Directed Hydroxylation of sp2 and sp3 C-H Bonds Using Stoichiometric Amounts of Cu and H2O2.
ABSTRACT: The use of copper for C-H bond functionalization, compared to other metals, is relatively unexplored. Herein, we report a synthetic protocol for the regioselective hydroxylation of sp2 and sp3 C-H bonds using a directing group, stoichiometric amounts of Cu and H2O2. A wide array of aromatic ketones and aldehydes are oxidized in the carbonyl ?-position with remarkable yields. We also expanded this methodology to hydroxylate the ?-position of alkylic ketones. Spectroscopic characterization, kinetics, and density functional theory calculations point toward the involvement of a mononuclear LCuII(OOH) species, which oxidizes the aromatic sp2 C-H bonds via a concerted heterolytic O-O bond cleavage with concomitant electrophilic attack on the arene system.
Project description:Copper-promoted direct carbonylation of unactivated sp3 C-H and aromatic sp2 C-H bonds of amides was developed using nitromethane as a novel carbonyl source. The sp3 C-H functionalization showed high site-selectivity by favoring the C-H bonds of ?-methyl groups. The sp2 C-H carbonylation featured high regioselectivity and good functional group compatibility. Kinetic isotope effect studies indicated that the sp3 C-H bond breaking step is reversible, whereas the sp2 C-H bond cleavage is an irreversible but not the rate-determining step. Control experiments showed that a nitromethyl intermediate should be involved in the present reaction.
Project description:Selectivity control of varied C-H bonds in a complex molecule is a long-standing goal and still a great challenge in C-H activation field. Most often, such selectivity is achieved by the innate reactivity of different C-H bonds. In this context, the classic Mannich reaction of acetophenone derivatives and imines is ascribed to the more reactive C(sp3)-H bonds ? to the carbonyl, with the much less reactive aromatic C(sp2)-H bonds remaining intact. Herein we report an aromatic C(sp2)-H addition of ketones to imines enabled by manganese catalysis, which totally reverses the innate reactivity of C-H bonds ? to the carbonyl and those on the aromatic ring. Diverse products of ortho-C-H aminoalkylated ketones, cyclized exo-olefinic isoindolines, and three-component methylated isoindolines can be successfully accessed under mild reaction conditions, which significantly expands the synthetic utilities of ketones as simple bulk chemicals.
Project description:We report herein a new approach for the synthesis of tellurium-bridged aromatic compounds based on the sequential electrophilic telluration of C(sp2)-Zn and C(sp2)-H bonds with tellurium(iv) chlorides. A combination of transition metal-catalyzed (migratory) arylmetalation of alkynes and sequential telluration allows for the expedient construction of a library of functionalized benzo[b]tellurophenes. Furthermore, a variety of heteroarene-fused benzotellurophenes and other novel tellurium-embedded polycyclic aromatics can be readily synthesized from the corresponding 2-iodoheterobiaryls.
Project description:The Rh(III)-catalyzed cascade addition of a C-H bond across alkene and carbonyl ?-bonds is reported. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions with low catalyst loading. A range of directing groups were shown to be effective as was the functionalization of alkenyl in addition to aromatic C(sp2)-H bonds. When the enone and aldehyde electrophile were tethered together, cyclic ?-hydroxy ketones with three contiguous stereocenters were obtained with high diastereoselectivity. The intermolecular three-component cascade reaction was demonstrated for both aldehyde and imine electrophiles. Moreover, the first x-ray structure of a cationic Cp*Rh(III) enolate with interatomic distances consistent with an ?3-bound enolate is reported.
Project description:The pyridine-enabled cross dehydrogenative coupling of sp2 C-H bonds of polyfluoroarenes and unactivated sp3 C-H bonds of amides was achieved via a copper-promoted process with good functional group compatibility. This reaction showed great site-selectivity by favoring the sp2 C-H bonds ortho to two fluoro atoms of arenes and the sp3 C-H bonds of ?-methyl groups over those of the ?-methylene, ?- or ?-methyl groups of the aliphatic amides. Mechanistic studies revealed that sp3 C-H bond cleavage is an irreversible but not the rate-determining step, and the sp2 C-H functionalization of arenes appears precedent to the sp3 C-H functionalization of amides in this process.
Project description:Photoredox catalysis has been developed to achieve oxidative C-H chlorination of aromatic compounds using NaCl as the chlorine source and Na2S2O8 as the oxidant. The reactions occur at room temperature and exhibit exclusive selectivity for C(sp2)-H bonds over C(sp3)-H bonds. The method has been used for the chlorination of a diverse set of substrates, including the expedited synthesis of key intermediates to bioactive compounds and a drug.
Project description:A number of new transition metal catalyzed methods for the formation of C(sp2 )-C(sp3 ) bonds have recently been described. These reactions often utilize bidentate polypyridyl-ligated Ni catalysts, and paramagnetic NiI halide or aryl species are proposed in the catalytic cycles. However, there is little knowledge about complexes of this type. Here, we report the synthesis of paramagnetic bidentate polypyridyl-ligated Ni halide and aryl complexes through elementary reactions proposed in catalytic cycles for C(sp2 )-C(sp3 ) bond formation. We investigate the ability of these complexes to undergo organometallic reactions that are relevant to C(sp2 )-C(sp3 ) coupling through stoichiometric studies and also explore their catalytic activity.
Project description:Heme and nonheme monoxygenases and dioxygenases catalyze important oxygen atom transfer reactions to substrates in the body. It is now well established that the cytochrome P450 enzymes react through the formation of a high-valent iron(IV)-oxo heme cation radical. Its precursor in the catalytic cycle, the iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex, was tested for catalytic activity and found to be a sluggish oxidant of hydroxylation, epoxidation and sulfoxidation reactions. In a recent twist of events, evidence has emerged of several nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes that appear to react with substrates via oxygen atom transfer processes. Although it was not clear from these studies whether the iron(III)-hydroperoxo reacted directly with substrates or that an initial O-O bond cleavage preceded the reaction. Clearly, the catalytic activity of heme and nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes is substantially different, but the origins of this are still poorly understood and warrant a detailed analysis. In this work, an extensive computational analysis of aromatic hydroxylation by biomimetic nonheme and heme iron systems is presented, starting from an iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex with pentadentate ligand system (L5(2)). Direct C-O bond formation by an iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex is investigated, as well as the initial heterolytic and homolytic bond cleavage of the hydroperoxo group. The calculations show that [(L5(2))Fe(III)(OOH)](2+) should be able to initiate an aromatic hydroxylation process, although a low-energy homolytic cleavage pathway is only slightly higher in energy. A detailed valence bond and thermochemical analysis rationalizes the differences in chemical reactivity of heme and nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo and show that the main reason for this particular nonheme complex to be reactive comes from the fact that they homolytically split the O-O bond, whereas a heterolytic O-O bond breaking in heme iron(III)-hydroperoxo is found.
Project description:The intriguing deactivation of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B4 enzyme induced by mutation of a single residue, Phe429 to His, is explored by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations of the O-OH bond activation of the (Fe(3+)OOH)(-) intermediate. It is found that the F429H mutant of CYP 2B4 undergoes homolytic instead of heterolytic O-OH bond cleavage. Thus, the mutant acquires the following characteristics of a heme oxygenase enzyme: (a) donation by His429 of an additional NH---S H-bond to the cysteine ligand combined with the presence of the substrate retards the heterolytic cleavage and gives rise to homolytic O-OH cleavage, and (b) the Thr302/water cluster orients nascent OH(•) and ensures efficient meso hydroxylation.
Project description:sp3 C-F Bonds of fluoroalkanes (7 examples; 1°, 2° and 3°) undergo addition to a low-valent Mg-Mg species generating reactive organomagnesium reagents. Further reactions with a series of electrophiles results in a net C-F to C-B, C-Si, C-Sn or C-C bond transformation (11 examples, diversity). The new reactivity has been exploited in an unprecedented one-pot magnesium-mediated coupling of sp3 C-F and sp2 C-F bonds. Calculations suggest that the sp3 C-F bond activation step occurs by frontside nucleophilic attack of the Mg-Mg reagent on the fluoroalkane.