Sexual and reproductive healthcare needs of Iranian men: A cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: Background:The sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of men have received little attention in Iran's healthcare system. Developing appropriate strategies to meet men's needs requires careful assessment and recognition of their health needs. Objective:The objective of this study is to assess men's SRH needs and satisfaction with received services. Materials and Methods:This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 1068 adult men aged between 20 and 60 years in Ahvaz in 2014. For obtaining the SRH services needs of men, in addition to the self-reported felt needs, expressed needs and unmet needs, a need assessment was also done using a questionnaire that was developed for the research; its validity and reliability were assessed. Results:The men's perceived, expressed and unmet needs for SRH services were, priority-wise, screening and diagnosis of male genital cancers (63.3%), receiving contraceptive methods (36%), diagnosis, and treatment of male sexual dysfunction (86.9%), respectively. Preventing sexually transmitted disease/AIDS (72.1%), using contraceptives correctly (39.5%), and resisting peer pressure (86.6%) were, respectively, the first felt, expressed, and unmet skills men needed. The results of multivariate logistical regression showed that there was a significant statistical correlation between men's SRH needs and their socio-demographic factors (age, marital/educational status, income) ( p<0.05 ). Conclusion:Iranian men have many unmet SRH needs. Felt and expressed SRH needs were different. Educational and counseling services are as important as clinical services.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Evaluating progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal of universal access to sexual and reproductive (SRH) services requires an understanding of the health needs of individuals and what constitutes access to services. We explored women's costs of accessing SRH services in Johannesburg, South Africa and contextualized costs based on estimates of household income. METHODS:We conducted an observational study of women aged 18-49 at a public HIV treatment site and two public primary health care facilities from June 2015 to August 2016. Interviews assessed women's SRH needs (for contraception, fertility problems, menstrual problems, menopause symptoms, sexually transmitted infections (STI), experiences of intimate-partner violence (IPV), and cervical and breast cancer screening) and associated costs. We calculated average and total costs (including out-of-pocket spending, lost income, and estimated value of time spent) for women who incurred costs. We also estimated the total and average costs of meeting all SRH needs in a hypothetical "full needs met" year. Finally, we contextualize SRH spending against a measure of catastrophic expenditure (>?10% of household income). RESULTS:Among the 385 women who participated, 94.8% had at least one SRH need in the prior 12?months; 79.7% incurred costs for accessing care. On average, women spent $28.34 on SRH needs during the prior year. Excluding one HIV-negative woman who spent 112% of her annual income on infertility treatment, HIV-positive women spent more on average annually for SRH care than HIV-negative women. Sixty percent of women reported at least one unmet SRH need. If all participants sought care for all reported needs, their average annual cost would rise to $52.65 per woman. Only two women reported catastrophic expenditure - for managing infertility. CONCLUSIONS:SRH needs are constants throughout women's lives. Small annual costs can become large costs when considered cumulatively over time. As South Africa and other countries grapple with increasing access to SRH services under the rubric of universal access, it is important to remember that individuals incur costs despite free care at the point of service. Policies that address geographic proximity and service quality would be important for reducing costs and ensuring full access to SRH services. Literature on women's financial and economic costs for accessing comprehensive sexual and reproductive health care in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited, and existing literature often overlooks out-of-pocket costs associated with travel, child care, and time spent accessing services. Using data from a survey of 385 women from a public HIV treatment site and two public primary health care facilities in Johannesburg, we found nearly all women reported at least on sexual and reproductive health need and more than 75% of women incurred costs related to those needs. Furthermore, more than half of women surveyed reported not accessing services for their sexual and reproductive health needs, suggesting a total annual cost of more than $50 USD, on average, to access services for all reported needs. While few women spent more than 10% of their total household income on sexual and reproductive health services in the prior year, needs are constant and costs incur throughout a woman's life suggesting accessing services to meet these needs might still result in financial burden. As South Africa grapples with increasing access to sexual and reproductive health services under the rubric of universal access, it is important to remember that individuals incur costs despite free care at the point of service. Policies that address geographic proximity and service quality would be important for reducing costs and ensuring full access to services.
Project description:Adolescents' sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRH) needs have been prioritized globally, and they have the rights to access and utilize SRH services for their needs. However, adolescents under-utilize SRH services, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many factors play a role in the under-utilization of SRH services by adolescents, such as the attitude and behaviour of healthcare workers. The aim of this study therefore, was to explore and gain an in-depth understanding of healthcare workers' beliefs, motivations and behaviours affecting adequate provision of these services to adolescents in South Africa.Twenty-four healthcare workers in public SRH services in Cape Town, South Africa participated in this qualitative study through focus group discussions. To fulfill the aims of this study, nine focus group discussions were conducted among the SRH nurses.SRH nurses indicated that they are experiencing challenges with the concept and practice of termination of pregnancy. They explained that this practice contradicted their opposing beliefs and values. Some nurses felt that they had insufficient SRH skills, which hinder their provision of adequate SRH services to adolescents, while others described constraints within the health system such as not enough time to provide the necessary care. They also explained having limited access to schools where they can provide SRH education and pregnancy prevention services in the surrounding area.Nurses are faced with numerous challenges when providing SRH services to adolescents. Providing the nurses with training programmes that emphasize value clarification may help them to separate their personal beliefs and norms from the workplace practice. This may help them to focus on the needs of the adolescent in a way that is beneficial to them. At the health systems level, issues such as clinic operating hours need to be structured such that the time pressure and constraints upon the nurse is relieved.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An estimated 32 million women and girls of reproductive age living in emergency situations, all of whom require sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services. This systematic review assessed the effect of SRH interventions, including the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) on a range of health outcomes from the onset of emergencies. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We searched EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE and PsychINFO databases from January 1, 1980 to April 10, 2017. This review was registered with the PROSPERO database with identifier number CRD42017082102. We found 29 studies meet the inclusion criteria. We found high quality evidence to support the effectiveness of specific SRH interventions, such as home visits and peer-led educational and counselling, training of lower-level health care providers, community health workers (CHWs) to promote SRH services, a three-tiered network of health workers providing reproductive and maternal health services, integration of HIV and SRH services, and men's discussion groups for reducing intimate partner violence. We found moderate quality evidence to support transport-based referral systems, community-based SRH education, CHW delivery of injectable contraceptives, wider literacy programmes, and birth preparedness interventions. No studies reported interventions related to fistulae, and only one study focused on abortion services. CONCLUSIONS:Despite increased attention to SRH in humanitarian crises, the sector has made little progress in advancing the evidence base for the effectiveness of SRH interventions, including the MISP, in crisis settings. A greater quantity and quality of more timely research is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of delivering SRH interventions in a variety of humanitarian crises.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Systematic reviews show that women living with HIV (WLHIV) have high unmet sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs due to barriers to access sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS). In Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), as of 2016, there were nearly one million WLHIV, but the existing evidence of their SRH needs comes from a few individual studies. This systematic review provides an overview of these women's needs to help define new and/or adapt existing public health strategies to the local context. This review synthesizes the evidence from the literature on the use of and access to SRHS related to family planning, antenatal care, abortion services and violence against WLHIV in LAC. METHODS:Using a systematic review of mixed studies, a search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, INASP, POPLINE, SCOPUS, for studies conducted in LAC, from 2004 to 2017, as well as contact with authors and hand search as needed. Two independent reviewers evaluated the quality of the studies using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool; inclusion was conducted according to the PRISMA flow diagram. An exploratory narrative synthesis followed by quantitative synthesis data was undertaken. Group analysis or meta-analysis was not considered appropriate given the level of heterogeneity of the studies. RESULTS:A total of 18 studies in 13 LAC countries for a population of 5672 WLHIV were included. Data from individual studies reported unmet family planning needs; higher, but inconsistent use of condom as the sole contraceptive method OR=1.46 [1.26 to 1.69]; lesser use of other non-permanent contraceptive methods OR=0.26 [0.22 to 0.31]; more unplanned pregnancies OR=1.30 [1.02 to 1.66]; more induced abortions OR=1.96 [1.60 to 2.39]; higher risk of immediate postpartum sterilization; and higher exposure to sexual and institutional violence by WLHIV when compared with women without HIV. CONCLUSIONS:This review presents evidence from LAC about the SRH unmet needs of WLHIV that must be addressed by decreasing institutional and structural barriers, facilitating services and reducing stigma, and discrimination among healthcare providers to improve access to SRHS based on human rights, so women independently of their HIV status can make their own reproductive decisions, free of violence and coercion.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Rohingya diaspora are one of the most vulnerable groups seeking refuge in camps of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, arising an acute humanitarian crisis. More than half of the Rohingya refugees are women and adolescent girls requiring quality sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Minimum initial service package of SRH are being rendered in the refugee camps; however, WHO is aiming to provide integrated comprehensive SRH services to meet the unmet needs of this most vulnerable group. For sustainable and successful implementation of such comprehensive SRH service packages, a critical first step is to undertake a situation analysis and understand the current dimensions and capture the lessons learnt on their SRH-specific needs and implementation challenges. This situation analysis is pertinent in current humanitarian condition and will provide an overview of the needs, availability and delivery of SRH services for adolescent girls and women, barriers in accessing and providing those services in Rohingya refugee camps in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, and similar humanitarian contexts. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A concurrent mixed-methods design will be used in this study. A community-based household survey coupled with facility assessments as well as qualitative in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions will be conducted with community people of Rohingya refugee camps and relevant stakeholders providing SRH services to Rohingya population in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. Survey data will be analysed using univariate, bivariate and multivariable regression statistics. Descriptive analysis will be done for facility assessment and thematic analysis will be conducted with qualitative data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval from Institutional Review Board of BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health (2018-017-IR) has been obtained. Findings from this research will be disseminated through presentations in local, national and international conferences, workshops, peer-reviewed publications, policy briefs and interactive project report.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Globally, female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a key population group due to the high HIV prevalence. Studies show that there are various factors in some contexts that render FSWs marginalised, which limits their access to sexual reproductive health (SRH) services. Access to SRH services are particularly challenging in countries where sex work is criminalised such as is the case in South Africa. Evidently, there are alternative ways in which FSWs in this context receive non-stigmatising SRH care through non-governmental organisations. The aim of this study was to understand the functioning of these non-governmental health care services as well as to document the experiences of FSWs utilising these services. METHODS:Eleven focus group discussions were held with 91 FSWs. In addition, 21 in-depth individual interviews with researchers, stakeholders and FSWs were conducted. Interview guides were utilised for data collection. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS:The FSWs expressed challenges related to SRH care access at public health facilities. The majority felt that they could not consult for SRH-related services because of stigma. The non-governmental health and advocacy organisations providing SRH services to FSWs through their mobile facilities utilising the peer approach, have done so in a way that promotes trust between FSWs and mobile health care providers. FSWs have access to tailored services, prevention materials as well as health information. This has resulted in the normalising of HIV testing as well as SRH seeking behaviours. CONCLUSION:This study has established that health and advocacy organisations have attempted to fill the gap in responding to SRH care needs of FSWs amidst intersecting vulnerabilities. FSWs' engagement with these organisations has encouraged their willingness to test for HIV. However, it is important to note that these organisations operate in urban areas, thus FSWs operating outside these areas are most likely exposed to compounding health risks and lack access to tailored services.
Project description:PURPOSE:Access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services is vital for sexually active adolescents; yet, their SRH care needs are often unmet. METHODS:We conducted a qualitative systematic review of mixed methods studies to assess adolescent and provider views of barriers to seeking appropriate medical care for sexually transmitted infection (STI) services for adolescents. We searched peer-reviewed literature for studies published between 2001 and 2014 with a study population of youth (aged 10-24 years) and/or health service providers. Nineteen studies were identified for inclusion from 15 countries. Thematic analyses identified key themes across the studies. RESULTS:Findings suggest that youth lacked knowledge about STIs and services. In addition, youth experienced barriers related to service availability and a lack of integration of services. The most reported barriers were related to acceptability of services. Youth reported avoiding services or having confidentiality concerns based on provider demographics and some behaviors. Finally, experiences of shame and stigma were common barriers to seeking care. CONCLUSIONS:Adolescents in low- and middle-income countries experience significant barriers in obtaining STI and SRH services. Improving uptake may require efforts to address clinic systems and provider attitudes, including confidentiality issues. Moreover, addressing barriers to STI services may require addressing cultural norms related to adolescent sexuality.
Project description:Self-rated health (SRH) is a measure of perceived health that has been shown to predict use of community services, functional decline, pain, and mortality. Many factors associated with SRH have been identified, but unmet need for physical assistance with activities of daily living (ADL) has not yet been examined. The objective of this paper is to examine the association between unmet need and SRH while accounting for the effects of other, previously identified, correlates of SRH. We conducted a secondary analysis of a population-based study of 839 residents of Montréal, Québec who were 75 years of age or older, not cognitively impaired, and living in the community. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between met and unmet personal ADL (PADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) need for physical assistance with SRH. Among 508 disabled community-dwelling elderly, for each additional unmet IADL need, subjects were 1.70 (95% CI: 1.11-2.61) times more likely to report poorer SRH. For each additional unmet PADL need, subjects were 2.26 (95% CI: 1.31-3.91) times more likely to report poorer SRH. Subjects at increased risk of malnutrition, with greater comorbidity and whose income was insufficient to meet their needs were also more likely to report poorer SRH. After adjustment for important correlates, unmet PADL and IADL needs retain a statistically significant association with poorer SRH, with nutritional status, comorbid conditions, and income satisfaction being important confounders of the relationship.
Project description:In China, policy and social taboo prevent unmarried adolescents from accessing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Research is needed to determine the SRH needs of highly disadvantaged groups, such as adolescent female sex workers (FSWs). This study describes SRH knowledge, contraception use, pregnancy, and factors associated with unmet need for modern contraception among adolescent FSWs in Kunming, China.A cross-sectional study using a one-stage cluster sampling method was employed to recruit adolescents aged 15 to 20 years, and who self-reported having received money or gifts in exchange for sex in the past 6 months. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered by trained peer educators or health workers. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine correlates of low knowledge and unmet need for modern contraception.SRH knowledge was poor among the 310 adolescents surveyed; only 39% had heard of any long-acting reversible contraception (implant, injection or IUD). Despite 98% reporting not wanting to get pregnant, just 43% reported consistent condom use and 28% currently used another form of modern contraception. Unmet need for modern contraception was found in 35% of adolescents, and was associated with having a current non-paying partner, regular alcohol use, and having poorer SRH knowledge. Past abortion was common (136, 44%). In the past year, 76% had reported a contraception consultation but only 27% reported ever receiving SRH information from a health service.This study demonstrated a low level of SRH knowledge, a high unmet need for modern contraception and a high prevalence of unintended pregnancy among adolescent FSWs in Kunming. Most girls relied on condoms, emergency contraception, or traditional methods, putting them at risk of unwanted pregnancy. This study identifies an urgent need for Chinese adolescent FSWs to be able to access quality SRH information and effective modern contraception.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To explore international migrant sex workers' experiences and narratives pertaining to the unmet need for and access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) at the Mexico-Guatemala border. METHODS:An inductive qualitative analysis was conducted based on ethnographic fieldwork (2012-2015) including participant observation and audio-recorded in-depth interviews. The participants were female sex workers aged 18 years or older and international migrants working at the Mexico-Guatemala border. RESULTS:In total, 31 women were included. The greatest areas of unmet need included accessible, affordable, and nonstigmatizing access to contraception and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. On both sides of the border, poor information about the health systems, services affordability, and perceived stigma resulted in barriers to access SRH services, with women preferring to access private doctors in their destination country or delaying uptake of until their next trip home. Financial barriers prevented women from accessing needed services, with most only receiving SRH services in their destination country through public health regulations surrounding sex work or as urgent care. CONCLUSIONS:There is a crucial need to avoid prioritizing vertical disease-specific services and to promote access to rights-based SRH services for migrant sex workers in both home and destination settings.