ROCK Inhibitor-Induced Promotion of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Motility during Wound Healing.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:No standard therapy for RPE tear, a complication of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, exists even though RPE tears cause severe vision loss, and promotion of cell proliferation and/or migration could be a candidate RPE tear therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell motility during wound healing. Methods:Human RPE cells were cultured in media with and without 10 μM Y27632. A luminescent cell viability assay and vinculin immunocytochemistry were used to test the Y27632 effect on RPE cell adhesion. The mean size of vinculin puncta was quantified from immunofluorescence images. RPE cell motility during wound healing was evaluated using time-lapse imaging and measuring cell migration distances and cell coverage rate in wound fields. Results:The number of adhered RPE and mean size of vinculin puncta were, respectively, 20519 cells and 3.65 μm2 under nontreatment and 23569 cells and 0.66 μm2 under Y27632 treatment. Cell migration distance and cell coverage percentage for untreated and Y27632-treated cells were 98.9 and 59.4% and 203.4 and 92.5%, respectively. Conclusions:Inhibition of ROCK signaling by using 10 μM Y27632 promoted RPE cell motility during wound healing by reducing RPE cell adhesion strength.
Project description:Cell motility and migration play critical roles in various physiological processes and disease states. Here, we show that the BBBsome, a macromolecule composed of eight Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) proteins including BBS1, is a critical determinant of cell migration and wound healing. Fibroblast cells derived from mice or humans harboring a homozygous missense mutation (BBS1M390R/M390R) that disrupt the BBSome exhibit defects in migration and wound healing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BBS1M390R/M390R mice have significantly delayed wound closure. In line with this, we provide data suggesting that BBS1M390R/M390R fibroblasts have impaired platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF) receptor-? signaling, a key regulator of directional cell migration acting as a chemoattractant during postnatal migration responses such as wound healing. In addition, we show that BBS1M390R/M390R fibroblasts have upregulated RhoA expression and activity. The relevance of RhoA upregulation is demonstrated by the ability of RhoA-kinase inhibitor Y27632 to partially rescue the migration defect of BBS1M390R/M390R fibroblasts cells. We also show that accumulation of RhoA protein in BBS1M390R/M390R fibroblasts cells is associated with reduction and inactivation of the ubiquitin ligase Cullin-3. Consistent with this, Cullin-3 inhibition with MLN4924 is sufficient to reduce migration of normal fibroblasts. These data implicate the BBSome in cell motility and tissue repair through a mechanism that involves PDGF receptor signaling and Cullin-3-mediated control of RhoA.
Project description:Vinculin is a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton attachment to the cell membrane at cellular adhesion sites, which is crucial for processes such as cell motility and migration, development, survival, and wound healing. Vinculin loss results in embryonic lethality, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Its tail domain, Vt, is crucial for vinculin activation and focal adhesion turnover and binds to the actin cytoskeleton and acidic phospholipids upon which it unfurls. The RNA binding protein raver1 regulates the assembly of focal adhesions transcriptionally by binding to vinculin. The muscle-specific splice form, metavinculin, is characterized by a 68-residue insert in the tail domain (MVt) and correlates with hereditary idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, we report that metavinculin can bind to raver1 in its inactive state. Our crystal structure explains this permissivity, where an extended coil unique to MVt is unfurled in the MVtΔ954:raver1 complex structure. Our binding assays show that raver1 forms a ternary complex with MVt and vinculin mRNA. These findings suggest that the metavinculin:raver1:RNA complex is constitutively recruited to adhesion complexes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Maintaining proper adhesion between neighboring cells depends on the ability of cells to mechanically respond to tension at cell-cell junctions through the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, identifying the molecules involved in responding to cell tension would provide insight into the maintenance, regulation, and breakdown of cell-cell junctions during various biological processes. Vinculin, an actin-binding protein that associates with the cadherin complex, is recruited to cell-cell contacts under increased tension in a myosin II-dependent manner. However, the precise role of vinculin at force-bearing cell-cell junctions and how myosin II activity alters the recruitment of vinculin at quiescent cell-cell contacts have not been demonstrated.<h4>Results</h4>We generated vinculin knockdown cells using shRNA specific to vinculin and MDCK epithelial cells. These vinculin-deficient MDCK cells form smaller cell clusters in a suspension than wild-type cells. In wound healing assays, GFP-vinculin accumulated at cell-cell junctions along the wound edge while vinculin-deficient cells displayed a slower wound closure rate compared to vinculin-expressing cells. In the presence of blebbistatin (myosin II inhibitor), vinculin localization at quiescent cell-cell contacts was unaffected while in the presence of jasplakinolide (F-actin stabilizer), vinculin recruitment increased in mature MDCK cell monolayers.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results demonstrate that vinculin plays an active role at adherens junctions under increased tension at cell-cell contacts where vinculin recruitment occurs in a myosin II activity-dependent manner, whereas vinculin recruitment to the quiescent cell-cell junctions depends on F-actin stabilization.
Project description:PURPOSE:Corneal endothelial cell regeneration varies by species, with nonhuman primates (NHPs) and rabbits displaying low and high proliferative capacities, respectively. Recent studies report that topical application of rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors accelerates corneal endothelial wound healing in animal models and human patients with endothelial dysfunction. This study determines the regenerative capacity of canine corneal endothelial cells in vivo and their response to a topical ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, after transcorneal freezing. METHODS:Right eyes of 6 beagles underwent transcorneal freezing; 10 mM ROCK inhibitor Y27632 or vehicle control was applied topically to both eyes at least 4 times daily for 56 days. Endothelial cell density was evaluated by in vivo confocal microscopy, and corneal thickness was measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and ultrasound pachymetry. RESULTS:Transcorneal freezing induced severe central corneal edema in dogs, with restoration of transparency occurring within 4 weeks. Y27632 significantly decreased corneal thickness by FD-OCT and ultrasound pachymetry in the acute phase and significantly increased endothelial cell density at days 28 and 42 post-cryoinjury, suggesting faster restoration of endothelial cell recovery. CONCLUSIONS:Canine corneal endothelial function recovers at a similar rate as NHPs but more slowly than rabbits after cryoinjury. Faster corneal endothelial wound healing was observed by in vivo confocal microscopy and FD-OCT in dogs treated with Y27632 versus vehicle controls. Thus, a canine cryoinjury model may be a useful alternative to NHPs in detecting a response to therapies directed at endothelial regeneration.
Project description:Vinculin is a highly conserved and abundant cytoskeletal protein involved in linking the actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane at sites of cellular adhesion. At these sites of adhesion, vinculin plays a role in physiological processes such as cell motility, migration, development, and wound healing. Loss of normal vinculin function has been associated with cancer phenotypes, cardiovascular disease, and lethal errors in embryogenesis. The tail domain of vinculin (Vt) binds to acidic phospholipids and has been proposed to play a role in vinculin activation and focal adhesion turnover. To better characterize Vt-lipid specificity, we conducted a series of lipid co-sedimentation experiments and find that Vt shows specific association with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), compared with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), or phosphatidylinositol (PI) in the context of mixed lipid vesicles. The C terminus of Vt has been proposed to be important for PIP2 association, as various mutations and deletions within the C-terminal reduce PIP2 association. Lipid co-sedimentation and NMR analyses indicate that removal of the hydrophobic hairpin does not alter Vt structure or PIP2 association. However, more extensive deletions within the C-terminal introduce Vt structural perturbations and reduce PIP2 binding. Intriguingly, a significant increase in PIP2 binding was observed for multiple Vt variants that perturb interactions between the N-terminal strap and helix bundle, suggesting that a rearrangement of this N-terminal strap may be required for PIP2 binding.
Project description:Woundhealing disorders characterized by impaired or delayed re-epithelialization are a serious medical problem that is painful and difficult to treat. Gelsolin (GSN), a known actin modulator, supports epithelial cell regeneration and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential of recombinant gelsolin (rhu-pGSN) for ocular surface regeneration to establish a novel therapy for delayed or complicated wound healing. We analyzed the influence of gelsolin on cell proliferation and wound healing in vitro, in vivo/ex vivo and by gene knockdown. Gelsolin is expressed in all tested tissues of the ocular system as shown by molecular analysis. The concentration of GSN is significantly increased in tear fluid samples of patients with dry eye disease. rhu-pGSN induces cell proliferation and faster wound healing in vitro as well as in vivo/ex vivo. TGF-? dependent transcription of SMA is significantly decreased after GSN gene knockdown. Gelsolin is an inherent protein of the ocular system and is secreted into the tear fluid. Our results show a positive effect on corneal cell proliferation and wound healing. Furthermore, GSN regulates the synthesis of SMA in myofibroblasts, which establishes GSN as a key protein of TGF-? dependent cell differentiation.
Project description:A number of Rho-kinase inhibitors have been developed for various clinical applications. We examined the effects of the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632 on keratinocyte proliferation and migration, and found that it promoted primary human keratinocyte proliferation and migration in both monolayer and skin explant cultures. In addition, topical application of Y27632 enhanced cutaneous wound closure in the majority of wounds in mice. The growth and migration effects of Y27632 appeared to be specific to keratinocytes compared with dermal fibroblasts, and required intact Jun kinase function. Y27632 seems to be a promising agent for keratinocyte procurement and wounding healing.
Project description:During wound healing, the migration of keratinocytes onto newly restored extracellular matrix aims to reestablish continuity of the epidermis. The application of amniotic membrane (AM) to chronic, deep traumatic, non-healing wounds has proven successful at stimulating re-epithelialization. When applied on epithelial cell cultures, AM activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 (JNK1/2), with the overexpression and phosphorylation of c-Jun along the wound edge. The effect of AM on the migration of cells was investigated by studying critical proteins involved in the focal adhesions turn-over: Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), Paxillin and Vinculin. In Mv1Lu and HaCaT cells, validated models for cell migration and wound healing, AM affected the expression and activation of Paxillin, but did not affect Vinculin expression, both factors which integrate into focal adhesions. Moreover, AM regulation also affected FAK activity through phosphorylation. Finally, we have determined that AM regulation of focal adhesions involves both JNK and MEK MAP kinase signaling pathways. This data provides a molecular background to understand how AM regulates critical cell and molecular aspects of cell migration, organizing and directing the movement of cells by the continuous formation, maturation, and turnover of focal adhesion structures at the migration leading edge.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Wound healing of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a complex process that may take place in common age-related macular degeneration eye disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether wounding and wound healing has an effect on Ca<sup>2+</sup> dynamics in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-RPEs cultured different periods of time.<h4>Methods</h4>The 9-day-cultured or 28-day-cultured hESC-RPEs from two different cell lines were wounded and the dynamics of spontaneous and mechanically induced intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> activity was measured with live-cell Ca<sup>2+</sup> imaging either immediately or 7 days after wounding. The healing time and speed were analyzed with time-lapse bright field microscopy. The Ca<sup>2+</sup> activity and healing speed were analysed with image analysis. In addition the extracellular matrix deposition was assessed with confocal microscopy.<h4>Results</h4>The Ca<sup>2+</sup> dynamics in hESC-RPE monolayers differed depending on the culture time: 9-day-cultured cells had higher number of cells with spontaneous Ca<sup>2+</sup> activity close to freshly wounded edge compared to control areas, whereas in 28-day-cultured cells there was no difference in wounded and control areas. The 28-day-cultured, wounded and 7-day-healed hESC-RPEs produced wide-spreading intercellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> waves upon mechanical stimulation, while in controls propagation was restricted. Most importantly, both wave spreading and spontaneous Ca<sup>2+</sup> activity of cells within the healed area, as well as the cell morphology of 28-day-cultured, wounded and thereafter 7-day-healed areas resembled the 9-day-cultured hESC-RPEs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This acquired knowledge about Ca<sup>2+</sup> dynamics of wounded hESC-RPE monolayers is important for understanding the dynamics of RPE wound healing, and could offer a reliable functionality test for RPE cells. The data presented in here suggests that assessment of Ca<sup>2+</sup> dynamics analysed with image analysis could be used as a reliable non-invasive functionality test for RPE cells.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Nonexudative (dry) age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the elderly, is associated with the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells and the development of geographic atrophy, which are areas devoid of RPE cells and photoreceptors. One possible treatment option would be to stimulate RPE attachment and proliferation to replace dying/dysfunctional RPE and bring about wound repair. Clinical trials are underway testing injections of RPE cells derived from pluripotent stem cells to determine their safety and efficacy in treating AMD. However, the factors regulating RPE responses to AMD-associated lesions are not well understood. Here, we use cell culture to investigate the role of RhoA coiled coil kinases (ROCKs) in human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) attachment, proliferation, and wound closure.<h4>Methods</h4>H9 hESC were spontaneously differentiated into RPE cells. hESC-RPE cells were treated with a pan ROCK1/2 or a ROCK2 only inhibitor; attachment, and proliferation and cell size within an in vitro scratch assay were examined.<h4>Results</h4>Pharmacological inhibition of ROCKs promoted hESC-RPE attachment and proliferation, and increased the rate of closure of in vitro wounds. ROCK inhibition decreased phosphorylation of cofilin and myosin light chain, suggesting that regulation of the cytoskeleton underlies the mechanism of action of ROCK inhibition.<h4>Conclusions</h4>ROCK inhibition promotes attachment, proliferation, and wound closure in H9 hESC-RPE cells. ROCK isoforms may have different roles in wound healing.<h4>Translational relevance</h4>Modulation of the ROCK-cytoskeletal axis has potential in stimulating wound repair in transplanted RPE cells and attachment in cellular therapies.