Ni-catalyzed deaminative cross-electrophile coupling of Katritzky salts with halides via C?N bond activation.
ABSTRACT: The reductive cross-coupling of sp3-hybridized carbon centers represents great synthetic values and insurmountable challenges. In this work, we report a nickel-catalyzed deaminative cross-electrophile coupling reaction to construct C(sp)?C(sp3), C(sp2)?C(sp3), and C(sp3)?C(sp3) bonds. A wide range of coupling partners including aryl iodides, bromoalkynes, or alkyl bromides are stitched with alkylpyridinium salts that derived from the corresponding primary amines. The advantages of this methodology are showcased in the two-step synthesis of the key lactonic moiety of (+)-compactin and (+)-mevinolin. The one-pot procedure without isolation of alkylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate salt is also proven to be successful. This cross-coupling strategy of two electrophiles provides a highly valuable vista for the convenient installation of alkyl substituents and late functionalizations of sp3 carbons.
Project description:An alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling of Katritzky alkylpyridinium salts and organoboranes, formed in situ via hydroboration of alkenes, has been developed. This method utilizes the abundance of both alkyl amine precursors and alkenes to form C(sp3)-C(sp3) bonds. This strategy is also effective with alkynes, enabling a C(sp3)-C(sp2) cross-coupling. Under these mild conditions, a broad range of functional groups, including protic groups, is tolerated. As seen with previous alkylpyridinium cross-couplings, mechanistic studies support an alkyl radical intermediate.
Project description:A Negishi cross-coupling of alkylpyridinium salts and alkylzinc halides has been developed. This is the first example of alkyl-alkyl bond formation via cross-coupling of an alkyl amine derivative with an unactivated alkyl group, and allows both primary and secondary alkylpyridinium salts to react with primary alkylzinc halides with high functional group tolerance. When combined with formation of the pyridinium salts from primary amines, this method enables the noncanonical transformation of NH2 groups into a wide range of alkyl substituents with broad functional group tolerance.
Project description:A nickel-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling of alkylpyridinium salts and aryl bromides has been developed using Mn as the reductant. Both primary and secondary alkylpyridinium salts can be used, and high functional group and heterocycle tolerance is observed, including for protic groups. Mechanistic studies indicate the formation of an alkyl radical, and controlling its fate was key to the success of this reaction.
Project description:A Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of ?-pyridinium esters and arylboroxines has been developed. Combined with formation of the pyridinium salts from amino acid derivatives, this method enables amino acid derivatives to be efficiently transformed into ?-aryl esters and amides. Under the mild conditions, broad functional group tolerance on both the amino acid derivatives and the arylboroxine are observed, including protic functional groups. Mechanistic studies support an alkyl radical intermediate, similar to other cross-couplings of alkylpyridinium salts.
Project description:By employing an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyst, we developed a versatile catalytic system that enables deaminative cross-coupling reactions of aldehydes with redox-active pyridinium salts. Katritzky pyridinium salts behave as single-electron oxidants capable of generating alkyl radicals enabled by the redox properties of the enolate form of Breslow intermediates. The resultant alkyl radical undergoes efficient recombination with the NHC-bound aldehyde-derived carbonyl carbon radical for the formation of a C-C bond. The mild and transition metal-free reaction conditions tolerate a broad range of functional groups, and its utility has been further demonstrated by the modification of a series of peptide feedstocks and application to the three-component dicarbofunctionalization of olefins.
Project description:Alkynes are amongst the most valuable functional groups in organic chemistry and widely used in chemical biology, pharmacy, and materials science. However, the preparation of alkyl-substituted alkynes still remains elusive. Here, we show a nickel-catalyzed deaminative Sonogashira coupling of alkylpyridinium salts. Key to the success of this coupling is the development of an easily accessible and bench-stable amide-type pincer ligand. This ligand allows naturally abundant alkyl amines as alkylating agents in Sonogashira reactions, and produces diverse alkynes in excellent yields under mild conditions. Salient merits of this chemistry include broad substrate scope and functional group tolerance, gram-scale synthesis, one-pot transformation, versatile late-stage derivatizations as well as the use of inexpensive pre-catalyst and readily available substrates. The high efficiency and strong practicability bode well for the widespread applications of this strategy in constructing functional molecules, materials, and fine chemicals.
Project description:Electrosynthesis has received great attention among researchers in both academia and industry as an ideal technique to promote single electron reduction without the use of expensive catalysts. In this work, we report the electrochemical reduction of Katritzky salts to alkyl radicals by sacrificing the easily accessible metal anode. This catalyst and electrolyte free platform has broad applicability to single electron transfer chemistry, including fluoroalkenylation, alkynylation and thiolation. The deaminative functionalization is facilitated by the rapid molecular diffusion across microfluidic channels, demonstrating the practicality that outpaces the conventional electrochemistry setups.
Project description:We developed a strategy to harness alkyl amines as alkylating agents via C-N bond activation. This Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling of alkylpyridinium salts, readily formed from primary amines, is the first example of a metal-catalyzed cross coupling via C-N bond activation of an amine with an unactivated alkyl group. This reaction enjoys broad scope and functional group tolerance. Primary and secondary alkyl groups can be installed. Preliminary studies suggest a NiI/NiIII catalytic cycle.
Project description:The C-N cross coupling reaction has always been a fundamental task in organic synthesis. However, the direct use of N-H group of aryl amines to generate N-centered radicals which would couple with alkyl radicals to construct C-N bonds is still rare. Here we report a visible light-promoted C-N radical cross coupling for regioselective amination of remote C(sp3)-H bonds. Under visible light irradiation, the N-H groups of aryl amines are converted to N-centered radicals, and are then trapped by alkyl radicals, which are generated from Hofmann-Löffler-Freytag (HLF) type 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer (1,5-HAT). With the same strategy, the regioselective C(sp3)-C(sp3) cross coupling is also realized by using alkyl Hantzsch esters (or nitrile) as radical alkylation reagents. Notably, the ?-C(sp3)-H of tertiary amines can be directly alkylated to form the C(sp3)-C(sp3) bonds via C(sp3)-H?-?C(sp3)-H cross coupling through the same photoredox pathway.
Project description:The functionalization of carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds is one of the most attractive strategies for molecular construction in organic chemistry. The hydrogen atom is considered to be an ideal coupling handle, owing to its relative abundance in organic molecules and its availability for functionalization at almost any stage in a synthetic sequence. Although many C-H functionalization reactions involve C(sp3)-C(sp2) coupling, there is a growing demand for C-H alkylation reactions, wherein sp3 C-H bonds are replaced with sp3 C-alkyl groups. Here we describe a polarity-match-based selective sp3 C-H alkylation via the combination of photoredox, nickel and hydrogen-atom transfer catalysis. This methodology simultaneously uses three catalytic cycles to achieve hydridic C-H bond abstraction (enabled by polarity matching), alkyl halide oxidative addition, and reductive elimination to enable alkyl-alkyl fragment coupling. The sp3 C-H alkylation is highly selective for the ?-C-H of amines, ethers and sulphides, which are commonly found in pharmaceutically relevant architectures. This cross-coupling protocol should enable broad synthetic applications in de novo synthesis and late-stage functionalization chemistry.