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Tau and TDP-43 proteinopathies: kindred pathologic cascades and genetic pleiotropy.


ABSTRACT: We review the literature on Tau and TDP-43 proteinopathies in aged human brains and the relevant underlying pathogenetic cascades. Complex interacting pathways are implicated in Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD), wherein multiple proteins tend to misfold in a manner that is "reactive," but, subsequently, each proteinopathy may contribute strongly to the clinical symptoms. Tau proteinopathy exists in brains of individuals across a broad spectrum of primary underlying conditions-e.g., developmental, traumatic, and inflammatory/infectious diseases. TDP-43 proteinopathy is also expressed in a wide range of clinical disorders.  Although TDP-43 proteinopathy was first described in the central nervous system of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in subtypes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD/FTLD), TDP-43 proteinopathy is also present in chronic traumatic encephalopathy, cognitively impaired persons in advanced age with hippocampal sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and other diseases. We list known Tau and TDP-43 proteinopathies.  There is also evidence of cellular co-localization between Tau and TDP-43 misfolded proteins, suggesting common pathways or protein interactions facilitating misfolding in one protein by the other. Multiple pleiotropic gene variants can alter risk for Tau or TDP-43 pathologies, and certain gene variants (e.g., APOE ?4, Huntingtin triplet repeats) are associated with increases of both Tau and TDP-43 proteinopathies. Studies of genetic risk factors have provided insights into multiple nodes of the pathologic cascades involved in Tau and TDP-43 proteinopathies. Variants from a specific gene can be either a low-penetrant risk factor for a group of diseases, or alternatively, a different variant of the same gene may be a disease-driving allele that is associated with a relatively aggressive and early-onset version of a clinically and pathologically specific disease type. Overall, a complex but enlightening paradigm has emerged, wherein both Tau and TDP-43 proteinopathies are linked to numerous overlapping upstream influences, and both are associated with multiple downstream pathologically- and clinically-defined deleterious effects.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6609463 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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