Chemical Labeling and Affinity Capture of Inosine-Containing RNAs Using Acrylamidofluorescein.
ABSTRACT: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a widespread and conserved post-transcriptional modification, producing significant changes in cellular function and behavior. Accurately identifying, detecting, and quantifying these sites in the transcriptome is necessary to improve our understanding of editing dynamics, its broader biological roles, and connections with diseases. Chemical labeling of edited bases coupled with affinity enrichment has enabled improved characterization of several forms of RNA editing. However, there are no approaches currently available for pull-down of inosines. To address this need, we explore acrylamide as a labeling motif and report here an acrylamidofluorescein reagent that reacts with inosine and enables enrichment of inosine-containing RNA transcripts. This method provides improved sensitivity in the detection and identification of inosines toward a more comprehensive transcriptome-wide analysis of A-to-I editing. Acrylamide derivatization is also highly generalizable, providing potential for the labeling of inosine with a wide variety of probes and affinity handles.
Project description:Inosine is an abundant RNA modification in the human transcriptome and is essential for many biological processes in modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of adenosines to inosines (A-to-I editing) in double-stranded regions. We previously established a biochemical method called "inosine chemical erasing" (ICE) to directly identify inosines on RNA strands with high reliability. Here, we have applied the ICE method combined with deep sequencing (ICE-seq) to conduct an unbiased genome-wide screening of A-to-I editing sites in the transcriptome of human adult brain. Taken together with the sites identified by the conventional ICE method, we mapped 19,791 novel sites and newly found 1258 edited mRNAs, including 66 novel sites in coding regions, 41 of which cause altered amino acid assignment. ICE-seq detected novel editing sites in various repeat elements as well as in short hairpins. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these edited mRNAs are associated with transcription, energy metabolism, and neurological disorders, providing new insights into various aspects of human brain functions.
Project description:RNA modifications are present in all classes of RNAs. They control the fate of mRNAs by affecting their processing, translation, or stability. Inosine is a particularly widespread modification in metazoan mRNA arising from deamination of adenosine catalyzed by the RNA-targeting adenosine deaminases ADAR1 or ADAR2. Inosine is commonly thought to be interpreted as guanosine by cellular machines and during translation. Here, we systematically test ribosomal decoding using mass spectrometry. We show that while inosine is primarily interpreted as guanosine it can also be decoded as adenosine, and rarely even as uracil. Decoding of inosine as adenosine and uracil is context-dependent. In addition, mass spectrometry analysis indicates that inosine causes ribosome stalling especially when multiple inosines are present in the codon. Indeed, ribosome profiling data from human tissues confirm inosine-dependent ribosome stalling in vivo. To our knowledge this is the first study where decoding of inosine is tested in a comprehensive and unbiased way. Thus, our study shows novel, unanticipated functions for inosines in mRNAs, further expanding coding potential and affecting translational efficiency.
Project description:Straightforward methods for detecting adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing are key to a better understanding of its regulation, function, and connection with disease. We address this need by developing a novel reagent, N-(4-ethynylphenyl)acrylamide (EPhAA), and illustrating its ability to selectively label inosine in RNA. EPhAA is synthesized in a single step, reacts rapidly with inosine, and is "click"-compatible, enabling flexible attachment of fluorescent probes at editing sites. We first validate EPhAA reactivity and selectivity for inosine in both ribonucleosides and RNA substrates, and then apply our approach to directly monitor in vitro A-to-I RNA editing activity using recombinant ADAR enzymes. This method improves upon existing inosine chemical-labeling techniques and provides a cost-effective, rapid, and non-radioactive approach for detecting inosine formation in RNA. We envision this method will improve the study of A-to-I editing and enable better characterization of RNA modification patterns in different settings.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing entails the enzymatic deamination of adenosines to inosines by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). Dysregulated A-to-I editing has been implicated in various diseases, including cancers. However, the precise factors governing the A-to-I editing and their physiopathological implications remain as a long-standing question. Herein, we unravel that DEAH box helicase 9 (DHX9), at least partially dependent of its helicase activity, functions as a bidirectional regulator of A-to-I editing in cancer cells. Intriguingly, the ADAR substrate specificity determines the opposing effects of DHX9 on editing as DHX9 silencing preferentially represses editing of ADAR1-specific substrates, whereas augments ADAR2-specific substrate editing. Analysis of 11 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) reveals a striking overexpression of DHX9 in tumors. Further, tumorigenicity studies demonstrate a helicase-dependent oncogenic role of DHX9 in cancer development. In sum, DHX9 constitutes a bidirectional regulatory mode in A-to-I editing, which is in part responsible for the dysregulated editome profile in cancer.
Project description:Endonuclease V (EndoV) is an enzyme with specificity for deaminated adenosine (inosine) in nucleic acids. EndoV from Escherichia coli (EcEndoV) acts both on inosines in DNA and RNA, whereas the human homolog cleaves only at inosines in RNA. Inosines in DNA are mutagenic and the role of EndoV in DNA repair is well established. In contrast, the biological function of EndoV in RNA processing is largely unexplored. Here we have characterized a second mammalian EndoV homolog, mouse EndoV (mEndoV), and show that mEndoV shares the same RNA selectivity as human EndoV (hEndoV). Mouse EndoV cleaves the same inosine-containing substrates as hEndoV, but with reduced efficiencies. The crystal structure of mEndoV reveals a conformation different from the hEndoV and prokaryotic EndoV structures, particularly for the conserved tyrosine in the wedge motif, suggesting that this strand separating element has some flexibility. Molecular dynamics simulations of mouse and human EndoV reveal alternative conformations for the invariant tyrosine. The configuration of the active site, on the other hand, is very similar between the prokaryotic and mammalian versions of EndoV.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>RNA editing generates protein diversity by altering RNA sequences in coding regions without changing the overall DNA sequence. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing events have recently been reported in some types of cancer, but they are rare in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, this study was conducted to identify diverse RNA editing in CRC.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We compared transcriptome data of 39 CRC samples and paired adjacent tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas database to identify RNA editing patterns in CRC, focusing on canonical A-to-I RNA edits in coding sequence regions. We investigated nonsynonymous RNA editing patterns by comparing tumor and normal tissue transcriptome data.<h4>Results</h4>The number of RNA edits varied from 12 to 42 per sample. We also observed that hypoand hyper-RNA editing patterns were distinguishable within the samples. We found 10 recurrent nonsynonymous RNA editing candidates in nine genes (PDLIM, NEIL1, SRP9, GLI1, APMAP, IGFBP7, ZNF358, COPA, and ZNF587B) and validated some by Sanger sequencing and the inosine chemical erasing assay. We further showed that editing at these positions was performed by the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 enzyme. Most of these genes are hypoedited in CRC, but editing of GLI1 was increased in cancer tissues compared with normal tissues.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results show that nonsynonymous RNA editing patterns can be used to identify CRC patients and could serve as novel biomarkers for CRC.
Project description:Adenosine to inosine (A > I) RNA editing, which is catalyzed by the ADAR family of proteins, is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which transcriptomic diversity is generated. Indeed, a number of genome-wide analyses have shown that A > I editing is not limited to a few mRNAs, as originally thought, but occurs widely across the transcriptome, especially in the brain. Importantly, there is increasing evidence that A > I editing is essential for animal development and nervous system function. To more efficiently characterize the complete catalog of ADAR events in the mammalian transcriptome we developed a high-throughput protocol to identify A > I editing sites, which exploits the capacity of glyoxal to protect guanosine, but not inosine, from RNAse T1 treatment, thus facilitating extraction of RNA fragments with inosine bases at their termini for high-throughput sequencing. Using this method we identified 665 editing sites in mouse brain RNA, including most known sites and suite of novel sites that include nonsynonymous changes to protein-coding genes, hyperediting of genes known to regulate p53, and alterations to non-protein-coding RNAs. This method is applicable to any biological system for the de novo discovery of A > I editing sites, and avoids the complicated informatic and practical issues associated with editing site identification using traditional RNA sequencing data. This approach has the potential to substantially increase our understanding of the extent and function of RNA editing, and thereby to shed light on the role of transcriptional plasticity in evolution, development, and cognition.
Project description:Gene structure and expression in diplonemid mitochondria are unparalleled. Genes are fragmented in pieces (modules) that are separately transcribed, followed by the joining of module transcripts to contiguous RNAs. Some instances of unique uridine insertion RNA editing at module boundaries were noted, but the extent and potential occurrence of other editing types remained unknown. Comparative analysis of deep transcriptome and genome data from Diplonema papillatum mitochondria reveals ?220 post-transcriptional insertions of uridines, but no insertions of other nucleotides nor deletions. In addition, we detect in total 114 substitutions of cytosine by uridine and adenosine by inosine, amassed into unusually compact clusters. Inosines in transcripts were confirmed experimentally. This is the first report of adenosine-to-inosine editing of mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs in mitochondria. In mRNAs, editing causes mostly amino-acid additions and non-synonymous substitutions; in ribosomal RNAs, it permits formation of canonical secondary structures. Two extensively edited transcripts were compared across four diplonemids. The pattern of uridine-insertion editing is strictly conserved, whereas substitution editing has diverged dramatically, but still rendering diplonemid proteins more similar to other eukaryotic orthologs. We posit that RNA editing not only compensates but also sustains, or even accelerates, ultra-rapid evolution of genome structure and sequence in diplonemid mitochondria.
Project description:ADARs (Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) "edit" RNA by converting adenosines to inosines within double-stranded regions. The primary targets of ADARs are long duplexes present within noncoding regions of mRNAs, such as introns and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). Because adenosine and inosine have different base-pairing properties, editing within these regions can alter splicing and recognition by small RNAs. However, despite numerous studies identifying multiple editing sites in these genomic regions, little is known about the extent to which editing sites co-occur on individual transcripts or the functional output of these combinatorial editing events. To begin to address these questions, we performed an ultra-deep sequencing analysis of 4 Caenorhabditis elegans 3' UTRs that are known ADAR targets. Synchronous editing events were determined for the long duplexes in vivo. Furthermore, the validity of each editing event was confirmed by sequencing the same regions of mRNA from worms that lack A-to-I editing. This analysis identified a large number of editing sites that can occur within each 3' UTR, but interestingly, each individual transcript contained only a small fraction of these A-to-I editing events. In addition, editing patterns were not random, indicating that an editing event can affect the efficiency of editing at subsequent adenosines. Furthermore, we identified specific sites that can be both positively and negatively correlated with additional sites leading to mutually exclusive editing patterns. These results suggest that editing in noncoding regions is selective and hyper-editing of cellular RNAs is rare.
Project description:Background In cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerotic disorder are the most frequent and important with respect to morbidity and mortality. Inflammation mediated by immune cells is central in all parts of the atherosclerotic progress, and further understanding of the underlying mechanisms is needed. Growing evidence suggests that deamination of adenosine-to-inosine in RNA is crucial for a correct immune response; nevertheless, the role of adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in atherogenesis has barely been studied. Several proteins have affinity for inosines in RNA, one being ENDOV (endonuclease V), which binds and cleaves RNA at inosines. Data on ENDOV in atherosclerosis are lacking. Methods and Results Quantitative polymerase chain reaction on ENDOV mRNA showed an increased level in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques compared with control veins. Inosine-ribonuclease activity as measured by an enzyme activity assay is detected in immune cells relevant for the atherosclerotic process. Abolishing <i>EndoV</i> in atherogenic apolipoprotein E-deficient (<i>ApoE<sup>-/-</sup></i>) mice reduces the atherosclerotic plaque burden, both in size and lipid content. In addition, in a brain stroke model, mice without ENDOV suffer less damage than control mice. Finally, lack of <i>EndoV</i> reduces the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic lesions in atherogenic <i>ApoE<sup>-/-</sup></i> mice. Conclusions <i>ENDOV</i> is upregulated in human atherosclerotic lesions, and data from mice suggest that ENDOV promotes atherogenesis by enhancing the monocyte recruitment into the atherosclerotic lesion, potentially by increasing the effect of CCL2 activation on these cells.