Long-term outcome after mitral valve replacement using biological versus mechanical valves.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:This study compared long-term outcomes of biological and mechanical mitral valve replacement (MVR) in patients requiring replacement of the mitral valve where repair was not feasible. METHODS:A single-centre registry of patients receiving MVR between 2005 and 2015 was established. Thirty-day mortality and long-term outcomes were analysed and compared. RESULTS:Three hundred twenty four patients underwent MVR (265 biological; 59 mechanical valves). Patients receiving biological valves were older (p < 0.001), had a higher log EuroSCORE (p < 0.001) and received less minimally invasive surgery (p < 0.001). Immediate procedural mortality was 1.9%, which only occurred in the biological valve group. At 30 days, 9.0% of patients had died, 4.0% experienced stroke, 8.0% received a pacemaker and 10.5% suffered an acute renal failure. The rate of re-thoracotomy (14.2%) was lower in the biological (12.5%) than in the mechanical valve group (22.0%; adjOR 0.45 [0.20-1.00]; p = 0.050). Frequent long-term complications were stroke (9.2%) and bleeding (4.8%), with bleeding complications being higher in the mechanical valve group (p = 0.009). During the follow-up period biological valves showed a numerically higher survival rate during the first years, which shifted after 3 years in favour of mechanical valves. At 10 years, survival rates were 62.4% vs. 77.1% in the biological and mechanical valve groups (p = 0.769). Hazard ratio after adjustment was 0.833 (95% CI 0.430-1.615). CONCLUSION:These data confirm that mechanical valve implantation is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. While there was a potential survival benefit during the first years after surgery for patients receiving a biological valves the difference became insignificant after a follow-up of 10 years.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mitral valve anomalies in children are rare but frequently severe, recalcitrant, and not often amenable to primary repair, necessitating mechanical mitral valve replacement (M-MVR). This study examined outcomes of a cohort undergoing a first M-MVR at age younger than 21 years. METHODS:We queried the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium, a multi-institutional United States-based cardiac intervention registry, for patients undergoing first M-MVR for 2-ventricle congenital heart disease. Survival and transplant status through 2014 were obtained from Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium and linkage with the National Death Index and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. RESULTS:We identified 441 patients (median age, 4.3 years; interquartile range, 1.3 to 10.1 years) meeting study criteria. The commonest disease necessitating M-MVR was atrioventricular canal (44.3%). Early mortality (death <90 days after M-MVR) was 11.1%; there was increased risk of early death if age at M-MVR was younger than 2 years (odds ratio, 7.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 56.6) and with concurrent other mechanical valve placement (odds ratio, 8.5; 95% CI, 2.0 to 35.6). In those surviving more than 90 days after M-MVR, transplant-free survival was 76% at 20 years of follow-up (median follow-up, 16.6 years; interquartile range, 11.9 to 21.3 years). Adjusted analysis in those who survived more than 90 days showed elevated risk of death/transplant for boys (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.3), age at M-MVR younger than 2 years (10-year survival: hazard ratio, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 15.1), and nonbileaflet prosthesis placement (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3 to 4.3). CONCLUSIONS:M-MVR is a viable strategy in children with unrepairable mitral valve disease. Age younger than 2 years at the first M-MVR is associated with significant early risk of death and poorer long-term survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The optimal treatment strategy following a failed mitral valve repair remains unclear. This study aims to compare and analyse available studies which report the clinical outcomes post mitral valve re-repair (MVr) or replacement (MVR) after a prior mitral valve repair. METHODS:Based on PRISMA guidelines, a literature search was performed utilising PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases to identify retrospective cohort studies that reported outcomes of MVr and MVR after a prior mitral valve repair. Data regarding operative mortality, clinical outcomes and complications were extracted, synthesized and meta-analysed where appropriate. RESULTS:Eight studies with a total cohort of 1632 patients were used. After analysis, no significant differences in the short term and long-term operative mortality, incidence of stroke, congestive heart failure, Grade 1 and Grade 2 mitral regurgitation, requirement of 3rd mitral valve operation and reoperation due bleeding were found between the two groups. However, a slightly higher incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR: 0.11, CI: 0.02 to 0.17, I2 =?0%, p =?0.02) was observed in the MVR group, as compared to the MVr group. CONCLUSION:MVr appears to be a viable alternative to MVR for mitral valve reoperation, given that they are associated with similar post-operative outcomes.
Project description:Background:Many techniques in mitral valve repair (MVR) have been reported with successful long-term results. The aim of this study is to present our simplified technique in artificial chordae replacement for MVR, and reporting its short-term outcomes. Methods:We present a prospective single-surgeon experience. A new simplified artificial chordae implantation technique has been used to repair mitral valves. Postoperative echocardiography at 0, 6, then every 12 months is used to control the results. Endpoints involved freedom from mitral regurgitation (MR), reoperation and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Results:Between 01/2016 and 01/2018, 57 consecutive patients undergo MVR using this technique are evaluated. Mean age was 63.6±10.1 years and 68.4% were male. Mitral valve pathology was mainly degenerative (52, 91.2%) or healed endocarditis (5, 8.8%). Besides chordae replacement (3.6±1.1 per patient), annuloplasty was used in all patients to correct annulus dilation and stabilize the repair. Mean cross-clamping time was 53±13.4 minutes in isolated MVR and 69.4±31.1 minutes in concomitant procedures. Postoperative outcomes reported two mortalities. Discharge echocardiography reported mild MR in 4 patients and the rest of patients had non-to trace regurgitation. Follow-up results within a mean of 19.3±8.5 months reported no significant MR or need for reoperation and three more (non-valve related) mortalities. Conclusions:Our simplified technique allows to reduce the number of used chordae and re-correction if needed, which consequently reduces cross-clamping and bypass time especially in endoscopic MVR. Good intraoperative and short-term results are reported. These results are still under investigation to prove long-term stability of the repair.
Project description:PURPOSE:We examined trends, characteristics and in-hospital outcomes in mechanical and bioprosthetic surgical mitral valve replacement (SMVR) among patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Spain from 2001 to 2015. We also identified factors associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM) in both groups of patients according to the implanted valve type. METHODS:We analyzed data from the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database for patients aged 40 years or over. We selected admissions of patients whose medical procedures included SMVR. We grouped hospitalizations by COPD status. RESULTS:Over 43,024 patients identified, 83.63% underwent mechanical mitral valve replacement and 16.37% bioprosthetic valve (6.71% and 7.78% with COPD, respectively). The incidence of SMVR decreased for mechanical valves and increased for bioprosthetic valves over time in both groups of patients. The incidence of SMVR admissions was lower among COPD patients than in those without COPD, both for mechanical and bioprosthetic valves. IHM decreased significantly over time, regardless of the type of valve, in both groups of patients. COPD was associated with a significant increase in IHM, but only among patients who underwent bioprosthetic SMVR (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01-1.73). CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of mechanical SMVR decreased while that of bioprosthetic SMVR increased over time in both groups of patients. COPD patients were less surgically operated than non-COPD patients for both valve types. In COPD patients, bioprosthetic SMVR was proportionally more used than mechanical SMVR. Mortality decreased over time for both valve types in patients with and without COPD. COPD increased in-hospital mortality among patients undergoing a biological SMVR.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Studies on the management of functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) during mitral valve operations have drawn inconsistent conclusions. This study was designed to compare the treatment strategy of concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty (TAP) against isolated mitral valve replacement (MVR) in rheumatic mitral valve disease patients, and to assess the effect of concomitant TAP on postoperative right ventricular (RV) remodeling and function.<h4>Methods</h4>One hundred-seventy patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease receiving MVR were categorized into TAP group (n?=?124) and non-TAP group (n?=?46). Clinical and echocardiographic data were collected preoperatively and at 1-year follow-up. Three-dimensional echocardiographic indices of RV geometry and function were analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, concomitant TAP group had larger RV end-diastolic volume, more decreased RV ejection fraction and RV longitudinal strain than non-TAP group (all P?<? 0.001). At 1-year follow-up, TAP group had improved RV geometry and function. While adverse changes were observed in non-TAP group. In analysis of variance, the above indices demonstrated significant interaction with different treatment group (all P?<? 0.001). In multivariate regression analysis, independent of age and Maze procedure, concomitant TAP was associated with postoperative RV volume reduction (P?<? 0.001), improvement of RV ejection fraction (P?<? 0.001), and relieved postoperative functional TR severity (P?=?0.025).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that concomitant TAP could improve RV remodeling and function for rheumatic mitral valve disease patients, while those with mild preoperative functional TR who had isolated MVR might experience RV dilation and deterioration of RV function at follow-up. Concomitant surgery for functional TR could be considered for patients undergoing MVR with rheumatic mitral valve disease.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Valve selection in dialysis-dependent patients can be difficult because long-term survival is diminished and bleeding risks during anticoagulation treatment are greater in patients with renal failure. In this study we analyzed long-term outcomes of dialysis-dependent patients who underwent valve replacement to help guide optimal prosthetic valve type selection. METHODS:Dialysis-dependent patients who underwent aortic and/or mitral valve replacement at 3 institutions over 20 years were examined. The primary outcome was long-term survival. A Cox regression model was used to estimate survival according to 5 ages, presence of diabetes, and/or heart failure symptoms. RESULTS:Four hundred twenty-three available patients were analyzed; 341 patients had biological and 82 had mechanical valves. Overall complication and 30-day mortality rates were similar between the groups. Thirty-day readmission rates for biological and mechanical groups were 15% (50/341) and 28% (23/82; P = .005). Five-year survival was 23% and 33% for the biological and mechanical groups, respectively. After adjusting for age, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, and diabetes using a multivariable Cox regression model, survival was similar between groups (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.29; P = .8). A Cox regression model on the basis of age, diabetes, and heart failure, estimated that patients only 30 or 40 years old, with NYHA class I-II failure without diabetes had a >50% estimated 5-year survival (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Dialysis-dependent patients who underwent valve replacement surgery had poor long-term survival. Young patients without diabetes or NYHA III or IV symptoms might survive long enough to justify placement of a mechanical valve; however, a biological valve is suitable for most patients.
Project description:Antithrombotic therapy in valvular disease is important to mitigate thromboembolism, but the hemorrhagic risk imposed must be considered.The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines. Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement.In rheumatic mitral disease, we recommend vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy when the left atrial diameter is > 55 mm (Grade 2C) or when complicated by left atrial thrombus (Grade 1A). In candidates for percutaneous mitral valvotomy with left atrial thrombus, we recommend VKA therapy until thrombus resolution, and we recommend abandoning valvotomy if the thrombus fails to resolve (Grade 1A). In patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and stroke or transient ischemic attack, we recommend initial aspirin therapy (Grade 1B) and suggest substitution of VKA if recurrence (Grade 2C). In patients with cryptogenic stroke and DVT and a PFO, we recommend VKA therapy for 3 months (Grade 1B) and consideration of PFO closure (Grade 2C). We recommend against the use of anticoagulant (Grade 1C) and antiplatelet therapy (Grade 1B) for native valve endocarditis. We suggest holding VKA therapy until the patient is stabilized without neurologic complications for infective endocarditis of a prosthetic valve (Grade 2C). In the first 3 months after bioprosthetic valve implantation, we recommend aspirin for aortic valves (Grade 2C), the addition of clopidogrel to aspirin if the aortic valve is transcatheter (Grade 2C), and VKA therapy with a target international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.5 for mitral valves (Grade 2C). After 3 months, we suggest aspirin therapy (Grade 2C). We recommend early bridging of mechanical valve patients to VKA therapy with unfractionated heparin (DVT dosing) or low-molecular-weight heparin (Grade 2C). We recommend long-term VKA therapy for all mechanical valves (Grade 1B): target INR 2.5 for aortic (Grade 1B) and 3.0 for mitral or double valve (Grade 2C). In patients with mechanical valves at low bleeding risk, we suggest the addition of low-dose aspirin (50-100 mg/d) (Grade 1B). In valve repair patients, we suggest aspirin therapy (Grade 2C). In patients with thrombosed prosthetic valve, we recommend fibrinolysis for right-sided valves and left-sided valves with thrombus area < 0.8 cm(2) (Grade 2C). For patients with left-sided prosthetic valve thrombosis and thrombus area ? 0.8 cm(2), we recommend early surgery (Grade 2C).These antithrombotic guidelines provide recommendations based on the optimal balance of thrombotic and hemorrhagic risk.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Valve replacement surgeries holds risks of morbidity and mortality.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>The study cohort included 346 patients who underwent different types of valve surgery, excluding redo and Bentall operations. All operations were performed through a median sternotomy using cardiopulmonary bypass.<h4>Results</h4>Mean patient age was 51.6 ± 16.1 years, and 51% were male. Approximately 21% had diabetes, and 44.6% were hypertensive. Aortic valve replacement (AVR) was performed in 125 patients (37%), mitral valve replacement (MVR) in 95 (28%), combined AVR and MVR in 42 (13%), AVR plus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 19 (6%), and MVR plus CABG in 32 (10%). Operative mortality was 5.8% (n = 20). In the bivariate-level analysis, older age, operation type, hypertension, emergency surgery, use of a biological valve in the aortic or mitral position, pump time greater than 120 min, and aortic clamp time greater than 60 min were significant predictors of 30-day mortality. Use of medications stratified by duration (less than or more than a month) was also shown to be a predictor of mortality. Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, digoxin, beta-blockers, statins, and loop diuretics was associated with mortality. Older age, emergency/salvage surgery, use of beta-blockers for less than 1 month preoperatively, and use of a biological valve in the aortic position were significant and independent predictors of 30-day mortality.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Age, emergency valve surgery, use of a biological valve, use of beta-blockers for less than 1 month before surgery, type of surgery, EF<35%, pump time, and cross clamp time were all found to be independent predictors of mortality in patients undergoing valve surgery. Further prospective multicenter studies may be needed to provide a comprehensive assessment of mortality in patients undergoing valve surgery in Jordan.
Project description:To review the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of heart valve implantations generated by decision analytic models and to assess their methodological quality.A systematic review was performed including model-based cost-effectiveness analyses of heart valve implantations. Study and model characteristics and cost-effectiveness results were extracted and the methodological quality was assessed using the Philips checklist.Fourteen decision-analytic models regarding the cost-effectiveness of heart valve implantations were identified. In most studies transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was cost-effective compared to standard treatment (ST) in inoperable or high-risk operable patients (ICER range 18,421-120,779 €) and in all studies surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) was cost-effective compared to ST in operable patients (ICER range 14,108-40,944 €), but the results were not consistent on the cost-effectiveness of TAVI versus SAVR in high-risk operable patients (ICER range: dominant to dominated by SAVR). Mechanical mitral valve replacement (MVR) had the lowest costs per success compared to mitral valve repair and biological MVR. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate to good.This review showed that improvements can be made in the description and justification of methods and data sources, sensitivity analysis on extrapolation of results, subgroup analyses, consideration of methodological and structural uncertainty, and consistency (i.e. validity) of the models. There are several opportunities for future decision-analytic models of the cost-effectiveness of heart valve implantations: considering heart valve implantations in other valve positions besides the aortic valve, using a societal perspective, and developing patient-simulation models to investigate the impact of patient characteristics on outcomes.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Mitral valve replacement (MVR) in young children is limited by the lack of small prostheses. Our institution began performing MVR with modified, surgically placed, stented jugular vein grafts (Melody valve) in 2010. We sought to describe key echocardiographic features for pre- and postoperative assessment of this novel form of MVR. METHODS:The pre- and postoperative echocardiograms of 24 patients who underwent Melody MVR were reviewed. In addition to standard measurements, preoperative potential measurements of the mitral annulus were performed whereby dimensions were estimated for Melody sizing. A ratio of the narrowest subaortic region in systole to the actual mitral valve dimension (SubA:MV) was assessed for risk of postoperative left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). RESULTS:Melody MVR was performed at a median of 8.5 months (5.6 kg) for stenosis (5), regurgitation (3), and mixed disease (16). Preoperatively, actual mitral z scores measured hypoplastic (median -3.1 for the lateral [lat] dimension; -2.1 for the anteroposterior [AP] dimension). The potential measurements often had normal z scores with fair correlation with intraoperative Melody dilation (? = 0.51 and 0.50 for lat and AP dimensions, respectively, both P = .01). A preoperative SubA:MV <0.5 was associated with postoperative LVOTO, which occurred in 4 patients. Postoperatively, mitral gradients substantially improved, with low values relative to the effective orifice area of the Melody valve. No patients had significant regurgitation or perivalvar leak. CONCLUSIONS:Preoperative echocardiographic measurements may help guide intraoperative sizing for Melody MVR and identify patients at risk for postoperative LVOTO. Acute postoperative hemodynamic results were favorable; however, ongoing assessment is warranted.