Ubiquitin Ligase RNF138 Promotes Episodic Ataxia Type 2-Associated Aberrant Degradation of Human Cav2.1 (P/Q-Type) Calcium Channels.
ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated CaV2.1 channels comprise a pore-forming ?1A subunit with auxiliary ?2? and ? subunits. CaV2.1 channels play an essential role in regulating synaptic signaling. Mutations in the human gene encoding the CaV2.1 subunit are associated with the cerebellar disease episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2). Several EA2-causing mutants exhibit impaired protein stability and exert dominant-negative suppression of CaV2.1 wild-type (WT) protein expression via aberrant proteasomal degradation. Here, we set out to delineate the protein degradation mechanism of human CaV2.1 subunit by identifying RNF138, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a novel CaV2.1-binding partner. In neurons, RNF138 and CaV2.1 coexist in the same protein complex and display notable subcellular colocalization at presynaptic and postsynaptic regions. Overexpression of RNF138 promotes polyubiquitination and accelerates protein turnover of CaV2.1. Disrupting endogenous RNF138 function with a mutant (RNF138-H36E) or shRNA infection significantly upregulates the CaV2.1 protein level and enhances CaV2.1 protein stability. Disrupting endogenous RNF138 function also effectively rescues the defective protein expression of EA2 mutants, as well as fully reversing EA2 mutant-induced excessive proteasomal degradation of CaV2.1 WT subunits. RNF138-H36E coexpression only partially restores the dominant-negative effect of EA2 mutants on CaV2.1 WT functional expression, which can be attributed to defective membrane trafficking of CaV2.1 WT in the presence of EA2 mutants. We propose that RNF138 plays a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of CaV2.1 protein level and functional expression and that RNF138 serves as the primary E3 ubiquitin ligase promoting EA2-associated aberrant degradation of human CaV2.1 subunits.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Loss-of-function mutations in the human CaV2.1 subunit are linked to episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2), a dominantly inherited disease characterized by paroxysmal attacks of ataxia and nystagmus. EA2-causing mutants may exert dominant-negative effects on the CaV2.1 wild-type subunit via aberrant proteasomal degradation. The molecular nature of the CaV2.1 ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway is currently unknown. The present study reports the first identification of an E3 ubiquitin ligase for CaV2.1, RNF138. CaV2.1 protein stability is dynamically regulated by RNF138 and auxiliary ?2? and ? subunits. We provide a proof of concept that protecting the human CaV2.1 subunit from excessive proteasomal degradation with specific interruption of endogenous RNF138 function may partially contribute to the future development of a novel therapeutic strategy for EA2 patients.
Project description:Channelopathies are often linked to defective protein folding and trafficking. Among them, the calcium channelopathy episodic ataxia type-2 (EA2) is an autosomal dominant disorder related to mutations in the pore-forming Ca(v)2.1 subunit of P/Q-type calcium channels. Although EA2 is linked to loss of Ca(v)2.1 channel activity, the molecular mechanism underlying dominant inheritance remains unclear. Here, we show that EA2 mutants as well as a truncated form (D(I-II)) of the Ca(v)3.2 subunit of T-type calcium channel are misfolded, retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, and subject to proteasomal degradation. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that misfolded mutants bind to nascent wild-type Ca(v) subunits and induce their subsequent degradation, thereby abolishing channel activity. We conclude that this destructive interaction mechanism promoted by Ca(v) mutants is likely to occur in EA2 and in other inherited dominant channelopathies.
Project description:Episodic ataxia 2 (EA2) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the gene CACNA1A that encodes the pore-forming CaV2.1 calcium channel subunit. The majority of EA2 mutations reported so far are nonsense or deletion/insertion mutations predicted to form truncated proteins. Heterologous expression of wild-type CaV2.1, together with truncated constructs that mimic EA2 mutants, significantly suppressed wild-type calcium channel function, indicating that the truncated protein produces a dominant-negative effect (Jouvenceau et al., 2001; Page et al., 2004). A similar finding has been shown for CaV2.2 (Raghib et al., 2001). We show here that a highly conserved sequence in the cytoplasmic N-terminus is involved in this process, for both CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 channels. Additionally, we were able to interfere with the suppressive effect of an EA2 construct by mutating key N-terminal residues within it. We postulate that the N-terminus of the truncated channel plays an essential part in its interaction with the full-length CaV2.1, which prevents the correct folding of the wild-type channel. In agreement with this, we were able to disrupt the interaction between EA2 and the full length channel by co-expressing a free N-terminal peptide.
Project description:DeltaF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) degradation involves ubiquitin modification and efficient proteasomal targeting of the nascent misfolded protein. We show that a deubiquitinating enzyme, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), is highly expressed in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that the elevation in UCH-L1 in CF cells represents a cellular adaptation to counterbalance excessive proteasomal degradation. The bronchial epithelial cell lines IB3-1 (CF, high UCH-L1 expression) and S9 (non-CF, low UCH-L1 expression) were transiently transfected with wild type (WT) or DeltaF508 CFTR, WT UCH-L1 or small interfering RNA-UCH-L1, and a variety of ubiquitin mutants. We observed a positive correlation between UCH-L1 expression and steady state levels of WT- or DeltaF508-CFTR, and this stabilizing effect was confined to the early stages of CFTR synthesis. Immunolocalization of UCH-L1 by confocal microscopy revealed a partial co-localization with a ribosomal subunit and the endoplasmic reticulum. The UCH-L1-associated increase in CFTR levels was correlated with an increase in ubiquitinated CFTR (CFTR-Ub). Co-transfection with mutant ubiquitins and treatment with proteasome inhibitors suggested that UCH-L1 was reducing the proteasomal targeting of CFTR during synthesis by shortening conjugated polyubiquitin chains. Although not sufficient by itself to rescue mutant CFTR therapeutically, the elevation of UCH-L1 and its effect on CFTR processing provides insight into its potential roles in CF and other diseases.
Project description:The RAD51 family is integral for homologous recombination (HR) mediated DNA repair and maintaining chromosome integrity. RAD51D, the fourth member of the family, is a known ovarian cancer susceptibility gene and required for the repair of interstrand crosslink DNA damage and preserving chromosomal stability. In this report, we describe the RNF138 E3 ubiquitin ligase that interacts with and ubiquitinates the RAD51D HR protein. RNF138 is a member of an E3 ligase family that contains an amino-terminal RING finger domain and a putative carboxyl-terminal ubiquitin interaction motif. In mammalian cells, depletion of RNF138 increased the stability of the RAD51D protein, suggesting that RNF138 governs ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation of RAD51D. However, RNF138 depletion conferred sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, reduced RAD51 focus formation, and increased chromosomal instability. Site-specific mutagenesis of the RNF138 RING finger domain demonstrated that it was necessary for RAD51D ubiquitination. Presence of RNF138 also enhanced the interaction between RAD51D and a known interacting RAD51 family member XRCC2 in a yeast three-hybrid assay. Therefore, RNF138 is a newly identified regulatory component of the HR mediated DNA repair pathway that has implications toward understanding how ubiquitination modifies the functions of the RAD51 paralog protein complex.
Project description:Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by late onset, slowly progressive, mostly pure cerebellar ataxia. It is one of three allelic disorders associated to CACNA1A gene, coding for the Alpha1 A subunit of P/Q type calcium channel Cav2.1 expressed in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum. The other two disorders are Episodic Ataxia type 2 (EA2), and Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type 1 (FHM1). These disorders show distinct phenotypes that often overlap but have different pathogenic mechanisms. EA2 and FHM1 are due to mutations causing, respectively, a loss and a gain of channel function. SCA6, instead, is associated with short expansions of a polyglutamine stretch located in the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of the protein. This domain has a relevant role in channel regulation, as well as in transcription regulation of other neuronal genes; thus the SCA6 CAG repeat expansion results in complex pathogenic molecular mechanisms reflecting the complex Cav2.1 C-terminus activity. We will provide a short review for an update on the SCA6 molecular mechanism.
Project description:An interaction between ribosomal protein S3 (rpS3) and nuclear factor kappa B or macrophage migration inhibitory factor in non-small-cell lung cancer is responsible for radioresistance. However, the role of rpS3 in glioblastoma (GBM) has not been investigated to date. Here we found that in irradiated GBM cells, rpS3 translocated into the nucleus and was subsequently ubiquitinated by ring finger protein 138 (RNF138). Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of rpS3 consequently led to radioresistance in GBM cells. To elucidate the apoptotic role of rpS3, we analyzed the interactome of rpS3 in ?RNF138 GBM cells. Nuclear rpS3 interacted with DNA damage inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3), leading to DDIT3-induced apoptosis in irradiated ?RNF138 GBM cells. These results were confirmed using in vivo orthotopic xenograft models and GBM patient tissues. This study aims to clarify the role of RNF138 in GBM cells and demonstrate that rpS3 may be a promising substrate of RNF138 for the induction of GBM radioresistance, indicating RNF138 as a potential target for GBM therapy.
Project description:The P/Q-type CaV2.1 channel regulates neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) and many central synapses. CACNA1A encodes the pore-containing ?1A subunit of CaV2.1 channels. In humans, de novo CACNA1A mutations result in a wide spectrum of neurological, neuromuscular, and movement disorders, such as familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2), as well as a more recently discovered class of more severe disorders, which are characterized by ataxia, hypotonia, cerebellar atrophy, and cognitive/developmental delay. Heterologous expression of CaV2.1 channels has allowed for an understanding of the consequences of CACNA1A missense mutations on channel function. In contrast, a mechanistic understanding of how specific CACNA1A mutations lead in vivo to the resultant phenotypes is lacking. In this review, we present the zebrafish as a model to both study in vivo mechanisms of CACNA1A mutations that result in synaptic and behavioral defects and to screen for effective drug therapies to combat these and other CaV2.1 channelopathies.
Project description:Proteasomes drive the selective degradation of protein substrates with covalently linked ubiquitin chains in eukaryotes. Although proteasomes are distributed throughout the cell, specific biological functions of the proteasome in distinct subcellular locales remain largely unknown. We report that proteasomes localized at the centrosome regulate the degradation of local ubiquitin conjugates in mammalian neurons. We find that the proteasomal subunit S5a/Rpn10, a ubiquitin receptor that selects substrates for degradation, is essential for proteasomal activity at centrosomes in neurons and thereby promotes the elaboration of dendrite arbors in the rodent brain in vivo. We also find that the helix-loop-helix protein Id1 disrupts the interaction of S5a/Rpn10 with the proteasomal lid and thereby inhibits centrosomal proteasome activity and dendrite elaboration in neurons. Together, our findings define a function for a specific pool of proteasomes at the neuronal centrosome and identify a biological function for S5a/Rpn10 in the mammalian brain.
Project description:Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is frequently caused by cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) gene mutations, which should result in C-terminal truncated mutants. However, truncated mutants were not detected in myocardial tissue of FHC patients and were rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) after gene transfer in cardiac myocytes. Since the diversity and specificity of UPS regulation lie in E3 ubiquitin ligases, we investigated whether the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 or muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF1) mediate degradation of truncated cMyBP-C.Human wild-type (WT) and truncated (M7t, resulting from a human mutation) cMyBP-C species were co-immunoprecipitated with atrogin-1 after adenoviral overexpression in cardiac myocytes, and WT-cMyBP-C was identified as an interaction partner of MuRF1 by yeast two-hybrid screens. Overexpression of atrogin-1 in cardiac myocytes decreased the protein level of M7t-cMyBP-C by 80% and left WT-cMyBP-C level unaffected. This was rescued by proteasome inhibition. In contrast, overexpression of MuRF1 in cardiac myocytes not only reduced the protein level of WT- and M7t-cMyBP-C by >60%, but also the level of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) by >40%, which were not rescued by proteasome inhibition. Both exogenous cMyBP-C and endogenous MHC mRNA levels were markedly reduced by MuRF1 overexpression. Similar to cardiac myocytes, MuRF1-overexpressing (TG) mice exhibited 40% lower levels of MHC mRNAs and proteins. Protein levels of cMyBP-C were 29% higher in MuRF1 knockout and 34% lower in TG than in WT, without a corresponding change in mRNA levels.These data suggest that atrogin-1 specifically targets truncated M7t-cMyBP-C, but not WT-cMyBP-C, for proteasomal degradation and that MuRF1 indirectly reduces cMyBP-C levels by regulating the transcription of MHC.
Project description:HBx is a short-lived protein whose rapid turnover is mainly regulated by ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation pathways. Our prior work identified BAF155 to be one of the HBx binding partners. Since BAF155 has been shown to stabilize other members of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex by attenuating their proteasomal degradation, we proposed that BAF155 might also contribute to stabilizing HBx protein in a proteasome-dependent manner. Here we report that BAF155 protected hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) from ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation by competing with the 20S proteasome subunit PSMA7 to bind to HBx. BAF155 was found to directly interact with HBx via binding of its SANT domain to the HBx region between amino acid residues 81 and 120. Expression of either full-length BAF155 or SANT domain increased HBx protein levels whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous BAF155 reduced HBx protein levels. Increased HBx stability and steady-state level by BAF155 were attributable to inhibition of ubiquitin-independent and PSMA7-mediated protein degradation. Consequently, overexpression of BAF155 enhanced the transcriptional transactivation function of HBx, activated protooncogene expression and inhibited hepatoma cell clonogenicity. These results suggest that BAF155 plays important roles in ubiquitin-independent degradation of HBx, which may be related to the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of HBV-associated HCC.