Rider factors associated with severe injury after a light motorcycle crash: A multicentre study in an emerging economy setting.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:In Taiwan, light motorcycles (LMCs) with cylinder capacities between 50 and 250 cc are widely used for daily commute. These vehicles are operated in a mixed traffic environment and prohibited on highways. In light of increasing motorcycle casualties, we conducted a multicentre study to analyse rider factors affecting injury severity. METHODS:Riders hospitalised upon LMC crashes were contacted. Information on demographics, comorbidities, and riding behaviours was collected through questionnaires and linked to hospital data. The injury severity score (ISS) and length of hospitalisation (LOH) were used as injury severity measures. RESULTS:In total, 725 patients (mean age: 37.7 years; 64% men) completed their questionnaires. Multivariate analysis results showed that age ? 65 years, half-face helmets, protective clothing, collisions with a bus/truck or car, and fatigue riding were risk factors for having an ISS of ?9. Age ? 65 years; motorcycle crashes ?2 times in the previous year; anaemia; rural crashes; half-face helmets; protective boots; collisions with a bus/truck, car, or a stationary object; alcohol/stimulating refreshment consumption; and fatigue riding were risk factors for increased LOH. A protective factor was individuals working in commerce. Collisions with opening car doors caused low risks of having an ISS of ?9 and a short LOH. CONCLUSION:Certain factors were significantly associated with riders' injury severity and related medical resource consumption. Because of differences in the power output, use, and riding environment, risk factors for severe injuries in LMC crashes are dissimilar from those for heavy motorcycles (cylinder capacities > 250 cc) in developed countries and deserve more attention for injury prevention. Further in-depth evaluation of significant factors based on this study's results can yield valuable information to reduce severe injuries after LMC crashes in countries and areas with a high dependency on motorcycles, even considering the popularity of electric motorcycles.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Motorcycles have become an increasingly popular mode of transportation despite their association with a greater risk for injury compared with automobiles. Whereas the recent incidence of annual passenger vehicle fatalities in the United States of America (USA) has progressively declined, motorcycle fatalities have steadily increased in the past 11 years. Although motorcycle injuries (MIs) have been studied, to the author's knowledge there are no published reports on MIs in the USA during this 11-year period. Methods : Study data were derived from a prospectively collected Level I trauma center database. Data sampling included motorcycle crash injury evaluations for the 10-year period ending on 31 August 2008. This retrospective analysis included patient demographic and medical data, helmet use, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, injury severity score (ISS), length of hospital stay (LOS), specific injury diagnosis, and death. Data statistics were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and logistic regression. RESULTS: The study identified 1252 motorcycle crash injuries. Helmets were worn by 40.7% of patients for which helmet data were available. The rates of the most common orthopedic injuries were tibia/fibula (19.01%), spine (16.21%), and forearm (10.14%) fractures. The most common non-orthopedic motorcycle crash injuries were concussions (21.09%), skull fractures (8.23%), face fractures (13.66%), and hemo- and pneumothorax (8.79%). There was a significant correlation between greater age and higher ISS (r=0.21, P<0.0001) and longer LOS (r=0.22, P<0.0001). Older patients were also less likely to wear a helmet (OR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.98, 0.997), associated with a significantly higher risk for death (after adjustment for helmet use OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05). All patients without helmets had a significantly lower GCS score (P=0.0001) and a higher mortality rate (after adjustment for patient demographic data OR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.58). Conclusion : Compared with historical reports, the prevalence of skull, face, spine, and pelvis fractures have increased in American motorcycle crashes. Compared to recent European studies, the incidence of USA skull and face fractures is much higher, while the incidence of USA spine and pelvis fractures is more comparable; however, this is not associated with increased in-hospital mortality.
Project description:Motorcycles are the most common type of vehicle involved in traffic deaths in developing countries. Although helmets can provide protection against injury, there is limited evidence available regarding which type of helmet best protects against head and neck injuries in this setting. This review was conducted based on articles in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. We compared full-face helmets with other types of helmet with regard to head and neck injury prevention in road accidents involving motorcyclists. Of 702 studies, six were eligible with a total of 6,529 participants. When compared with partial and open helmets, the odds ratio of full-face helmets was 0.356 (95% CI of 0.280, 0.453) and 0.636 (95% CI of 0.453, 0.894), respectively, for reduction of head and neck injuries. In conclusion, full-face helmets reduced head and neck injuries in motorcycle accidents to a greater extent than other types of helmet. Policy makers should recommend that motorcyclists use full-face helmets.
Project description:PURPOSE:The purpose of this paper is to examine the situational and individual officer characteristics of officer-involved vehicle collisions that result in fatality, injury, and non-injury outcomes. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH:Data on 35,840 vehicle collisions involving law enforcement officers in California occurring between January 2000 and December 2009 are examined. A descriptive analysis of collision characteristics is presented. FINDINGS:There were 39 officers killed by collisions over this study period and 7,684 officers who received some type injury. Incidents involving officers on motorcycles represented 39 percent of officer fatalities and 39 percent of severe injuries. In the case of fatalities, 33 percent of officers were reported as wearing seatbelts, 38 percent were not wearing a seatbelt, and seatbelt use was not stated in 29 percent of car fatalities. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS:The findings only represent one state and the analysis is based on an estimated 86 percent of collisions that occurred during the study period due to missing data. Nonetheless, the results are based on a robust sample and address key limitations in the existing literature. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS:During the study period in California the estimated financial impact of collisions reached into the hundreds of millions of dollars when considering related fatality, injury, and vehicle damage costs combined. These impacts highlight the need for the law enforcement community to give greater attention to this issue. ORIGINALITY/VALUE:At the time of this writing there was no published independent research that compares the situational and officer characteristics across fatality, injury, and non-injury outcomes in these events. The findings reported here will help inform emerging interest in this issue within the law enforcement, academic, and policy-making communities.
Project description:BackgroundHelmets prevent head trauma in both all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and bicycle crashes. This pilot study’s objective was to compare family helmet use and participant attitudes regarding helmets for ATVs versus bicycles.MethodsA convenience sampling of adults attending a 2017 university-sponsored health fair who had at least one child <?18?years living at home were surveyed. Demographics, frequency of helmet use, and information about factors influencing helmet use were collected. Descriptive (frequencies) and bivariate (Fisher’s exact test) analyses were performed. Qualitative themes of written responses were also examined.ResultsSubjects (N?=?98) were 26–57?years old (mean 40?years). Three-quarters (76%) were female. The percentage always wearing a helmet riding bicycles was 63% (subjects), 58% (spouses/partners), and 51% (children), compared to 11, 14 and 37% on ATVs, respectively. Moreover, the percentage never wearing a helmet while on an ATV was 68% for subjects, 71% for spouses, and 47% for children. Despite helmet use differences between bicycles and ATVs, the importance of children wearing a helmet on these vehicles was rated highly and equally important, 9.28 and 9.58 on a 1–10 scale, respectively. Higher proportions of subjects’ oldest children wore a bike helmet 100% of the time if at least one parent always wore a helmet (81%), compared to children whose parents both wore helmets <?100% of the time or didn’t ride (21%) (p?<?0.0001). The proportion of children wearing ATV and bicycle helmets less than 100% of the time was significantly higher if parents reported barriers to effectively enforcing helmet use than if they did not (p?=?0.04 and p?=?0.004, respectively). Many reported a “strict no helmet, no bike/ATV riding rule” as being most effective in getting their children to always wear a helmet.ConclusionsThis study is the first to explore family helmet use while riding bicycles vs ATVs. Although parent’s belief in the importance of helmet use was high for both, helmet use was greater when riding bicycles. Further research is needed to better understand the social and environmental influences that shape parental helmet attitudes and practices in order to improve safety interventions for increasing pediatric helmet use.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15-29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda's capital city. METHODS:The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis. RESULTS:Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19-4.45), lower engine capacity (<100 cc) (OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91-8.70), riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19-3.52), riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58-14.18) and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62-25.9). Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late. RECOMMENDATIONS:More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding licenses and test the riding competency of all who got licenses in last 3 years.
Project description:Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death and nonfatal injury among U.S. adolescents, resulting in approximately 2,500 deaths and 300,000 nonfatal injuries each year. Risk for motor-vehicle crashes and resulting injuries and deaths varies, depending on such behaviors as seat belt use or impaired or distracted driving. Improved understanding of adolescents' transportation risk behaviors can guide prevention efforts. Therefore, data from the 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed to determine prevalence of transportation risk behaviors, including not always wearing a seat belt, riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol (riding with a drinking driver), driving after drinking alcohol, and texting or e-mailing while driving. Differences by student characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, academic grades in school, and sexual identity) were calculated. Multivariable analyses controlling for student characteristics examined associations between risk behaviors. Approximately 43.1% of U.S. high school students did not always wear a seat belt and 16.7% rode with a drinking driver during the 30 days before the survey. Approximately 59.9% of students had driven a car during the 30 days before the survey. Among students who drove, 5.4% had driven after drinking alcohol and 39.0% had texted or e-mailed while driving. Prevalence of not always wearing a seat belt was higher among students who were younger, black, or had lower grades. Riding with a drinking driver was higher among Hispanic students or students with lower grades. Driving after drinking alcohol was higher among students who were older, male, Hispanic, or had lower grades. Texting while driving was higher among older students or white students. Few differences existed by sexual identity. Multivariable analyses revealed that students engaging in one transportation risk behavior were more likely to engage in other transportation risk behaviors. Traffic safety and public health professionals can use these findings to reduce transportation risk behaviors by selecting, implementing, and contextualizing the most appropriate and effective strategies for specific populations and for the environment.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that children as old as 12 years use a booster seat when riding in motor vehicles, yet little is known about booster seat effectiveness when used by older children. This study estimated the association between booster use and injuries among children aged 8-12 years who were involved in motor vehicle crashes. METHODS:Researchers analyzed data on all motor vehicle crashes involving children aged 8-12 years reported to the Washington State Department of Transportation from 2002 to 2015. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2016. Children who were in a booster seat were compared with children restrained by a seat belt alone. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS:In unadjusted models, booster use was associated with a 29% reduction in the odds of experiencing any injury versus riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.709, 95% CI=0.675, 0.745). In models adjusted for potential confounders, booster use was associated with a 19% reduction in the odds of any injury relative to riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.814, 95% CI=0.749, 0.884). The risk of experiencing an incapacitating/fatal injury was not associated with booster use. CONCLUSIONS:Children aged 8-12 years involved in a motor vehicle crash are less likely to be injured if in a booster than if restrained by a seat belt alone. Because only 10% of U.S. children aged 8-12 years use booster seats, policies encouraging their use could lead to fewer injuries.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Alcohol- and drug-related car crashes are a leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States. This analysis tested the effects of a computer-facilitated Screening and Brief Advice (cSBA) system for primary care on adolescents' reports of driving after drinking or drug use (driving) and riding with substance-using drivers (riding). METHOD:Twelve- to 18-year-old patients (N = 2,096) at nine New England pediatric offices completed assessments only during the initial 18-month treatment-as-usual (TAU) phase. Subsequently, the 18-month cSBA intervention phase began with a 1-hour provider training and implementation of the cSBA system at all sites. cSBA included a notebook-computer with self-administered screener, immediate scoring and feedback, and 10 pages of scientific information and true-life stories illustrating substance-related harms. Providers received screening results, "talking points" for 2 to 3 minutes of counseling, and a Contract for Life handout. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations generated adjusted relative risk ratios (aRRR) for past-90-day driving and riding risk at 3- and 12-month follow-ups, controlling for significant covariates. RESULTS:We found no significant effects on driving outcomes. At 3 months, cSBA youth were less likely than TAU to report riding with a drinking driver (aRRR = 0.70, 95% CI [0.49, 1.00]), and less likely to report riding with a driver who had used cannabis or other drugs (aRRR = 0.46, 95% CI [0.29, 0.74]). The effect was even greater (aRRR = 0.34, 95% CI [0.16, 0.71]) for riding with drinking drivers who were adult family members. All effects dissipated by 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Screening and pediatrician brief advice shows promise for reducing adolescents' risk of riding with substance-using drivers.
Project description:AIMS: To determine the incidence, severity, and clinical course of whiplash associated disorder (WAD) in children aged 4-16 years involved as passengers in car crashes. METHODS: Prospective surveillance of all paediatric attendances to three English urban emergency departments after car crashes over an eight month period. An initial structured telephone interview at day 2 after the car crash was performed. This was followed by clinical review of symptomatic patients on day 5 after the crash using the Quebec Task Force criteria for outcome assessment, with subsequent clinical review at 14, 28, and 56 days or until earlier symptom resolution. RESULTS: 105 children were identified as having been involved in car crashes as passengers. Forty nine children (47%) experienced symptoms of a WAD. Twenty nine children developed symptoms within 24 hours with the remainder developing symptoms by 48 hours. Forty children experienced a WAD grade 1 and nine children suffered a WAD grade 2 injury. The mean duration of symptoms was 8.8 days (range 3-70, SD 10.7). WAD grade 2 symptoms lasted significantly longer than WAD grade 1 symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of WAD in children in this series was higher than in other studies. The clinical course was more favourable than that reported for adults.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Regular cycling has been shown to improve health and has a role in tackling the threats posed by obesity and inactivity. Cycle collisions, particularly those involving motorised vehicles, can lead to significant mortality and morbidity and are currently a barrier to wider uptake of cycling. There is evidence that the conspicuity of cyclists is a factor in many injury collisions. Low-cost, easy to use retro-reflective and fluorescent clothing and accessories ('conspicuity aids') are available. Their effectiveness in reducing cycling collisions is unknown. The study is designed to investigate the relationship between the use of conspicuity aids and risk of collision or evasion crashes for utility and commuter cyclists in the UK. METHODS/DESIGN: A matched case-control study is proposed. Cases are adult commuter and utility cyclists involved in a crash resulting from a collision or attempted evasion of a collision with another road user recruited at a UK emergency department. Controls are commuter and utility cyclists matched by journey purpose, time and day of travel and geographical area recruited at public and private cycle parking sites. Data on the use of conspicuity aids, crash circumstances, demographics, cycling experience, safety equipment use, journey characteristics and route will be collected using self-completed questionnaires and maps. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of a crash when using any item of fluorescent or reflective clothing or equipment. DISCUSSION: This study will provide information on the effectiveness of conspicuity aids in reducing the risk of injury to cyclists resulting from crashes involving other road users.