Insertion of [1.1.1]propellane into aromatic disulfides.
ABSTRACT: Herein we present the synthesis of symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted 1,3-bissulfanylbicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes from disulfides and [1.1.1]propellane. Bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes (BCPs) recently gained interest as rigid linkers and as bioisosters of para-substituted benzene and alkyne moieties. The most promising precursor for BCPs is [1.1.1]propellane (1). The available methods to synthesize BCPs are quite limited and many groups contribute to the development of novel methods. The insertion of 1 into disulfide bonds is known, but has never been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we show that an UV initiated radical reaction can be used to synthesize symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted BCP sulfides by reaction of [1.1.1]propellane (1) with disulfides. Depending on the ratio of 1 to the disulfide, only the BCP product (with up to 98% yield) or a mixture of BCP and staffane can be obtained. The reaction tolerates functional groups such as halogens, alkyl and methoxy groups. The separation of the corresponding BCP and staffane products is challenging but possible by column chromatography and preparative TLC in most cases. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the rod-like structure of the staffanes that is often required in material applications.
Project description:Bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes (BCPs) have sparked the interest of medicinal chemists due to their recent discovery as bioisosteres of aromatic rings. To study the biological activity of this relatively new class of bioisosteres, reliable methods to incorporate BCPs into target molecules are in high demand, as reflected by a flurry of methods for BCP synthesis in recent years. In this work, we disclose a general method for the synthesis of BCP-containing dithianes which, upon deprotection, provide access to BCP analogues of medicinally abundant diarylketones. A broad scope of 2-aryl-1,3-dithianes, including several heterocyclic derivatives, react with [1.1.1]propellane to afford 26 new derivatives in good to excellent yields. Further transformation of the dithiane portion into a variety of functional groups demonstrates the robustness of the products. A computational study indicates that the reaction of 2-aryl-1,3-dithianes and [1.1.1]propellane proceeds via a two-electron pathway.
Project description:Bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes (BCPs) are important bioisosteres of 1,4-disubstituted arenes, tert-butyl and acetylenic groups that can impart physicochemical benefits on drug candidates. Here we describe the synthesis of BCPs bearing carbon and halogen substituents under exceptionally mild reaction conditions, via triethylborane-initiated atom-transfer radical addition ring-opening of tricyclo[1.1.1.01,3]pentane (TCP) with alkyl halides. This chemistry displays broad substrate scope and functional group tolerance, enabling application to BCP analogues of biologically-relevant targets such as peptides, nucleosides, and pharmaceuticals. The BCP halide products can be converted to the parent phenyl/tert-butyl surrogates through triethylborane-promoted dehalogenation, or to other derivatives including carbonyls, alcohols, and heterocycles.
Project description:Multicomponent reactions are relied on in both academic and industrial synthetic organic chemistry owing to their step- and atom-economy advantages over traditional synthetic sequences1. Recently, bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane (BCP) motifs have become valuable as pharmaceutical bioisosteres of benzene rings, and in particular 1,3-disubstituted BCP moieties have become widely adopted in medicinal chemistry as para-phenyl ring replacements2. These structures are often generated from [1.1.1]propellane via opening of the internal C-C bond through the addition of either radicals or metal-based nucleophiles3-13. The resulting propellane-addition adducts are then transformed to the requisite polysubstituted BCP compounds via a range of synthetic sequences that traditionally involve multiple chemical steps. Although this approach has been effective so far, a multicomponent reaction that enables single-step access to complex and diverse polysubstituted drug-like BCP products would be more time efficient compared to current stepwise approaches. Here we report a one-step three-component radical coupling of [1.1.1]propellane to afford diverse functionalized bicyclopentanes using various radical precursors and heteroatom nucleophiles via a metallaphotoredox catalysis protocol. This copper-mediated reaction operates on short timescales (five minutes to one hour) across multiple (more than ten) nucleophile classes and can accommodate a diverse array of radical precursors, including those that generate alkyl, ?-acyl, trifluoromethyl and sulfonyl radicals. This method has been used to rapidly prepare BCP analogues of known pharmaceuticals, one of which is substantially more metabolically stable than its commercial progenitor.
Project description:Herein, we present the synthesis of the bench-stable sodium bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanesulfinate (BCP-SO2 Na) and its application in the synthesis of bicyclo[1.1.1]pentyl (BCP) sulfones and sulfonamides. The salt can be obtained in a four-step procedure from commercially available precursors in multigram scale without the need for column chromatography or crystallization. Sulfinates are known to be useful precursors in radical and nucleophilic reactions and are widely used in medicinal chemistry. This building block enables access to BCP sulfones and sulfonamides avoiding the volatile [1.1.1]propellane which is favorable for the extension of SAR studies. Further, BCP-SO2 Na enables the synthesis of products that were not available with previous methods. A chlorination of BCP-SO2 Na and subsequent reaction with a Grignard reagent provides a new route to BCP sulfoxides. Several products were analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.
Project description:Herein we report the development of a photocatalytic strategy for the divergent preparation of functionalized bicyclo[1.1.1]pentylamines. This approach exploits, for the first time, the ability of nitrogen-radicals to undergo strain-release reaction with [1.1.1]propellane. This reactivity is facilitated by the electrophilic nature of these open-shell intermediates and the presence of strong polar effects in the transition-state for C-N bond formation/ring-opening. With the aid of a simple reductive quenching photoredox cycle, we have successfully harnessed this novel radical strain-release amination as part of a multicomponent cascade compatible with several external trapping agents. Overall, this radical strategy enables the rapid construction of novel amino-functionalized building blocks with potential application in medicinal chemistry programs as p-substituted aniline bioisosteres.
Project description:Symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted methylsulfanyl derivatives of nickel(III) bis(dicarbollide) (Bu4N)[8,8'-(MeS)2-3,3'-Ni(1,2-C2B9H10)2], (Bu4N)[4,4'-(MeS)2-3,3'-Ni(1,2-C2B9H10)2], and (Bu4N)[4,7'-(MeS)2-3,3'-Ni(1,2-C2B9H10)2] were synthesized, starting from [Ni(acac)2]3 and the corresponding methylsulfanyl derivatives of nido-carborane (Bu4N)[10-MeS-7,8-C2B9H11] and (Bu4N)[10-MeS-7,8-C2B9H11]. Structures of the synthesized metallacarboranes were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and quantum chemical calculations. The symmetrically substituted 8,8'-isomer adopts transoid conformation stabilized by two pairs of intramolecular C-H···S hydrogen bonds between the dicarbollide ligands. The unsymmetrically substituted 4,7'-isomer adopts gauche conformation, which is stabilized by two nonequivalent C-H···S hydrogen bonds and one short chalcogen B-H···S bond (2.53 Å, -1.4 kcal/mol). The gauche conformation was found to be also preferred for the 4,7'-isomer.
Project description:Cationic monoboranes exhibit a rich chemistry. By constrast, only a few cationic diboranes are known, that all are symmetrically substituted. In this work, the first unsymmetrically substituted dicationic diboranes, featuring sp2 -sp2 -hybridized boron atoms, are reported. The compounds are formed by intramolecular rearrangement from preceding isomeric symmetrically substituted dicationic diboranes, a process that is catalyzed by nucleophiles. From the temperature-dependence of the isomerization rate, activation parameters for this unprecedented rearrangement are derived. The difference in fluoride ion affinity between the two boron atoms and the bonding situation in these unique unsymmetrical dicationic diboranes are evaluated.
Project description:Block copolymers (BCPs), through their self-assembly, provide an excellent guiding platform for precise controlled localization of maghemite nanoparticles (MNPs). Diblock copolymers (di/BCP) represent the most applied matrix to host filler components due to their morphological simplicity. A series of nanocomposites based on diblock copolymer or triblock terpolymer matrices and magnetic nanoparticles were prepared to study and compare the influence of an additional block into the BCP matrix. MNPs were grafted with low molecular weight polystyrene (PS) chains in order to be segregated in a specific phase of the matrix to induce selective localization. After the mixing of the BCPs with 10% w/v PS-g-MNPs, nanocomposite thin films were formed by spin coating. Solvent vapor annealing (SVA) enabled the PS-g-MNPs selective placement within the PS domains of the BCPs, as revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The recorded images have proven that high amounts of functionalized MNPs can be controllably localized within the same block (PS), despite the architecture of the BCPs (AB vs. ABC). The adopted lamellar structure of the "neat" BCP thin films was maintained for MNPs loading approximately up to 10% w/v, while, for higher content, the BCP adopted lamellar morphology is partially disrupted, or even disappears for both AB and ABC architectures.
Project description:Advancements in the directed self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) have prompted the development of new materials with larger effective interaction parameters (?e). This enables BCP systems with phase separation at increasingly small degrees of polymerization (N). Very often these systems reside near the order-disorder transition and fit between the weak and strong segregation limits where the behavior of BCP systems is not as thoroughly understood. Utilizing resonant soft X-ray reflectivity (RSoXR) enables both the BCP pitch (L0) and interface width (wM) to be determined simultaneously, through a direct characterization of the composition profile of BCP lamellae oriented parallel to a substrate. A series of high ?e BCPs with ?e ranging from ?0.04 to 0.25 and ?eN from 19 to 70 have been investigated. The L0/wm ratio serves as an important metric for the feasibility of a material for nanopatterning applications; the results of the RSoXR measurement are used to establish a relationship between ?e and L0/wm. The results of this analysis are correlated with experimentally established limits for the functionality of BCPs in nanopatterning applications. These results also provide guidance for the magnitude of ?e needed to achieve small interface width for samples with sub-10 nm L0.
Project description:The exquisite selectivity and unique transport properties of membrane proteins can be harnessed for a variety of engineering and biomedical applications if suitable membranes can be produced. Amphiphilic block copolymers (BCPs), developed as stable lipid analogs, form membranes that functionally incorporate membrane proteins and are ideal for such applications. While high protein density and planar membrane morphology are most desirable, BCP-membrane protein aggregates have so far been limited to low protein densities in either vesicular or bilayer morphologies. Here, we used dialysis to reproducibly form planar and vesicular BCP membranes with a high density of reconstituted aquaporin-0 (AQP0) water channels. We show that AQP0 retains its biological activity when incorporated at high density in BCP membranes, and that the morphology of the BCP-protein aggregates can be controlled by adjusting the amount of incorporated AQP0. We also show that BCPs can be used to form two-dimensional crystals of AQP0.