Frontline Science: Multiple cathepsins promote inflammasome-independent, particle-induced cell death during NLRP3-dependent IL-1β activation.
ABSTRACT: Sterile particles cause several chronic, inflammatory diseases, characterized by repeating cycles of particle phagocytosis and inflammatory cell death. Recent studies have proposed that these processes are driven by the NLRP3 inflammasome, a platform activated by phagocytosed particles, which controls both caspase-1-dependent cell death (pyroptosis) and mature IL-1β secretion. After phagocytosis, particles can disrupt lysosomes, and inhibitor studies have suggested that the resulting release of a lysosomal protease-cathepsin B-into the cytosol somehow activates NLRP3. However, using primary murine macrophages, we found that particle-induced cell death occurs independent of NLRP3/caspase-1 and depends instead on multiple, redundant cathepsins. In contrast, nigericin, a soluble activator of NLRP3 inflammasomes, induced cell death that was dependent on the NLRP3. Interestingly, nigericin-induced cell death depended partly on a single cathepsin, cathepsin X. By inhibiting or silencing multiple cathepsins in macrophages, several key proinflammatory events induced by sterile particles are blocked, including cell death, pro-IL-1β production, and IL-1β secretion. These data suggest that cathepsins might be potential therapeutic targets in particulate-mediated inflammatory disease. In support of this concept, we find that a broad-spectrum cathepsin inhibitor can suppress particle-induced IL-1-dependent peritonitis.
Project description:Sterile particles induce robust inflammatory responses that underlie the pathogenesis of diseases like silicosis, gout, and atherosclerosis. A key cytokine mediating this response is IL-1?. The generation of bioactive IL-1? by sterile particles is mediated by the NOD-like receptor containing a pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, although exactly how this occurs is incompletely resolved. Prior studies have found that the cathepsin B inhibitor, Ca074Me, suppresses this response, supporting a model whereby ingested particles disrupt lysosomes and release cathepsin B into the cytosol, somehow activating NLRP3. However, reports that cathepsin B-deficient macrophages have no defect in particle-induced IL-1? generation have questioned cathepsin B's involvement. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that multiple redundant cathepsins (not just cathepsin B) mediate this process by evaluating IL-1? generation in murine macrophages, singly or multiply deficient in cathepsins B, L, C, S and X. Using an activity-based probe, we measure specific cathepsin activity in living cells, documenting compensatory changes in cathepsin-deficient cells, and Ca074Me's dose-dependent cathepsin inhibition profile is analyzed in parallel with its suppression of particle-induced IL-1? secretion. Also, we evaluate endogenous cathepsin inhibitors cystatins C and B. Surprisingly, we find that multiple redundant cathepsins, inhibited by Ca074Me and cystatins, promote pro-IL-1? synthesis, and to our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that cathepsin X plays a nonredundant role in nonparticulate NLRP3 activation. Finally, we find cathepsin inhibitors selectively block particle-induced NLRP3 activation, independently of suppressing pro-IL-1? synthesis. Altogether, we demonstrate that both small molecule and endogenous cathepsin inhibitors suppress particle-induced IL-1? secretion, implicating roles for multiple cathepsins in both pro-IL-1? synthesis and NLRP3 activation.
Project description:NLRP3 inflammasome activation occurs in response to hazardous particle exposures and is critical for the development of particle-induced lung disease. Mechanisms of Lysosome Membrane Permeabilization (LMP), a central pathway for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by inhaled particles, are not fully understood. We demonstrate that the lysosomal vATPases inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 blocked LMP in vitro and ex vivo in primary murine macrophages following exposure to silica, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and titanium nanobelts. Bafilomycin A1 treatment of particle-exposed macrophages also resulted in decreased active cathepsin L in the cytosol, a surrogate measure for leaked cathepsin B, which was associated with less NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Silica-induced LMP was partially dependent upon lysosomal cathepsins B and L, whereas nanoparticle-induced LMP occurred independent of cathepsin activity. Furthermore, inhibition of lysosomal cathepsin activity with CA-074-Me decreased the release of High Mobility Group Box 1. Together, these data support the notion that lysosome acidification is a prerequisite for particle-induced LMP, and the resultant leak of lysosome cathepsins is a primary regulator of ongoing NLRP3 inflammasome activity and release of HMGB1.
Project description:Fas-associated death domain (FADD) is a key adaptor molecule involved in numerous physiological processes including cell death, proliferation, innate immunity and inflammation. Therefore, changes in FADD expression have dramatic cellular consequences. In mice and humans, FADD regulation can occur through protein secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms accounting for human FADD secretion were still unknown. Here we report that canonical, non-canonical, but not alternative, NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human monocytes/macrophages induced FADD secretion. NLRP3 inflammasome activation by the bacterial toxin nigericin led to the proinflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release and to the induction of cell death by pyroptosis. However, we showed that FADD secretion could occur in absence of increased IL-1β release and pyroptosis and, reciprocally, that IL-1β release and pyroptosis could occur in absence of FADD secretion. Especially, FADD, but not IL-1β, secretion following NLRP3 inflammasome activation required extracellular glucose. Thus, FADD secretion was an active process distinct from unspecific release of proteins during pyroptosis. This FADD secretion process required K+ efflux, NLRP3 sensor, ASC adaptor and CASPASE-1 molecule. Moreover, we identified FADD as a leaderless protein unconventionally secreted through microvesicle shedding, but not exosome release. Finally, we established human soluble FADD as a new marker of joint inflammation in gout and rheumatoid arthritis, two rheumatic diseases involving the NLRP3 inflammasome. Whether soluble FADD could be an actor in these diseases remains to be determined. Nevertheless, our results advance our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the regulation of the FADD protein expression in human cells.
Project description:The innate immune system is the first line of defense against inhaled particles. Macrophages serve important roles in particle clearance and inflammatory reactions. Following recognition and internalization by phagocytes, particles are taken up in vesicular phagolysosomes. Intracellular phagosomal leakage, redox unbalance and ionic movements induced by toxic particles result in pro-IL-1β expression, inflammasome complex engagement, caspase-1 activation, pro-IL-1β cleavage, biologically-active IL-1β release and finally inflammatory cell death termed pyroptosis. In this review, we summarize the emerging signals and pathways involved in the expression, maturation and secretion of IL-1β during these responses to particles. We also highlight physicochemical characteristics of particles (size, surface and shape) which determine their capacity to induce inflammasome activation and IL-1β processing.
Project description:The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome drives many inflammatory processes and mediates IL-1 family cytokine release. Inflammasome activators typically damage cells and may release lysosomal and mitochondrial products into the cytosol. Macrophages triggered by the NLRP3 inflammasome activator nigericin show reduced mitochondrial function and decreased cellular ATP. Release of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to subsequent lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). NLRP3-deficient macrophages show comparable reduced mitochondrial function and ATP loss, but maintain lysosomal acidity, demonstrating that LMP is NLRP3 dependent. A subset of wild-type macrophages undergo subsequent mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and die. Both LMP and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization are inhibited by potassium, scavenging mitochondrial ROS, or NLRP3 deficiency, but are unaffected by cathepsin B or caspase-1 inhibitors. In contrast, IL-1? secretion is ablated by potassium, scavenging mitochondrial ROS, and both cathepsin B and caspase-1 inhibition. These results demonstrate interplay between lysosomes and mitochondria that sustain NLRP3 activation and distinguish cell death from IL-1? release.
Project description:Necroptosis is a physiological cell suicide mechanism initiated by receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) phosphorylation of mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), which results in disruption of the plasma membrane. Necroptotic cell lysis, and resultant release of proinflammatory mediators, is thought to cause inflammation in necroptotic disease models. However, we previously showed that MLKL signaling can also promote inflammation by activating the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome to recruit the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC) and trigger caspase-1 processing of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Here, we provide evidence that MLKL-induced activation of NLRP3 requires (i) the death effector four-helical bundle of MLKL, (ii) oligomerization and association of MLKL with cellular membranes, and (iii) a reduction in intracellular potassium concentration. Although genetic or pharmacological targeting of NLRP3 or caspase-1 prevented MLKL-induced IL-1β secretion, they did not prevent necroptotic cell death. Gasdermin D (GSDMD), the pore-forming caspase-1 substrate required for efficient NLRP3-triggered pyroptosis and IL-1β release, was not essential for MLKL-dependent death or IL-1β secretion. Imaging of MLKL-dependent ASC speck formation demonstrated that necroptotic stimuli activate NLRP3 cell-intrinsically, indicating that MLKL-induced NLRP3 inflammasome formation and IL-1β cleavage occur before cell lysis. Furthermore, we show that necroptotic activation of NLRP3, but not necroptotic cell death alone, is necessary for the activation of NF-κB in healthy bystander cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential importance of NLRP3 inflammasome activity as a driving force for inflammation in MLKL-dependent diseases.
Project description:Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica (cSiO2) has been etiologically linked to human autoimmunity. Intranasal instillation with cSiO2 triggers profuse inflammation in the lung and onset of autoimmunity in lupus-prone mice; however, dietary supplementation with the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) abrogates these responses. Inflammasome activation, IL-1 cytokine release, and death in alveolar macrophages following cSiO2 exposure are early and critical events that likely contribute to triggering premature autoimmune pathogenesis by this particle. Here we tested the hypothesis that DHA suppresses cSiO2-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1 cytokine release, and cell death in the macrophage. The model used was the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line stably transfected with the inflammasome adapter protein ASC (RAW-ASC). Following priming with LPS, both the canonical activator nigericin and cSiO2 elicited robust inflammasome activation in RAW-ASC cells, as reflected by IL-1? release and caspase-1 activation. These responses were greatly diminished or absent in wild-type RAW cells. In contrast to IL-1?, cSiO2 induced IL-1? release in both RAW-ASC and to a lesser extent in RAW-WT cells after LPS priming. cSiO2-driven effects in RAW-ASC cells were confirmed in bone-marrow derived macrophages. Pre-incubating RAW-ASC cells with 10 and 25 ?M DHA for 24 h enriched this fatty acid in the phospholipids by 15- and 25-fold, respectively, at the expense of oleic acid. DHA pre-incubation suppressed inflammasome activation and release of IL-1? and IL-1? by nigericin, cSiO2, and two other crystals - monosodium urate and alum. DHA's suppressive effects were linked to inhibition of LPS-induced Nlrp3, Il1b, and Il1a transcription, potentially through the activation of PPAR?. Finally, nigericin-induced death was inflammasome-dependent, indicative of pyroptosis, and could be inhibited by DHA pretreatment. In contrast, cSiO2-induced death was inflammasome-independent and not inhibited by DHA. Taken together, these findings indicate that DHA suppresses cSiO2-induced inflammasome activation and IL-1 cytokine release in macrophages by acting at the level of priming, but was not protective against cSiO2-induced cell death.
Project description:The mechanisms leading to NOD-leucine rich repeat and pyrin containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation are still debated. It is well established that oligomerized NLRP3 interacts with apoptosis associated Speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC) which polymerizes into filaments recruiting procaspase-1, leading to its activation. However, pathways triggering NLRP3 activation, such as potassium efflux, ROS production or lysosomal permeabilization, can be required or not, depending on the activators used. Here we proposed to evaluate the importance of Cathepsin B on NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation. Using Cathepsin B-/- BMDMs (Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages), we first show that Cathepsin B is required for caspase-1 activation, IL-1? production and ASC speck formation, upon treatment with different types of NLRP3 activators, i.e., ATP, nigericin or crystals. Moreover, in these conditions, Cathepsin B interacts with NLRP3 at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) level. To conclude, different NLRP3 activators lead to Cathepsin B interaction with NLRP3 at the ER level and to subsequent caspase-1 activation.
Project description:Four new sesquiterpenoids (1-4) and six known sesquiterpenoids (5-10), were isolated from the EtOAc phase of the ethanolic extract of Ainsliaea yunnanensis. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods, including 1-D, 2-D NMR and HPLC-MS. All compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory effect by the inhibition of the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome by blocking the self-slicing of pro-caspase-1, which is induced by nigericin, then the secretion of mature IL-1β, mediated by caspase-1, was suppressed. Unfortunately none of the compounds showed an anti-inflammatory effect.
Project description:Endosomal functions are contingent on the integrity of the organelle-limiting membrane, whose disruption induces inflammation and cell death. Here we show that phagocytosis of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene particles induces damage to the endosomal-limiting membrane and results in the leakage of cathepsins into the cytosol and NLRP3-inflammasome activation. Annexin A2 recruitment to damaged organelles is shown by two-dimensional DIGE protein profiling, endosomal fractionation, confocal analysis of endogenous and annexin A2-GFP transfected cells, and immunogold labelling. Binding experiments, using fluorescent liposomes, confirms annexin A2 recruitment to endosomes containing phagocytosed polyethylene particles. Finally, an increase in cytosolic cathepsins, NLRP3-inflammasome activation, and IL-1 production is seen in dendritic cells from annexin A2-null mice, following exposure to polyethylene particles. Together, the results indicate a functional role of annexin A2 binding to endosomal membranes following organelle destabilization.