Rapid, point-of-care diagnosis of tuberculosis with novel Truenat assay: Cost-effectiveness analysis for India's public sector.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Truenat is a novel molecular assay that rapidly detects tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin-resistance. Due to the portability of its battery-powered testing platform, it may be valuable in peripheral healthcare settings in India. METHODS:Using a microsimulation model, we compared four TB diagnostic strategies for HIV-negative adults with presumptive TB: (1) sputum smear microscopy in designated microscopy centers (DMCs) (SSM); (2) Xpert MTB/RIF in DMCs (Xpert); (3) Truenat in DMCs (Truenat DMC); and (4) Truenat for point-of-care testing in primary healthcare facilities (Truenat POC). We projected life expectancy, costs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and 5-year budget impact of deploying Truenat POC in India's public sector. We defined a strategy "cost-effective" if its ICER was
Project description:BACKGROUND:Testing urine improves the number of tuberculosis diagnoses made among patients in hospital with HIV. In conjunction with the two-country randomised Rapid Urine-based Screening for Tuberculosis to Reduce AIDS-related Mortality in Hospitalised Patients in Africa (STAMP) trial, we used a microsimulation model to estimate the effects on clinical outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of adding urine-based tuberculosis screening to sputum screening for hospitalised patients with HIV. METHODS:We compared two tuberculosis screening strategies used irrespective of symptoms among hospitalised patients with HIV in Malawi and South Africa: a GeneXpert assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance (Xpert) in sputum samples (standard of care) versus sputum Xpert combined with a lateral flow assay for M tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan in urine (Determine TB-LAM Ag test, Abbott, Waltham, MA, USA [formerly Alere]; TB-LAM) and concentrated urine Xpert (intervention). A cohort of simulated patients was modelled using selected characteristics of participants, tuberculosis diagnostic yields, and use of hospital resources in the STAMP trial. We calibrated 2-month model outputs to the STAMP trial results and projected clinical and economic outcomes at 2 years, 5 years, and over a lifetime. We judged the intervention to be cost-effective if the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was less than US$750/year of life saved (YLS) in Malawi and $940/YLS in South Africa. A modified intervention of adding only TB-LAM to the standard of care was also evaluated. We did a budget impact analysis of countrywide implementation of the intervention. FINDINGS:The intervention increased life expectancy by 0·5-1·2 years and was cost-effective, with an ICER of $450/YLS in Malawi and $840/YLS in South Africa. The ICERs decreased over time. At lifetime horizon, the intervention remained cost-effective under nearly all modelled assumptions. The modified intervention was at least as cost-effective as the intervention (ICERs $420/YLS in Malawi and $810/YLS in South Africa). Over 5 years, the intervention would save around 51?000 years of life in Malawi and around 171?000 years of life in South Africa. Health-care expenditure for screened individuals was estimated to increase by $37 million (10·8%) and $261 million (2·8%), respectively. INTERPRETATION:Urine-based tuberculosis screening of all hospitalised patients with HIV could increase life expectancy and be cost-effective in resource-limited settings. Urine TB-LAM is especially attractive because of high incremental diagnostic yield and low additional cost compared with sputum Xpert, making a compelling case for expanding its use to all hospitalised patients with HIV in areas with high HIV burden and endemic tuberculosis. FUNDING:UK Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, Wellcome Trust, US National Institutes of Health, Royal College of Physicians, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Project description:In settings with high tuberculosis (TB) prevalence, 15-30% of HIV-infected individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) have undiagnosed TB. Such patients are usually screened by symptoms and sputum smear, which have poor sensitivity.To project the clinical and economic outcomes of using Xpert MTB/RIF(Xpert), a rapid TB/rifampicin-resistance diagnostic, to screen individuals initiating ART.We used a microsimulation model to evaluate the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of alternative TB screening modalities - in all patients or only symptomatic patients - for hypothetical cohorts of individuals initiating ART in South Africa (mean CD4 cell count = 171 cells/?l; TB prevalence 22%). We simulated no active screening and four diagnostic strategies, smear microscopy (sensitivity 23%); smear and culture (sensitivity, 100%); one Xpert sample (sensitivity in smear-negative TB: 43%); two Xpert samples (sensitivity in smear-negative TB: 62%). Outcomes included projected life expectancy, lifetime costs (2010 US$), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Strategies with ICERs less than $7100 (South African gross domestic product per capita) were considered very cost-effective.Compared with no screening, life expectancy in TB-infected patients increased by 1.6 months using smear in symptomatic patients and by 6.6 months with two Xpert samples in all patients. At 22% TB prevalence, the ICER of smear for all patients was $2800 per year of life saved (YLS), and of Xpert (two samples) for all patients was $5100/YLS. Strategies involving one Xpert sample or symptom screening were less efficient.Model-based analysis suggests that screening all individuals initiating ART in South Africa with two Xpert samples is very cost-effective.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Point-of-care CD4 tests at HIV diagnosis could improve linkage to care in resource-limited settings. Our objective is to evaluate the clinical and economic impact of point-of-care CD4 tests compared to laboratory-based tests in Mozambique.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>We use a validated model of HIV testing, linkage, and treatment (CEPAC-International) to examine two strategies of immunological staging in Mozambique: (1) laboratory-based CD4 testing (LAB-CD4) and (2) point-of-care CD4 testing (POC-CD4). Model outcomes include 5-y survival, life expectancy, lifetime costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Input parameters include linkage to care (LAB-CD4, 34%; POC-CD4, 61%), probability of correctly detecting antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility (sensitivity: LAB-CD4, 100%; POC-CD4, 90%) or ART ineligibility (specificity: LAB-CD4, 100%; POC-CD4, 85%), and test cost (LAB-CD4, US$10; POC-CD4, US$24). In sensitivity analyses, we vary POC-CD4-specific parameters, as well as cohort and setting parameters to reflect a range of scenarios in sub-Saharan Africa. We consider ICERs less than three times the per capita gross domestic product in Mozambique (US$570) to be cost-effective, and ICERs less than one times the per capita gross domestic product in Mozambique to be very cost-effective. Projected 5-y survival in HIV-infected persons with LAB-CD4 is 60.9% (95% CI, 60.9%-61.0%), increasing to 65.0% (95% CI, 64.9%-65.1%) with POC-CD4. Discounted life expectancy and per person lifetime costs with LAB-CD4 are 9.6 y (95% CI, 9.6-9.6 y) and US$2,440 (95% CI, US$2,440-US$2,450) and increase with POC-CD4 to 10.3 y (95% CI, 10.3-10.3 y) and US$2,800 (95% CI, US$2,790-US$2,800); the ICER of POC-CD4 compared to LAB-CD4 is US$500/year of life saved (YLS) (95% CI, US$480-US$520/YLS). POC-CD4 improves clinical outcomes and remains near the very cost-effective threshold in sensitivity analyses, even if point-of-care CD4 tests have lower sensitivity/specificity and higher cost than published values. In other resource-limited settings with fewer opportunities to access care, POC-CD4 has a greater impact on clinical outcomes and remains cost-effective compared to LAB-CD4. Limitations of the analysis include the uncertainty around input parameters, which is examined in sensitivity analyses. The potential added benefits due to decreased transmission are excluded; their inclusion would likely further increase the value of POC-CD4 compared to LAB-CD4.<h4>Conclusions</h4>POC-CD4 at the time of HIV diagnosis could improve survival and be cost-effective compared to LAB-CD4 in Mozambique, if it improves linkage to care. POC-CD4 could have the greatest impact on mortality in settings where resources for HIV testing and linkage are most limited. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To improve early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) programs, options include replacing laboratory-based tests with point-of-care (POC) assays or investing in strengthened systems for sample transport and result return.<h4>Setting</h4>We used the CEPAC-Pediatric model to examine clinical benefits and costs of 3 EID strategies in Zimbabwe for infants 6 weeks of age.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined (1) laboratory-based EID (LAB), (2) strengthened laboratory-based EID (S-LAB), and (3) POC EID (POC). LAB/S-LAB and POC assays differed in sensitivity (LAB/S-LAB 100%, POC 96.9%) and specificity (LAB/S-LAB 99.6%, POC 99.9%). LAB/S-LAB/POC algorithms also differed in: probability of result return (79%/91%/98%), time until result return (61/53/1 days), probability of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) after positive result (52%/71%/86%), and total cost/test ($18.10/$30.47/$30.71). We projected life expectancy (LE) and average lifetime per-person cost for all HIV-exposed infants. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) from discounted (3%/year) LE and costs in $/year-of-life saved (YLS), defining cost effective as an ICER <$580/YLS (reflecting programs providing 2 vs. 1 ART regimens). In sensitivity analyses, we varied differences between S-LAB and POC in result return probability, result return time, ART initiation probability, and cost.<h4>Results</h4>For infants who acquired HIV, LAB/S-LAB/POC led to projected one-year survival of 67.3%/69.9%/75.6% and undiscounted LE of 21.74/22.71/24.49 years. For all HIV-exposed infants, undiscounted LE was 63.35/63.38/63.43 years, at discounted lifetime costs of $200/220/240 per infant. In cost-effectiveness analysis, S-LAB was an inefficient use of resources; the ICER of POC vs. LAB was $830/YLS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Current EID programs will attain greater benefit from investing in POC EID rather than strengthening laboratory-based systems.
Project description:Despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), most of the estimated 2.3 to 2.5 million HIV-infected individuals in India remain undiagnosed. The questions of whom to test for HIV and at what frequency remain unclear.We used a simulation model of HIV testing and treatment to examine alternative HIV screening strategies: 1) current practice, 2) one-time, 3) every five years, and 4) annually; and we applied these strategies to three population scenarios: 1) the general Indian population ("national population"), i.e. base case (HIV prevalence 0.29%; incidence 0.032/100 person-years [PY]); 2) high-prevalence districts (HIV prevalence 0.8%; incidence 0.088/100 PY), and 3) high-risk groups (HIV prevalence 5.0%; incidence 0.552/100 PY). Cohort characteristics reflected Indians reporting for HIV testing, with a median age of 35 years, 66% men, and a mean CD4 count of 305 cells/µl. The cost of a rapid HIV test was $3.33. Outcomes included life expectancy, HIV-related direct medical costs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and secondary transmission benefits. The threshold for "cost-effective" was defined as 3x the annual per capita GDP of India ($3,900/year of life saved [YLS]), or for "very cost-effective" was <1x the annual per capita GDP ($1,300/YLS).Compared to current practice, one-time screening was very cost-effective in the national population (ICER: $1,100/YLS), high-prevalence districts (ICER: $800/YLS), and high-risk groups (ICER: $800/YLS). Screening every five years in the national population (ICER: $1,900/YLS) and annual screening in high-prevalence districts (ICER: $1,900/YLS) and high-risk groups (ICER: $1,800/YLS) were also cost-effective. Results were most sensitive to costs of care and linkage-to-care.In India, voluntary HIV screening of the national population every five years offers substantial clinical benefit and is cost-effective. Annual screening is cost-effective among high-risk groups and in high-prevalence districts nationally. Routine HIV screening in India should be implemented.
Project description:Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lateral-flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of novel diagnostic algorithms utilizing combinations of Xpert and LF-LAM for the detection of active TB among people living with HIV.Cost-effectiveness analysis using data from a comparative study of LF-LAM and Xpert, with a target population of HIV-infected individuals with signs/symptoms of TB in Uganda.A decision-analysis model compared multiple strategies for rapid TB diagnosis:sputum smear-microscopy; sputum Xpert; smear-microscopy combined with LF-LAM; and Xpert combined with LF-LAM. Primary outcomes were the costs and DALY's averted for each algorithm. Cost-effectiveness was represented using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER).Compared with an algorithm of Xpert testing alone, the combination of Xpert with LF-LAM was considered highly cost-effective (ICER $57/DALY-averted) at a willingness to pay threshold of Ugandan GDP per capita. Addition of urine LF-LAM testing to smear-microscopy was a less effective strategy than Xpert replacement of smear-microscopy, but was less costly and also considered highly cost-effective (ICER $33 per DALY-averted) compared with continued usage of smear-microscopy alone. Cost-effectiveness of the Xpert plus LF-LAM algorithm was most influenced by HIV/ART costs and life-expectancy of patients after TB treatment.The addition of urinary LF-LAM to TB diagnostic algorithms for HIV-infected individuals is highly cost-effective compared with usage of either sputum smear-microscopy or Xpert alone.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the clinical and economic value of point-of-care CD4 (POC-CD4) or viral load monitoring compared with current practices in Mozambique, a country representative of the diverse resource limitations encountered by HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN/METHODS:We use the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications-International model to examine the clinical impact, cost (2014 US$), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [$/year of life saved (YLS)] of ART monitoring strategies in Mozambique. We compare: monitoring for clinical disease progression [clinical ART monitoring strategy (CLIN)] vs. annual POC-CD4 in rural settings without laboratory services and biannual laboratory CD4 (LAB-CD4), biannual POC-CD4, and annual viral load in urban settings with laboratory services. We examine the impact of a range of values in sensitivity analyses, using Mozambique's 2014 per capita gross domestic product ($620) as a benchmark cost-effectiveness threshold. RESULTS:In rural settings, annual POC-CD4 compared to CLIN improves life expectancy by 2.8 years, reduces time on failed ART by 0.6 years, and yields an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $480/YLS. In urban settings, biannual POC-CD4 is more expensive and less effective than viral load. Compared to biannual LAB-CD4, viral load improves life expectancy by 0.6 years, reduces time on failed ART by 1.0 year, and is cost-effective ($440/YLS). CONCLUSION:In rural settings, annual POC-CD4 improves clinical outcomes and is cost-effective compared to CLIN. In urban settings, viral load has the greatest clinical benefit and is cost-effective compared to biannual POC-CD4 or LAB-CD4. Tailoring ART monitoring strategies to specific settings with different available resources can improve clinical outcomes while remaining economically efficient.
Project description:<b>Introduction: </b>The Temprano and START trials provided evidence to support early ART initiation recommendations. We projected long-term clinical and economic outcomes of immediate ART initiation in Côte d'Ivoire.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>We used a mathematical model to compare three potential ART initiation criteria: 1) CD4 <350/?L (ART<350/?L); 2) CD4 <500/?L (ART<500/?L); and 3) ART at presentation (Immediate ART). Outcomes from the model included life expectancy, 10-year medical resource use, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in $/year of life saved (YLS), and 5-year budget impact. We simulated people with HIV (PWH) in care (mean CD4: 259/?L, SD 198/?L) and transmitted cases. Key input parameters to the analysis included first-line ART efficacy (80% suppression at 6 months) and ART cost ($90/person-year). We assessed cost-effectiveness relative to Côte d'Ivoire's 2017 per capita annual gross domestic product ($1,600).<br><br><b>Results: </b>Immediate ART increased life expectancy by 0.34 years compared to ART<350/?L and 0.17 years compared to ART<500/?L. Immediate ART resulted in 4,500 fewer 10-year transmissions per 170,000 PWH compared to ART<350/?L. In cost-effectiveness analysis, Immediate ART had a 10-year ICER of $680/YLS compared to ART<350/?L, ranging from cost-saving to an ICER of $1,440/YLS as transmission rates varied. ART<500/?L was "dominated" (an inefficient use of resources), compared with Immediate ART. Immediate ART increased the 5-year HIV care budget from $801.9M to $812.6M compared to ART<350/?L.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>In Côte d'Ivoire, immediate compared to later ART initiation will increase life expectancy, decrease HIV transmission, and be cost-effective over the long-term, with modest budget impact. Immediate ART initiation is an appropriate, high-value standard of care in Côte d'Ivoire and similar settings.
Project description:Mobile HIV screening may facilitate early HIV diagnosis. Our objective was to examine the cost-effectiveness of adding a mobile screening unit to current medical facility-based HIV testing in Cape Town, South Africa.We used the Cost Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications International (CEPAC-I) computer simulation model to evaluate two HIV screening strategies in Cape Town: 1) medical facility-based testing (the current standard of care) and 2) addition of a mobile HIV-testing unit intervention in the same community. Baseline input parameters were derived from a Cape Town-based mobile unit that tested 18,870 individuals over 2 years: prevalence of previously undiagnosed HIV (6.6%), mean CD4 count at diagnosis (males 423/µL, females 516/µL), CD4 count-dependent linkage to care rates (males 31%-58%, females 49%-58%), mobile unit intervention cost (includes acquisition, operation and HIV test costs, $29.30 per negative result and $31.30 per positive result). We conducted extensive sensitivity analyses to evaluate input uncertainty. Model outcomes included site of HIV diagnosis, life expectancy, medical costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the intervention compared to medical facility-based testing. We considered the intervention to be "very cost-effective" when the ICER was less than South Africa's annual per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ($8,200 in 2012). We projected that, with medical facility-based testing, the discounted (undiscounted) HIV-infected population life expectancy was 132.2 (197.7) months; this increased to 140.7 (211.7) months with the addition of the mobile unit. The ICER for the mobile unit was $2,400/year of life saved (YLS). Results were most sensitive to the previously undiagnosed HIV prevalence, linkage to care rates, and frequency of HIV testing at medical facilities.The addition of mobile HIV screening to current testing programs can improve survival and be very cost-effective in South Africa and other resource-limited settings, and should be a priority.
Project description:In southwest Kenya, the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is about 25%. Médecins Sans Frontières has implemented a voluntary community testing (VCT) program, with linkage to care and retention interventions, to achieve the Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets by 2017. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions.We developed a time-discrete, dynamic microsimulation model to project HIV incidence over time in the adult population in Kenya. We modeled 4 strategies: VCT, VCT-plus-linkage to care, a retention intervention, and all 3 interventions combined. Effectiveness outcomes included HIV incidence, years of life saved (YLS), cost (2014 €), and cost-effectiveness. We performed sensitivity analyses on key model parameters.With current care, the projected HIV incidence for 2032 was 1.51/100 person-years (PY); the retention and combined interventions decreased incidence to 1.03/100 PY and 0.75/100 PY, respectively. For 100000 individuals, the retention intervention had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €130/YLS compared with current care; the combined intervention incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was €370/YLS compared with the retention intervention. VCT and VCT-plus-linkage interventions cost more and saved fewer life-years than the retention and combined interventions. Baseline HIV prevalence had the greatest impact on the results.Interventions targeting VCT, linkage to care, and retention would decrease HIV incidence rate over 15 years in rural Kenya if planned targets are achieved. These interventions together would be more effective and cost-effective than targeting a single stage of the HIV care cascade.