Plasticity in zwitterionic drugs: the bending properties of Pregabalin and Gabapentin and their hydrates.
ABSTRACT: The investigation of mechanical properties in molecular crystals is emerging as a novel area of interest in crystal engineering. Indeed, good mechanical properties are required to manufacture pharmaceutical and technologically relevant substances into usable products. In such endeavour, bendable single crystals help to correlate microscopic structure to macroscopic properties for potential design. The hydrate forms of two anticonvulsant zwitterionic drugs, Pregabalin and Gabapentin, are two examples of crystalline materials that show macroscopic plasticity. The direct comparison of these structures with those of their anhydrous counterparts, which are brittle, suggests that the presence of water is critical for plasticity. In contrast, structural features such as molecular packing and anisotropic distribution of strong and weak interactions seem less important.
Project description:Recently, the study of flexible (elastically bendable and plastically bendable) organic single crystals has become a hot research field in crystal engineering. In general, crystal elasticity and plasticity are incompatible with each other. Different from the applications of fluorescent crystals, the applications of room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) materials generally ignore the crystallographic nature of large single crystals. Herein, we creatively combine elasticity and plasticity based on one RTP crystal 4,4'-dibromobenzil DBBZL. The in-depth study of the irreversible transformation between elastic bending and plastic bending provided important insights into the mechanism of both elastically bendable crystals and plastically bendable crystals in crystal engineering. The DBBZL crystal exhibits elastic bending (reversible) under external stress, whereas it shows plastic bending (irreversible) after excessive bending. Notably, the first phosphorescent optical waveguides of large single RTP crystals are realized not only in straight state, but also in elastic bent state and plastic bent state.
Project description:Molecular crystals are not known to be as stiff as metals, composites and ceramics. Here we report an exceptional mechanical stiffness and high hardness in a known elastically bendable organic cocrystal [caffeine (CAF), 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzoic acid (CNB) and methanol (1:1:1)] which is comparable to certain low-density metals. Spatially resolved atomic level studies reveal that the mechanically interlocked weak hydrogen bond networks which are separated by dispersive interactions give rise to these mechanical properties. Upon bending, the crystals significantly conserve the overall energy by efficient redistribution of stress while perturbations in hydrogen bonds are compensated by strengthened π-stacking. Furthermore we report a remarkable stiffening and hardening in the elastically bent crystal. Hence, mechanically interlocked architectures provide an unexplored route to reach new mechanical limits and adaptability in organic crystals. This proof of concept inspires the design of light-weight, stiff crystalline organics with potential to rival certain inorganics, which currently seem inconceivable.
Project description:In order to better understand the mechanical properties of crystalline materials, we performed a large-scale exploration of the elastic properties of 13?621 crystals from the Materials Project database, including both experimentally synthesized and hypothetical structures. We studied both their average (isotropic) behavior, as well as the anisotropy of the elastic properties: bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and linear compressibility. We show that general mechanical trends, which hold for isotropic (noncrystalline) materials at the macroscopic scale, also apply "on average" for crystals. Further, we highlight the importance of elastic anisotropy and the role of mechanical stability as playing key roles in the experimental feasibility of hypothetical compounds. We also quantify the frequency of occurrence of rare anomalous mechanical properties: 3% of the crystals feature negative linear compressibility, and only 0.3% have complete auxeticity.
Project description:Recently, CuZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites reinforced by the TRIP (transformation-induced plasticity) effect have been explored in attempt to accomplish an optimal of trade-off between strength and ductility. However, the design of such BMG composites with advanced mechanical properties still remains a big challenge for materials engineering. In this work, we proposed a technique of instantaneously and locally arc-melting BMG plate to artificially induce the precipitation of B2 crystals in the glassy matrix and then to tune mechanical properties. Through adjusting local melting process parameters (i.e. input powers, local melting positions, and distances between the electrode and amorphous plate), the size, volume fraction, and distribution of B2 crystals were well tailored and the corresponding formation mechanism was clearly clarified. The resultant BMG composites exhibit large compressive plasticity and high strength together with obvious work-hardening ability. This compelling approach could be of great significance for the steady development of metastable CuZr-based alloys with excellent mechanical properties.
Project description:Macroscopic patterns in nature formed during crystal growth e.g. snow crystals have a significant influence on many material properties, such as macroscopic heat conduction, electrical conduction, and mechanical properties, even with the same microscopic crystal structure. Although crystal morphology has been extensively studied in bulk, the formation of patterns induced by re-crystallization during evaporation is still unclear. Here, we find a way to obtain concentric circles, a dendritic pattern, and a lattice pattern by pinning the edge of droplets using the coffee ring effect; only aggregates of crystallites are seen in the absence of pinning. Our systematic study shows that the macroscopic patterns depend both on initial concentration and evaporation rate. In addition, our qualitative analysis suggests that the local concentration of solute at the center of the pattern is related to the macroscopic patterns.
Project description:Mechanically compliant organic crystals are the foundation of the development of future flexible, light-weight single-crystal electronics, and this requires reversibly deformable crystalline organic materials with permanent magnetism. Here, we report and characterize the first instance of a plastically bendable single crystal of a permanent organic radical, 4-(4'-cyano-2',3',4',5'-tetrafluorophenyl)-1,2,3,5-dithiadiazolyl. The weak interactions between the radicals render single crystals of the β phase of this material exceedingly soft, and the S-N interactions facilitate plastic bending. EPR imaging of a bent single crystal reveals the effect of deformation on the three-dimensional spin density of the crystal. The unusual mechanical compliance of this material opens prospects for exploration into flexible crystals of other stable organic radicals towards the development of flexible light-weight organic magnetoresistance devices based on weak, non-hydrogen-bonded interactions in molecular crystals.
Project description:Halide vacancies and associated metallic lead (Pb°) observed at the surface and deep inside macroscopic organolead trihalide perovskite crystals is removed through a facile and noninvasive treatment. Indeed, Br2 vapor is shown to passivate Br-vacancies and associated Pb° in the bulk of macroscopic crystals. Controlling the exposure time can markedly improve the overall stoichiometry for moderate exposures or introduce excessive bromide for long exposures, resulting in p-doping of the crystals. In the low dose passivation regime, Hall effect measurements reveal a ca. 3-fold increase in carrier mobility to ca. 15 cm2V-1s-1, while the p-doping increases the electrical conductivity ca. 10000-fold, including a 50-fold increase in carrier mobility to ca. 150 cm2V-1s-1. The ease of diffusion of Br2 vapor into macroscopic crystals is ascribed to the porosity allowed in rapidly grown crystals through aggregative processes of the colloidal sol during growth of films and macroscopic crystals. This process is believed to form significant growth defects, including open voids, which may be remnants of the escaping solvent at the solidification front. These results suggest that due to the sol-gel-like nature of the growth process, macroscopic perovskite crystals reported in this study are far from perfect and point to possible pathways to improving the optoelectronic properties of these materials. Nevertheless, the ability of the vapor-phase approach to access and tune the bulk chemistry and properties of nominally macroscopic perovskite crystals provides interesting new opportunities to precisely manipulate and functionalize the bulk properties of hybrid perovskite crystals in a noninvasive manner.
Project description:Organic single crystals with elastic bending flexibility are rare because they are generally brittle. We report here fluorescent organic single crystals based on thiophene-tetrafluorobenzene-thiophene derivatives, mainly 1,4-bis(thien-2-yl)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene. Three derivatives were synthesized by Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions (Stille or direct arylation pathways). The crystallization of the derivatives gave large (mm- or cm-scale) crystals. Two crystals of 1,4-bis(thien-2-yl)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene, 1, and 1,4-bis(4-methylthien-2-yl)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene, 3, bent under applied stress and quickly recovered its original shape upon relaxation. The other crystal of 1,4-bis(5-methylthien-2-yl)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene, 2, showed brittle breakage under applied stress (normal behavior). Fibril lamella crystal structure based on criss-cross packed slip-stacked molecular wires and its structural integrity are important factors for the design and production of next generation crystal materials with elastic bending flexibility. Furthermore, mechanical bending-relaxation resulted in reversible change of the morphology and fluorescence (mechanofluorochromism). Such bendable crystals would lead to the next generation solid-state fluorescent and/or semiconducting materials.
Project description:The giant plasticity of [Formula: see text]He crystals has been explained as a consequence of the large mobility of their dislocations. Thus, the mechanical properties of dislocation free crystals should be quite different from those of usual ones. In 1996-1998, Ruutu et al. published crystal growth studies showing that, in their helium 4 crystals, the density of screw dislocations along the c-axis was less than 100 per cm[Formula: see text], sometimes zero. We have grown helium 4 crystals using similar growth speeds and temperatures, and extracted their dislocation density from their mechanical properties. We found dislocation densities that are in the range of 10[Formula: see text]-10[Formula: see text] per cm[Formula: see text], that is several orders of magnitude larger than Ruutu et al. Our tentative interpretation of this apparent contradiction is that the two types of measurements are somewhat indirect and concern different types of dislocations. As for the dislocation nucleation mechanism, it remains to be understood.
Project description:Chirality and liquid crystals are both widely expressed in nature and biology. Helical assembly of mesophasic molecules and colloids may produce intriguing chiral liquid crystals. To date, chiral liquid crystals of 2D colloids have not been explored. As a typical 2D colloid, graphene is now receiving unprecedented attention. However, making macroscopic graphene fibres is hindered by the poor dispersibility of graphene and by the lack of an assembly method. Here we report that soluble, chemically oxidized graphene or graphene oxide sheets can form chiral liquid crystals in a twist-grain-boundary phase-like model with simultaneous lamellar ordering and long-range helical frustrations. Aqueous graphene oxide liquid crystals were continuously spun into metres of macroscopic graphene oxide fibres; subsequent chemical reduction gave the first macroscopic neat graphene fibres with high conductivity and good mechanical performance. The flexible, strong graphene fibres were knitted into designed patterns and into directionally conductive textiles.