Chromatin Profiles of Chromosomally Integrated Human Herpesvirus-6A.
ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A) and 6B (HHV-6B) are two closely related betaherpesviruses that are associated with various diseases including seizures and encephalitis. The HHV-6A/B genomes have been shown to be present in an integrated state in the telomeres of latently infected cells. In addition, integration of HHV-6A/B in germ cells has resulted in individuals harboring this inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6A/B (iciHHV-6) in every cell of their body. Until now, the viral transcriptome and the epigenetic modifications that contribute to the silencing of the integrated virus genome remain elusive. In the current study, we used a patient-derived iciHHV-6A cell line to assess the global viral gene expression profile by RNA-seq, and the chromatin profiles by MNase-seq and ChIP-seq analyses. In addition, we investigated an in vitro generated cell line (293-HHV-6A) that expresses GFP upon the addition of agents commonly used to induce herpesvirus reactivation such as TPA. No viral gene expression including miRNAs was detected from the HHV-6A genomes, indicating that the integrated virus is transcriptionally silent. Intriguingly, upon stimulation of the 293-HHV-6A cell line with TPA, only foreign promoters in the virus genome were activated, while all HHV-6A promoters remained completely silenced. The transcriptional silencing of latent HHV-6A was further supported by MNase-seq results, which demonstrate that the latent viral genome resides in a highly condensed nucleosome-associated state. We further explored the enrichment profiles of histone modifications via ChIP-seq analysis. Our results indicated that the HHV-6 genome is modestly enriched with the repressive histone marks H3K9me3/H3K27me3 and does not possess the active histone modifications H3K27ac/H3K4me3. Overall, these results indicate that HHV-6 genomes reside in a condensed chromatin state, providing insight into the epigenetic mechanisms associated with the silencing of the integrated HHV-6A genome.
Project description:Human herpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) are human viruses capable of chromosomal integration. Approximately 1% of the human population carries one copy of HHV-6A/B integrated into every cell in their body, referred to as inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6A/B (iciHHV-6A/B). Whether iciHHV-6A/B is transcriptionally active in vivo and how it shapes the immunological response are still unclear. In this study, we screened DNA sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data for 650 individuals available through the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and identified 2 iciHHV-6A- and 4 iciHHV-6B-positive candidates. When corresponding tissue-specific gene expression signatures were analyzed, low levels HHV-6A/B gene expression was found across multiple tissues, with the highest levels of gene expression in the brain (specifically for HHV-6A), testis, esophagus, and adrenal gland. U90 and U100 were the most highly expressed HHV-6 genes in both iciHHV-6A- and iciHHV-6B-positive individuals. To assess whether tissue-specific gene expression from iciHHV-6A/B influences the immune response, a cohort of 15,498 subjects was screened and 85 iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects were identified. Plasma samples from iciHHV-6A/B+ and age- and sex-matched controls were analyzed for antibodies to control antigens (cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], and influenza virus [FLU]) or HHV-6A/B antigens. Our results indicate that iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects have significantly more antibodies against the U90 gene product (IE1) than do non-iciHHV-6-positive individuals. Antibody responses against EBV and FLU antigens or HHV-6A/B gene products either not expressed or expressed at low levels, such as U47, U57, and U72, were identical between controls and iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects. CMV-seropositive individuals with iciHHV-6A/B+ have more antibodies against CMV pp150 than do CMV-seropositive controls. These results argue that spontaneous gene expression from integrated HHV-6A/B leads to an increase in antigenic burden that translates into a more robust HHV-6A/B-specific antibody response.IMPORTANCE HHV-6A and -6B are human herpesviruses that have the unique property of being able to integrate into the telomeric regions of human chromosomes. Approximately 1% of the world's population carries integrated HHV-6A/B genome in every cell of their body. Whether viral genes are transcriptionally active in these individuals is unclear. By taking advantage of a unique tissue-specific gene expression data set, we showed that the majority of tissues from iciHHV-6 individuals do not show HHV-6 gene expression. Brain and testes showed the highest tissue-specific expression of HHV-6 genes in two separate data sets. Two HHV-6 genes, U90 (immediate early 1 protein) and U100 (glycoproteins Q1 and Q2), were found to be selectively and consistently expressed across several human tissues. Expression of U90 translates into an increase in antigen-specific antibody response in iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects relative to controls. Future studies will be needed to determine the mechanism of gene expression, the effects of these genes on human gene transcription networks, and the pathophysiological impact of having increased viral protein expression in tissue in conjunction with increased antigen-specific antibody production.
Project description:Human betaherpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) are highly prevalent in human populations. The genomes of these viruses can be stably integrated at the telomeres of human chromosomes and be vertically transmitted (inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6A/HHV-6B, iciHHV-6A/iciHHV-6B). We reconstructed the population structures of HHV-6A and HHV-6B, showing that HHV-6A diverged less than HHV-6B genomes from the projected common ancestral population. Thus, HHV-6B genomes experienced stronger drift, as also supported by calculation of nucleotide diversity and Tajima's D. Analysis of ancestry proportions indicated that HHV-6A exogenous viruses and iciHHV-6A derived most of their genomes from distinct ancestral sources. Conversely, ancestry proportions were similar in exogenous HHV-6B viruses and iciHHV-6B. In line with previous indications, this suggests the distinct exogenous viral populations that originated iciHHV-6B in subjects with European and Asian ancestry are still causing infections in the corresponding geographic areas. Notably, for both iciHHV-6A and iciHHV-6B, we found that European and American sequences tend to have high proportions of ancestry from viral populations that experienced considerable drift, suggesting that they underwent one or more bottlenecks followed by population expansion. Finally, analysis of HHV-6B exogenous viruses sampled in Japan indicated that proportions of ancestry components of most of these viruses are different from the majority of those sampled in the USA. More generally, we show that, in both viral species, both integrated and exogenous viral genomes have different ancestry components, partially depending on geographic location. It would be extremely important to determine whether such differences account for the diversity of HHV-6A/HHV-6B-associated clinical symptoms and epidemiology. Also, the sequencing of additional exogenous and integrated viral genomes will be instrumental to confirm and expand our conclusions, which are based on a relatively small number of genomes, sequenced with variable quality, and with unequal sampling in terms of geographic origin.
Project description:Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and 6B (HHV-6B) are two different species of betaherpesviruses that integrate into sub-telomeric ends of human chromosomes, for which different prevalence rates of integration have been reported. It has been demonstrated that integrated viral genome is stable and is fully retained. However, study of chromosomally integrated viral genome in individuals carrying inherited HHV-6 (iciHHV-6) showed unexpected number of viral DR copies. Hence, we created an in vitro infection model and studied retention of full or partial viral genome over a period of time. We observed an exceptional event where cells retained viral direct repeats (DRs) alone in the absence of the full viral genome. Finally, we found evidence for non-telomeric integration of HHV-6A DR in both cultured cells and in an iciHHV-6 individual. Our results shed light on several novel features of HHV-6A chromosomal integration and provide valuable information for future screening techniques.
Project description:Human betaherpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) are highly prevalent in human populations. The genomes of these viruses can be stably integrated at the telomeres of human chromosomes and be vertically transmitted (inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6, iciHHV6). We reconstructed the population structure of HHV-6 and we show that HHV-6A genomes diverged less than HHV-6B genomes from the ancestral common HHV-6A/B population. Analysis of ancestry proportions indicated that HHV-6A exogenous viruses and iciHHV-6A derived most of their genomes from distinct ancestral sources. Conversely, exogenous viral and iciHHV-6B populations were similar in terms of ancestry components, with no evident geographic structuring. Most HHV-6B genomes sampled to date derive from viral populations that experienced considerable drift. However, a population of HHV-6 exogenous viruses, currently classified as HHV-6B and sampled in New York state, formed a separate cluster (NY cluster) and harbored a considerable portion of HHV-6A-like ancestry. Recombination detection methods identified these viruses as interspecies recombinants, but phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the recombination signals are due to shared ancestry. In analogy to iciHHV-6A, NY cluster viruses have high nucleotide diversity and constant population size. We propose that HHV-6A sequences and the NY cluster population diverged from an ancestral HHV-6A-like population. A relatively recent bottleneck of the NY (or a related) population with subsequent expansion originated most HHV-6B genomes currently sampled. Our findings indicate that the distinction between HHV-6A and -6B is not as clear-cut as previously thought. More generally, epidemiological and clinical surveys would benefit from taking HHV-6 genetic diversity into account.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human herpesvirus-6A and -6B (HHV-6) are betaherpesviruses that reach >?90% seroprevalence in the adult population. Unique among human herpesviruses, HHV-6 can integrate into the subtelomeric regions of human chromosomes; when this occurs in germ line cells it causes a condition called inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6). Only two complete genomes are available for replicating HHV-6B, leading to numerous conflicting annotations and little known about the global genomic diversity of this ubiquitous virus. RESULTS:Using a custom capture panel for HHV-6B, we report complete genomes from 61 isolates of HHV-6B from active infections (20 from Japan, 35 from New York state, and 6 from Uganda), and 64 strains of iciHHV-6B (mostly from North America). HHV-6B sequence clustered by geography and illustrated extensive recombination. Multiple iciHHV-6B sequences from unrelated individuals across the United States were found to be completely identical, consistent with a founder effect. Several iciHHV-6B strains clustered with strains from recent active pediatric infection. Combining our genomic analysis with the first RNA-Seq and shotgun proteomics studies of HHV-6B, we completely reannotated the HHV-6B genome, altering annotations for more than 10% of existing genes, with multiple instances of novel splicing and genes that hitherto had gone unannotated. CONCLUSION:Our results are consistent with a model of intermittent de novo integration of HHV-6B into host germline cells during active infection with a large contribution of founder effect in iciHHV-6B. Our data provide a significant advance in the genomic annotation of HHV-6B, which will contribute to the detection, diversity, and control of this virus.
Project description:Human herpesvirus-6A and -6B (HHV-6A and -6B) are two closely related betaherpesviruses that infect humans. Upon primary infection they establish a life-long infection termed latency, where the virus genome is integrated into the telomeres of latently infected cells. Intriguingly, HHV-6A/B can integrate into germ cells, leading to individuals with inherited chromosomally-integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6), who have the HHV-6 genome in every cell. It is known that telomeric repeats flanking the virus genome are essential for integration; however, the protein factors mediating integration remain enigmatic. We have previously shown that the putative viral integrase U94 is not essential for telomere integration; thus, we set out to assess the contribution of potential viral recombination proteins U41 and U70 towards integration. We could show that U70 enhances dsDNA break repair via a homology-directed mechanism using a reporter cell line. We then engineered cells to produce shRNAs targeting both U41 and U70 to inhibit their expression during infection. Using these cells in our HHV-6A in vitro integration assay, we could show that U41/U70 were dispensable for telomere integration. Furthermore, additional inhibition of the cellular recombinase Rad51 suggested that it was also not essential, indicating that other cellular and/or viral factors must mediate telomere integration.
Project description:Primary effusion lymphomas (PEL) are associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) and usually occur in immunocompromised individuals. However, there are numerous reports of HHV-8-unrelated PEL-like lymphomas with unknown aetiology. Here we characterize an HHV-8-unrelated PEL-like lymphoma in an elderly woman who was negative for human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2, and hepatitis B and C. The woman was, however, a carrier of an inherited-chromosomally-integrated human herpesvirus-6A (iciHHV-6A) genome in one 19q telomere. The iciHHV-6A genome was complete in blood DNA, encoding a full set of protein-coding genes. Interestingly, the entire iciHHV-6A genome was absent from the HHV-8-unrelated-PEL-like lymphoma cells despite retention of both copies of chromosome 19. The somatic loss of the 19q-iciHHV-6A genome occurred very early during lymphoma development and we propose it occurred via telomere-loop formation and excision to release a circular viral genome that was subsequently lost. Whether release of the HHV-6A genome from the telomere contributed to lymphomagenesis, or was coincidental, remains unclear but this event may have deregulated the expression of HHV-6A or 19q genes or else disrupted telomere function. To establish the frequency and importance of iciHHV-6 loss from telomeres, the HHV-6 copy number should be assessed in tumours that arise in iciHHV-6 carriers.
Project description:Human herpesvirus -6A and 6B (HHV-6A/B) can integrate their genomes into the telomeres of human chromosomes. Viral integration can occur in several cell types, including germinal cells, resulting in individuals that harbor the viral genome in every cell of their body. The integrated genome is efficiently silenced but can sporadically reactivate resulting in various clinical symptoms. To date, the integration mechanism and the subsequent silencing of HHV-6A/B genes remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the genome-wide chromatin contacts of the integrated HHV-6A in latently-infected cells. We show that HHV-6A becomes transcriptionally silent upon infection of these cells over the course of seven days. In addition, we established an HHV-6-specific 4C-seq approach, revealing that the HHV-6A 3D interactome is associated with quiescent chromatin states in cells harboring integrated virus. Furthermore, we observed that the majority of virus chromatin interactions occur toward the distal ends of specific human chromosomes. Exploiting this finding, we established a 4C-seq method that accurately detects the chromosomal integration sites. We further implement long-read minION sequencing in the 4C-seq assay and developed a method to identify HHV-6A/B integration sites in clinical samples.
Project description:Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is the causative agent of roseola infantum. HHV-6A and 6B can reactivate in immunosuppressed individuals and are linked with severe inflammatory response, organ rejection and central nervous system diseases. About 0.85% of the US and UK population carries an integrated HHV-6 genome in all nucleated cells through germline transmission. We have previously reported that the HHV-6A genome integrated in telomeres of patients suffering from neurological dysfunction and also in telomeres of tissue culture cells. We now report that HHV-6B also integrates in telomeres during latency. Detailed mapping of the integrated viral genomes demonstrates that a single HHV-6 genome integrates and telomere repeats join the left end of the integrated viral genome. When HEK-293 cells carrying integrated HHV-6A were exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A, circularization and/or formation of concatamers were detected and this assay could be used to distinguish between lytic replication and latency.
Project description:Quantitative PCR is a diagnostic pillar for clinical virology testing, and reference materials are necessary for accurate, comparable quantitation between clinical laboratories. Accurate quantitation of human herpesvirus 6A/B (HHV-6A/B) is important for detection of viral reactivation and inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6A/B in immunocompromised patients. Reference materials in clinical virology commonly consist of laboratory-adapted viral strains that may be affected by the culture process. We performed next-generation sequencing to make relative copy number measurements at single nucleotide resolution of eight candidate HHV-6A and seven HHV-6B reference strains and DNA materials from the HHV-6 Foundation and Advanced Biotechnologies Inc. Eleven of 17 (65%) HHV-6A/B candidate reference materials showed multiple copies of the origin of replication upstream of the U41 gene by next-generation sequencing. These large tandem repeats arose independently in culture-adapted HHV-6A and HHV-6B strains, measuring 1,254 bp and 983 bp, respectively. The average copy number measured was between 5 and 10 times the number of copies of the rest of the genome. We also report the first interspecies recombinant HHV-6A/B strain with a HHV-6A backbone and a >5.5-kb region from HHV-6B, from U41 to U43, that covered the origin tandem repeat. Specific HHV-6A reference strains demonstrated duplication of regions at U1/U2, U87, and U89, as well as deletion in the U12-to-U24 region and the U94/U95 genes. HHV-6A/B strains derived from cord blood mononuclear cells from different laboratories on different continents with fewer passages revealed no copy number differences throughout the viral genome. These data indicate that large origin tandem duplications are an adaptation of both HHV-6A and HHV-6B in culture and show interspecies recombination is possible within the Betaherpesvirinae.IMPORTANCE Anything in science that needs to be quantitated requires a standard unit of measurement. This includes viruses, for which quantitation increasingly determines definitions of pathology and guidelines for treatment. However, the act of making standard or reference material in virology can alter its very accuracy through genomic duplications, insertions, and rearrangements. We used deep sequencing to examine candidate reference strains for HHV-6, a ubiquitous human virus that can reactivate in the immunocompromised population and is integrated into the human genome in every cell of the body for 1% of people worldwide. We found large tandem repeats in the origin of replication for both HHV-6A and HHV-6B that are selected for in culture. We also found the first interspecies recombinant between HHV-6A and HHV-6B, a phenomenon that is well known in alphaherpesviruses but to date has not been seen in betaherpesviruses. These data critically inform HHV-6A/B biology and the standard selection process.