dose. Doses ≥88 μg reduced the average number of albuterol puffs/day by more than one puff/day. The 350 μg dose did not demonstrate additional efficacy over that observed with 175 μg revefenacin. Revefenacin was generally well tolerated, with minimal reports of systemic anti-cholinergic effects.These data suggest that 88 and 175 μg revefenacin are appropriate doses for use in longer-term safety and efficacy trials. Revefenacin offers the potential for the first once-daily LAMA for nebulization in patients with COPD who require or prefer a nebulized drug delivery option.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02040792 . Registered January 16, 2014.
Project description:Although no nebulized, dual mechanism, long-acting bronchodilator is currently marketed, with the approval of once-daily long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) revefenacinefenacin, it is theoretically possible to deliver a LAMA and long-acting beta2-agonist via standard jet nebulizer. The primary and secondary objectives of our study were to characterize the safety profile of revefenacin administered sequentially before or in combination with formoterol, via standard jet nebulizer in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this randomized, double-blind, 42-day trial (NCT03573817), patients received revenacin 175 µg (n=63) or placebo (n=59), followed by formoterol 20 µg in the morning and formoterol alone in the evening formoterol 21 days via standard jet nebulizer (sequential administration). For another 21 days, revefenacin/placebo and formoterol, were administered as mixed solutions via single nebulization in the morning (combined administration), and formoterol alone in the evening. The adverse events' (AEs) incidence was higher in the placebo + formoterol arms (11%-12%) than in the revefenacin + formoterol arms (5%-8%). The most common AEs were worsening/exacerbation of COPD, cough, and dizziness. There were no serious AEs or deaths reported in any arm. The least squares mean in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) versus baseline was higher in the revefenacin + formoterol arms (116-157 mL) than in the placebo + formoterol arms (35-53 mL). Revefenacin had a safety profile similar to formoterol alone when delivered sequentially or combined. Trough FEV1 was similar when revefenacin was delivered sequentially or combined with formoterol, with revefenacin providing an additional 81-104 mL improvements over formoterol alone.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Combinations of a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (LAMA), long-acting ?-agonist (LABA), and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) are used for patients with persistent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations on bronchodilator monotherapy. In this prespecified subgroup analysis, we assessed the efficacy and safety of the LAMA revefenacin in patients with COPD taking concomitant LABA, including ICS/LABA (LABA subgroup). METHODS:Efficacy data were obtained from two 12-week, replicate, placebo-controlled trials and safety data were pooled from the 12-week and a 52-week tiotropium-controlled trial. Patients received revefenacin 175?µg or placebo in the 12-week or tiotropium 18?µg in the 52-week studies. The efficacy endpoint was least squares (LS) mean change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1?second (FEV1). Clinical health outcomes were assessed using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). RESULTS:Revefenacin produced similar improvements from baseline in trough FEV1 in the non-LABA and LABA subgroups [placebo-adjusted LS mean change (95% confidence interval) in day 85 trough FEV1, 150.9 (110.3-191.6) ml and 139.2 (82.9-195.5) ml; p?<?0.0001 versus placebo]. Similar improvements were observed in SGRQ scores in the non-LABA and LABA subgroups [-3.3 (-5.4 to -1.2) and -3.4 (-6.3 to -0.6)]. Improvements in lung function and health outcomes were observed regardless of airflow obstruction severity. Revefenacin was well tolerated with more adverse events reported in the LABA than the non-LABA subgroup. CONCLUSIONS:Once daily revefenacin for nebulization can be an effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients who require concomitant use of LABA with or without ICS. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIERS:NCT02512510, NCT02459080, NCT02518139 The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.
Project description:Background:Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and suboptimal peak inspiratory flow rate (sPIFR) may not benefit optimally from dry powder inhalers (DPI) because of inadequate inspiratory flow. Nebulized bronchodilators may provide a better alternative. We compared bronchodilation with the long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) revefenacin for nebulization versus the DPI LAMA tiotropium, in patients with COPD and sPIFR (< 60 L/min against the resistance of Diskus®). Methods:This was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, 28-day Phase 3b study in patients with COPD enrolled based on sPIFR. The primary endpoint was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) on Day 29 for revefenacin for nebulization versus tiotropium HandiHaler® DPI. Results:We enrolled 206 patients with mean (standard deviation) age, 65 (8) years; percent predicted FEV1, 37 (16)%; PIFR, 45 (12) L/min. In the intent-to-treat (ITT) population, revefenacin improved trough FEV1 from baseline; however, the difference versus tiotropium was not significant (least squares [LS] mean difference [standard error], 17.0 [22.4] mL, P=0.4461). In a prespecified analysis of patients with FEV1 < 50% predicted, revefenacin produced an LS mean difference (95% confidence interval [CI]), 49.1 (6.3-91.9) mL in trough FEV1 and 103.5 (7.7-199.3) mL in forced vital capacity versus tiotropium. Revefenacin produced >100 mL increase in FEV1 in 41.6% versus 34.4% of patients with tiotropium in ITT and 41.4% versus 25.7% of patients in FEV1 < 50% predicted populations. Conclusions:Revefenacin did not produce significant improvements in FEV1 versus tiotropium in the ITT population, but increased trough FEV1 in patients with FEV1 < 50% predicted and sPIFR. Clinical Trial Registration (www.Clinicaltrials.gov): Study 0149 (NCT03095456).
Project description:Revefenacin is a novel once-daily, lung-selective, long-acting muscarinic antagonist developed as a nebulized inhalation solution for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In a randomized, 4-way crossover study, healthy subjects received a single inhaled dose of revefenacin 175 µg (therapeutic dose), revefenacin 700 µg (supratherapeutic dose), and placebo via standard jet nebulizer, and a single oral dose of moxifloxacin 400 mg (open-label) in separate treatment periods. Electrocardiograms were recorded, and pharmacokinetic samples were collected serially after dosing. The primary end point was the placebo-corrected change from baseline QT interval corrected for heart rate using Fridericia's formula, analyzed at each postdose time. Concentration-QTc modeling was also performed. Following administration of revefenacin 175 and 700 µg, placebo-corrected change from baseline QTcF (??QTcF) values were close to 0 at all times, with the largest mean ??QTcF of 1.0 millisecond (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.2 to 3.1 milliseconds) 8 hours postdose and 1.0 millisecond (95%CI, -1.1 to 3.1 milliseconds) 1 hour postdose after inhalation of revefenacin 175 and 700 µg, respectively. Revefenacin did not have a clinically meaningful effect on heart rate (within ±5 beats per minute of placebo), or PR and QRS intervals (within ±3 and ±1 milliseconds of placebo, respectively). Using concentration-QTc modeling, an effect of revefenacin > 10 milliseconds can be excluded within the observed plasma concentration range of up to ?3 ng/mL. Both doses of revefenacin were well tolerated. These results demonstrate that revefenacin does not prolong the QT interval.
Project description:Bronchodilation with muscarinic antagonists, ?2-agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids remains the foundation of pharmaceutical treatment for patients with stable COPD. These drugs are delivered from a variety of devices, including dry powder inhalers, pressurized metered-dose inhalers, soft-mist inhalers, or nebulizers. Nebulized delivery is often preferable in patients who are elderly, are cognitively impaired, are unable to generate sufficient inspiratory force to use their inhaler, have difficulty coordinating hand-breath activity, are too dyspneic to hold their breath for a sufficient time, and/or may be acutely ill. Revefenacin, a once-daily long-acting muscarinic antagonist for nebulization recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of patients with COPD, was discovered and developed using "duration and lung selectivity-by-design." This strategy selected a molecule with a high lung-selective index to maximize bronchodilation and limit systemic anti-muscarinic side effects. In early-phase clinical studies, revefenacin for nebulization led to a rapid onset of bronchodilation that was sustained for 24 hrs in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Revefenacin also demonstrated minimal systemic exposure and good tolerability in these studies. Statistically and clinically significant improvements in lung function (ie, peak and/or trough FEV1) relative to placebo were observed with revefenacin in Phase III clinical trials of up to 3 months in patients with moderate to very severe COPD. Revefenacin was well tolerated in Phase III clinical trials with a low incidence of systemic antimuscarinic adverse events, which is consistent with its lung-selective design. There was no evidence of an increased risk of major cardiovascular events. Patient-reported outcome data from clinical trials indicated statistically significant improvements in several disease-specific measures. Revefenacin 175 ?g for nebulization provides an effective once-daily treatment option for patients with moderate to very severe COPD who require or prefer nebulized therapy.
Project description:Randomized, controlled trials comparing long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) efficacy in COPD are limited. This network meta-analysis (NMA) assessed the relative efficacy of tiotropium 18 µg once-daily (OD) and newer agents (aclidinium 400 µg twice-daily, glycopyrronium 50 µg OD, and umeclidinium 62.5 µg OD).A systematic literature review identified randomized, controlled trials of adult COPD patients receiving LAMAs. A NMA within a Bayesian framework examined change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), transitional dyspnea index focal score, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire score, and rescue medication use.Twenty-four studies (n=21,311) compared LAMAs with placebo/each other. Aclidinium, glycopyrronium, tiotropium, and umeclidinium, respectively, demonstrated favorable results versus placebo, for change from baseline (95% credible interval) in 12-week trough FEV1 (primary endpoint: 101.40 mL [77.06-125.60]; 117.20 mL [104.50-129.90]; 114.10 mL [103.10-125.20]; 136.70 mL [104.20-169.20]); 24-week trough FEV1 (128.10 mL [84.10-172.00]; 135.80 mL [123.10-148.30]; 106.40 mL [95.45-117.30]; 115.00 mL [74.51-155.30]); 24-week St George's Respiratory Questionnaire score (-4.60 [-6.76 to -2.54]; -3.14 [-3.83 to -2.45]; -2.43 [-2.92 to -1.93]; -4.69 [-7.05 to -2.31]); 24-week transitional dyspnea index score (1.00 [0.41-1.59]; 1.01 [0.79-1.22]; 0.82 [0.62-1.02]; 1.00 [0.49-1.51]); and 24-week rescue medication use (data not available; -0.41 puffs/day [-0.62 to -0.20]; -0.52 puffs/day [-0.74 to -0.30]; -0.30 puffs/day [-0.81 to 0.21]). For 12-week trough FEV1, differences in change from baseline (95% credible interval) were -12.8 mL (-39.39 to 13.93), aclidinium versus tiotropium; 3.08 mL (-7.58 to 13.69), glycopyrronium versus tiotropium; 22.58 mL (-11.58 to 56.97), umeclidinium versus tiotropium; 15.90 mL (-11.60 to 43.15), glycopyrronium versus aclidinium; 35.40 mL (-5.06 to 76.07), umeclidinium versus aclidinium; and 19.50 mL (-15.30 to 54.38), umeclidinium versus glycopyrronium. Limitations included inhaler-related factors and safety; longer-term outcomes were not considered.The new LAMAs studied had at least comparable efficacy to tiotropium, the established class standard. Choice should depend on physician's and patient's preference.
Project description:This study compared the efficacy and safety of once-daily umeclidinium 62.5?µg with once-daily glycopyrronium 50?µg in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This was a 12-week, multicentre, randomised, open-label, parallel-group study (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02236611). Patients were randomised 1:1 to umeclidinium 62.5?µg or glycopyrronium 50 µg administered via Ellipta or Breezhaler dry powder inhaler, respectively. The primary endpoint was trough forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) at day 85 in the per-protocol population. Other endpoints included: weighted mean FEV1 over 0-24?h and patient-reported outcomes (transition dyspnoea index score and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score). Adverse events were also assessed. A total of 1037 patients were randomised to treatment. Umeclidinium was non-inferior (margin: -50?mL) to glycopyrronium (trough FEV1 at day 85 treatment difference: 24?mL, 95% confidence intervals: -5-54). Improvements in other endpoints were similar between treatments. Adverse event incidences were similar for umeclidinium (37%) and glycopyrronium (36%). Once-daily umeclidinium was non-inferior to once-daily glycopyrronium in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in trough FEV1 at day 85. Patient-reported outcomes and safety profiles were similar for both treatments.
Project description:We present results from the first phase III trial of once-daily tiotropium add-on to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) plus one or more controller therapies in adolescents with severe symptomatic asthma.In this double-blind, parallel-group trial (NCT01277523), 392 patients aged 12-17?years were randomised to receive once-daily tiotropium 5?µg or 2.5?µg, or placebo, as an add-on to ICS plus other controller therapies over 12?weeks. The primary and key secondary end-points were change from baseline (response) in peak forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) within 3?h post-dosing (FEV1(0-3h)) and trough FEV1, respectively, after 12?weeks of treatment.Tiotropium 5?µg provided numerical improvements in peak FEV1(0-3h) response, compared with placebo (90?mL; p=0.104), and significant improvements were observed with tiotropium 2.5?µg (111?mL; p=0.046). Numerical improvements in trough FEV1 response and asthma control were observed with both tiotropium doses, compared with placebo. The safety and tolerability of tiotropium were comparable with those of placebo.Once-daily tiotropium Respimat add-on to ICS plus one or more controller therapies in adolescents with severe symptomatic asthma was well tolerated. The primary end-point of efficacy was not met, although positive trends for improvements in lung function and asthma control were observed.