Effect of sacubitril/valsartan on recurrent events in the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF).
ABSTRACT: AIMS:Recurrent hospitalizations are a major part of the disease burden in heart failure (HF), but conventional analyses consider only the first event. We compared the effect of sacubitril/valsartan vs. enalapril on recurrent events, incorporating all HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular (CV) deaths in PARADIGM-HF, using a variety of statistical approaches advocated for this type of analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS:In PARADIGM-HF, a total of 8399 patients were randomized and followed for a median of 27?months. We applied various recurrent event analyses, including a negative binomial model, the Wei, Lin and Weissfeld (WLW), and Lin, Wei, Ying and Yang (LWYY) methods, and a joint frailty model, all adjusted for treatment and region. Among a total of 3181 primary endpoint events (including 1251 CV deaths) during the trial, only 2031 (63.8%) were first events (836 CV deaths). Among a total of 1195 patients with at least one HF hospitalization, 410 (34%) had at least one further HF hospitalization. Sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril reduced the risk of recurrent HF hospitalization using the negative binomial model [rate ratio (RR) 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.89], the WLW method [hazard ratio (HR) 0.79, 95% CI 0.71-0.89], the LWYY method (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.68-0.90), and the joint frailty model (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.86) (all P
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril in Indian patients of PARADIGM-HF trial.<h4>Methods</h4>A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, phase III sub-study (NCT01035255) was conducted between April 2010 and May 2014. Patients with chronic heart failure (HF), aged >18 years with left ventricular ejection fraction ?40% were randomized (1:1) to receive either sacubitril/valsartan 200 mg twice-daily or enalapril 10 mg twice-daily. The primary endpoint was to compare efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan to enalapril in delaying time-to-first occurrence of the composite endpoint (cardiovascular [CV] death or HF hospitalization).<h4>Results</h4>The trial was stopped after a median follow-up of 27 months, because the boundary for benefit with sacubitril/valsartan had crossed. Among 637 Indian patients in PARADIGM-HF (sacubitril/valsartan, n = 322 and enalapril, n = 315), the primary outcome, CV death, and the first hospitalization for HF occurred in 21.81% and 24.76% (HR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.646-1.231), 17.45% and 20.63% (HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.605-1.236), and 7.48% and 9.52% (HR 0.78; 95% CI, 0.461-1.350) patients in the sacubitril/valsartan and enalapril group, respectively. The all-cause mortality (19.0% vs. 21.9%) and adverse events (78.4% vs. 82.2%) were comparatively lower in the sacubitril/valsartan than enalapril group. No significant difference was seen between the benefits of treatment in Indian and the total PARADIGM-HF cohort (p value for interaction >0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Results support the use of sacubitril/valsartan in Indian patients with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction with treatment benefits similar to global PARADIGM-HF cohort.
Project description:Despite significant therapeutic advances, patients with chronic heart failure (HF) remain at high risk for HF progression and death. Sacubitril/valsartan (previously known as LCZ696) is a first-in-class medicine that contains a neprilysin (NEP) inhibitor (sacubitril) and an angiotensin II (Ang-II) receptor blocker (valsartan). NEP is an endopeptidase that metabolizes different vasoactive peptides including natriuretic peptides, bradykinin and Ang-II. In consequence, its inhibition increases mainly the levels of both, natriuretic peptides (promoting diuresis, natriuresis and vasodilatation) and Ang-II whose effects are blocked by the angiotensin receptor blocker, valsartan (reducing vasoconstriction and aldosterone release). Results from the 8442 patient PARADIGM-HF study showed in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-IV and reduced ejection fraction treated with LCZ696 (versus enalapril), the following benefits: reduction of the risk of death from cardiovascular causes by 20%; reduction of HF hospitalizations by 21%; reduction of the risk of all-cause mortality by 16%. Overall there was a 20% risk reduction on the primary endpoint, composite measure of cardiovascular (CV) death or time to first HF hospitalization. PARADIGM-HF was stopped early after a median follow up of 27 months. Post hoc analyses of PARADIGM-HF as well as the place in therapy of sacubitril/valsartan, including future directions, are included in the present review.
Project description:The Prospective comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) with Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (HF) trial (PARADIGM-HF) showed that adding a neprilysin inhibitor (sacubitril) to a renin-angiotensin system blocker (and other standard therapy) reduced morbidity and mortality in ambulatory patients with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In PARADIGM-HF, valsartan combined with sacubitril (a so-called ARNI) was superior to the current gold standard of an ACEI, specifically enalapril, reducing the risk of the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular (CV) death or first HF hospitalization by 20% and all-cause death by 16%. Following the results of PARADIGM-HF, sacubitril/valsartan was approved by American and European regulatory authorities for the treatment of HFrEF. The burden of HF in Asia is substantial, both due to the huge population of the region and as a result of increasing CV risk factors and disease. Both the prevalence and mortality associated with HF are high in Asia. In the following review, we discuss the development of sacubitril/valsartan, the prototype ARNI, and the available evidence for its efficacy and safety in Asian patients with HFrEF.
Project description:This review aims to elucidate the optimal dosing of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) therapy in the heart failure (HF) treatment paradigm through examination of the trial population characteristics and the mortality benefit observed in the Prospective Comparison of ARNI with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF; NCT01035255) trial. Considerations regarding the initiation and titration of sacubitril/valsartan, a first-in-class ARNI, will also be addressed. The approval of sacubitril/valsartan heralded the first novel pharmacological class in over a decade for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The PARADIGM-HF trial showed that treatment with valsartan/valsartan reduced the risk of first occurrence of either cardiovascular death or HF-related hospitalization (composite primary endpoint) by 20% compared with enalapril in patients with HFrEF. The incremental benefits of treatment with valsartan/valsartan over enalapril demonstrated in the PARADIGM-HF trial led to strong recommendations for its use over ACEIs or angiotensin receptor blockers to further reduce morbidity and mortality in the 2016 and 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Failure Society of America updates to the guidelines for the management of HF. Although the optimal timing for the initiation of valsartan/valsartan has yet to be determined, its early use is likely to have a positive impact on patient outcomes.
Project description:PURPOSE:PARADIGM-HF demonstrated the superiority of sacubitril/valsartan over enalapril in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF). How widely applicable sacubitril/valsartan treatment is in unselected patients with HF-REF is not known. We examined eligibility of patients with HF-REF for treatment with sacubitril/valsartan, according to the criteria used in PARADIGM-HF, in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry (SwedeHF). METHODS:Patients were considered potentially eligible if they were not hospitalized, had symptoms (NYHA class II-IV) and a reduced LVEF (≤ 40%), and were prescribed an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) at a dose equivalent to enalapril ≥ 10 mg daily. In these patients, we evaluated further eligibility according to the main additional PARADIGM-HF inclusion criteria. RESULTS:Of 12,866 outpatients in NYHA functional class II-IV with an LVEF ≤ 40%, 9577 were prescribed at least 10 mg of enalapril (or equivalent) daily. Complete additional data were available for 3099 of these patients (32.4%) and of them 75.5% were potentially eligible for treatment with sacubitril/valsartan. The most common reason for ineligibility was a low natriuretic peptide level (n = 462, 14.9%). Only a small proportion of patients were ineligible due to low eGFR or serum potassium level. Because only 78% of patients were taking ≥ 10 mg enalapril or equivalent daily, only 58.9% of all patients (75.5% of 78%) were eligible for sacubitril/valsartan. CONCLUSIONS:Between 34 and 76% of symptomatic patients with HF-REF in a 'real world' population are eligible for treatment with sacubitril/valsartan, depending on background ACEI/ARB dose. The most common reason for ineligibility is a low natriuretic peptide level.
Project description:Background:Compared to heart failure patients with higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), those with lower SBP have a worse prognosis. To make matters worse, the latter patients often do not receive treatment with life-saving therapies that might lower blood pressure further. We examined the association between SBP and outcomes in the Prospective Comparison of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF), as well as the effect of sacubitril/valsartan, compared with enalapril, according to baseline SBP. Methods:We analysed the effect of treatment on SBP and on the primary composite outcome (cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization), its components and all-cause death. We examined baseline SBP as a categorical (<110, 110 to?<?120, 120 to?<?130, 130 to?<?140 and ?140?mmHg) and continuous variable, as well as average in-trial SBP and time-updated SBP. Findings:All-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were highest in patients with the lowest SBP whereas there was a U-shaped relationship between SBP and the rate of heart failure hospitalization. The benefit of sacubitril/valsartan over enalapril was consistent across all baseline SBP categories for all outcomes. For example, the sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril hazard ratio for the primary endpoint was 0.88 (95%CI 0.74-1.06) in patients with a baseline SBP?<110?mmHg and 0.81 (0.65-1.02) for those with a SBP??140?mmHg (P for interaction?=?0.55). Symptomatic hypotension, study drug dose-reduction and discontinuation were more frequent in patients with a lower SBP. Interpretation:In PARADIGM-HF, patients with lower SBP at randomization, notably after tolerating full doses of both study drugs during a run-in period, were at higher risk but generally tolerated sacubitril/valsartan and had the same relative benefit over enalapril as patients with higher baseline SBP.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>In this analysis, we utilized data from PARADIGM-HF to test the hypothesis that participants who exhibited any dose reduction during the trial would have similar benefits from lower doses of sacubitril/valsartan relative to lower doses of enalapril.<h4>Methods and results</h4>In a post-hoc analysis from PARADIGM-HF, we characterized patients by whether they received the maximal dose (200 mg sacubitril/valsartan or 10 mg enalapril twice daily) throughout the trial or had any dose reduction to lower doses (100/50/0 mg sacubitril/valsartan or 5/2.5/0 mg enalapril twice daily). The treatment effect for the primary outcome was estimated, stratified by dose level using time-updated Cox regression models. In the two treatment arms, participants with a dose reduction (43% of those randomized to enalapril and 42% of those randomized to sacubitril/valsartan) had similar baseline characteristics and similar baseline predictors of the need for dose reduction. In a time-updated analysis, any dose reduction was associated with a higher subsequent risk of the primary event [hazard ratio (HR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-2.7]. However, the treatment benefit of sacubitril/valsartan over enalapril following a dose reduction was similar (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.93, P < 0.001) to that observed in patients who had not experienced any dose reduction (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71-0.88, P < 0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In PARADIGM-HF, study medication dose reduction identified patients at higher risk of a major cardiovascular event. The magnitude of benefit for patients on lower doses of sacubitril/valsartan relative to those on lower doses of enalapril was similar to that of patients who remained on target doses of both drugs.
Project description:Inhibition of neprilysin, an enzyme degrading natriuretic and other vasoactive peptides, is beneficial in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), as shown in PARADIGM-HF which compared the angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) sacubitril/valsartan with enalapril. As neprilysin is also one of many enzymes clearing amyloid-β peptides from the brain, there is a theoretical concern about the long-term effects of sacubitril/valsartan on cognition. Therefore, we have examined dementia-related adverse effects (AEs) in PARADIGM-HF and placed these findings in the context of other recently conducted HFrEF trials.In PARADIGM-HF, patients with symptomatic HFrEF were randomized to sacubitril/valsartan 97/103 mg b.i.d. or enalapril 10 mg b.i.d. in a 1:1 ratio. We systematically searched AE reports, coded using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), using Standardized MedDRA Queries (SMQs) with 'broad' and 'narrow' preferred terms related to dementia. In PARADIGM-HF, 8399 patients aged 18-96 years were randomized and followed for a median of 2.25 years (up to 4.3 years). The narrow SMQ search identified 27 dementia-related AEs: 15 (0.36%) on enalapril and 12 (0.29%) on sacubitril/valsartan [hazard ratio (HR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-1.59]. The broad search identified 97 (2.30%) and 104 (2.48%) AEs (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.75-1.37), respectively. The rates of dementia-related AEs in both treatment groups in PARADIGM-HF were similar to those in three other recent trials in HFrEF.We found no evidence that sacubitril/valsartan, compared with enalapril, increased dementia-related AEs, although longer follow-up may be necessary to detect such a signal and more sensitive tools are needed to detect lesser degrees of cognitive impairment. Further studies to address this question are warranted.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Sacubitril-valsartan has been shown to have superior effects over angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with heart failure (HF) and hypertension. The efficacy and safety of sacubitril-valsartan in patients with HF are controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess and compare the effect and adverse events of sacubitril-valsartan, valsartan, and enalapril in patients with HF.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We conducted a systematic search using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Randomized controlled trials involving the use of sacubitril-valsartan in patients with HF were included. We assessed the pooled odds ratio (OR) of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and hospitalization for HF in fixed-effects models and the pooled risk ratio (RR) of symptomatic hypotension, worsening renal function, and hyperkalaemia in fixed-effects models. Of the 315 identified records, six studies involving 14 959 patients were eligible for inclusion. Sacubitril-valsartan reduced the endpoints of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in three trials with pooled ORs of 0.83 (P = 0.0006) and 0.78 (P < 0.0001), respectively. Regarding the composite outcome of hospitalization for HF in five trials, the pooled OR was 0.79 (P < 0.00001). Compared with enalapril or valsartan, sacubitril-valsartan was associated with a high risk of symptomatic hypotension (RR 1.47, P < 0.00001), low risk of worsening renal function (RR 0.81, P = 0.005), and low rate of serious hyperkalaemia (?6.0 mmol/L) (RR 0.76, P = 0.0007) in all six trials.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Compared with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, sacubitril-valsartan significantly decreased the risk of death from all causes or cardiovascular causes in HFrEF and hospitalization for HF in both patients with HFrEF and HF with preserved ejection fraction. Sacubitril-valsartan reduced the risk of renal dysfunction and serious hyperkalaemia but was associated with more symptomatic hypotension.
Project description:Despite significant therapeutic advances, patients with chronic heart failure (HF) remain at high risk of morbidity and mortality. Sacubitril valsartan (previously known as LCZ696) is a new oral agent approved for the treatment of symptomatic chronic heart failure in adults with reduced ejection fraction. It is described as the first in class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) since it incorporates the neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril and the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, valsartan. Neprilysin is an endopeptidase that breaks down several vasoactive peptides including natriuretic peptides (NPs), bradykinin, endothelin and angiotensin II (Ang-II). Therefore, a natural consequence of its inhibition is an increase of plasmatic levels of both, NPs and Ang-II (with opposite biological actions). So, a combined inhibition of these both systems (Sacubitril / valsartan) may enhance the benefits of NPs effects in HF (natriuresis, diuresis, etc) while Ang-II receptor is inhibited (reducing vasoconstriction and aldosterone release). In a large clinical trial (PARADIGM-HF with 8442 patients), this new agent was found to significantly reduce cardiovascular and all cause mortality as well as hospitalizations due to HF (compared to enalapril). This manuscript reviews clinical evidence for sacubitril valsartan, dosing and cautions, future directions and its considered place in the therapy of HF with reduced ejection fraction.