C23, an oligopeptide derived from cold-inducible RNA-binding protein, suppresses inflammation and reduces lung injury in neonatal sepsis.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Neonatal sepsis remains a leading cause of infant mortality. Cold-inducible RNA binding protein (CIRP) is an inflammatory mediator that induces TNF-? production in macrophages. C23 is a CIRP-derived peptide that blocks CIRP from binding its receptor. We therefore hypothesized that treatment with C23 reduces systemic inflammation and protects the lungs in neonatal sepsis. METHODS:Sepsis was induced in C56BL/6 mouse pups (5-7?days) by intraperitoneal injection of adult cecal slurry (0.525?mg/g body weight, LD100). One hour later pups received retroorbital injection of C23 (8?mg/kg) or vehicle (normal saline). Ten hours after sepsis induction, blood and tissues were collected for analysis. RESULTS:C23 treatment resulted in a 58% and 69% reduction in serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1?, respectively, and a 40% and 45% reduction of AST and LDH, as compared to vehicle-treated septic pups. In the lungs, C23 treatment reduced expression of cytokines IL-6 and IL-1? by 78% and 74%. In addition, the mRNA level of neutrophil chemoattractants KC and MIP-2 was reduced by 84% and 74%, respectively. These results corresponded to a reduction in histologic lung injury score. Vehicle-treated pups scored 0.49?±?0.19, while C23 treatment reduced scores to 0.29?±?0.12 (p?
Project description:Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a novel sepsis inflammatory mediator and C23 is a putative CIRP competitive inhibitor. Therefore, we hypothesized that C23 can ameliorate sepsis-associated injury to the lungs and kidneys. First, we confirmed that C23 dose-dependently inhibited TNF-? release, I?B? degradation, and NF-?B nuclear translocation in macrophages stimulated with CIRP. Next, we observed that male C57BL/6 mice treated with C23 (8?mg/kg BW) at 2?h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) had lower serum levels of LDH, ALT, IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-1? (reduced by ?39%) at 20?h after CLP compared with mice treated with vehicle. C23-treated mice also had improved lung histology, less TUNEL-positive cells, lower serum levels of creatinine (34%) and BUN (26%), and lower kidney expression of NGAL (50%) and KIM-1 (86%). C23-treated mice also had reduced lung and kidney levels of IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-1?. E-selectin and ICAM-1 mRNA was significantly lower in C23-treated mice. The 10-day survival after CLP of vehicle-treated mice was 55%, while that of C23-treated mice was 85%. In summary, C23 decreased systemic, lung, and kidney injury and inflammation, and improved the survival rate after CLP, suggesting that it may be developed as a new treatment for sepsis.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Neonatal sepsis and the associated myocardial dysfunction remain a leading cause of infant mortality. Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (eCIRP) acts as a ligand of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1). M3 is a small CIRP-derived peptide that inhibits the eCIRP/TREM-1 interaction. We hypothesize that the eCIRP/TREM-1 interaction in cardiomyocytes contributes to sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction in neonatal sepsis, while M3 is cardioprotective.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Serum was collected from neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). 5-7-day old C57BL/6 mouse pups were used in this study. Primary murine neonatal cardiomyocytes were stimulated with recombinant murine (rm) CIRP with M3. TREM-1 mRNA and supernatant cytokine levels were assayed. Mitochondrial oxidative stress, ROS, and membrane potential were assayed. Neonatal mice were injected with rmCIRP and speckle-tracking echocardiography was conducted to measure cardiac strain. Sepsis was induced by i.p. cecal slurry. Mouse pups were treated with M3 or vehicle. After 16 h, echocardiography was performed followed by euthanasia for tissue analysis. A 7-day survival study was conducted.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Serum eCIRP levels were elevated in septic human neonates. rmCIRP stimulation of cardiomyocytes increased TREM-1 gene expression. Stimulation of cardiomyocytes with rmCIRP upregulated TNF-? and IL-6 in the supernatants, while this upregulation was inhibited by M3. Stimulation of cardiomyocytes with rmCIRP resulted in a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) while M3 treatment returned MMP to near baseline. rmCIRP caused mitochondrial calcium overload; this was inhibited by M3. rmCIRP injection impaired longitudinal and radial cardiac strain. Sepsis resulted in cardiac dysfunction with a reduction in cardiac output and left ventricular end diastolic diameter. Both were improved by M3 treatment. Treatment with M3 attenuated serum, cardiac, and pulmonary levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to vehicle-treated septic neonates. M3 dramatically increased sepsis survival.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Inhibition of eCIRP/TREM-1 interaction with M3 is cardioprotective, decreases inflammation, and improves survival in neonatal sepsis. Trial registration Retrospectively registered.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is an important cause of mortality. HS is associated with an elevated incidence of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, significantly contributing to HS morbidity and mortality. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is released into the circulation during HS and can cause lung injury. C23 is a CIRP-derived oligopeptide that binds with high affinity to the CIRP receptor and inhibits CIRP-induced phagocyte secretion of TNF-?. This study was designed to determine whether C23 is able to attenuate HS-associated lung injury. METHODS:C57BL/6 mice were subjected to controlled hemorrhage leading to a mean arterial pressure of 25 ± 3 mm Hg for 90 minutes. Mice were then volume-resuscitated for 30 minutes with normal saline solution alone (vehicle) or plus adjuvant treatment with C23 (8 mg/kg BW). At 4.5 hours after resuscitation, the blood and lungs were harvested. RESULTS:Serum levels of organ injury markers lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase were significantly elevated in hemorrhaged mice receiving vehicle and were reduced by 51.3% and 52.2% in mice adjuvantly treated with C23, respectively. Similarly, lung mRNA levels of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6, and lung myeloperoxidase activity were elevated after HS and reduced by 66.1%, 54.4%, 69.7%, and 24.3%, respectively, in mice treated with C23. Adjuvant treatment with C23 also decreased the lung histology score by 33.9%, lung extravasation of albumin carrying Evans blue dye by 36.8%, and the protein level of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and indicator of vascular endothelial cell activation, by 40.3%. CONCLUSION:Together, these results indicate that adjuvant treatment with the CIRP-derived oligopeptide C23 is able to improve lung inflammation and vascular endothelial activation secondary to HS, lending support to the development of CIRP-targeting adjuvant treatments to minimize lung injury after HS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neonatal sepsis represents a unique therapeutic challenge owing to an immature immune system. Necroptosis is a form of programmed cell death that has been identified as an important mechanism of inflammation-induced cell death. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 plays a key role in mediating this process. We hypothesized that pharmacologic blockade of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 activity would be protective in neonatal sepsis. METHODS:Sepsis was induced in C57BL/6 mouse pups (5-7 days old) by intraperitoneal injection of adult cecal slurry. At 1 hour after cecal slurry injection, the receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (10 µg/g body weight) or vehicle (5% dimethyl sulfoxide in phosphate buffered saline) was administered via retro-orbital injection. At 20 hours after cecal slurry injection, blood and lung tissues were collected for various analyses. RESULTS:At 20 hours after sepsis induction, vehicle-treated pups showed a marked increase in serum levels of interleukin 6, interleukin 1-beta, and interleukin 18 compared to sham. With necrostatin-1 treatment, serum levels of interleukin 6, interleukin 1-beta, and interleukin 18 were decreased by 77%, 81%, and 63%, respectively, compared to vehicle. In the lungs, sepsis induction resulted in a 232-, 10-, and 2.8-fold increase in interleukin 6, interleukin 1-beta, and interleukin 18 mRNA levels compared to sham, while necrostatin-1 treatment decreased these levels to 40-, 4-, and 0.8-fold, respectively. Expressions of the neutrophil chemokines keratinocyte chemoattractant and macrophage-inflammatory-protein-2 were also increased in the lungs in sepsis, while necrostatin-1 treatment decreased these levels by 81% and 61%, respectively, compared to vehicle. In addition, necrostatin-1 treatment significantly improved the lung histologic injury score and decreased lung apoptosis in septic pups. Finally, treatment with necrostatin-1 increased the 7-day survival rate from 0% in the vehicle-treated septic pups to 29% (P?=?.11). CONCLUSION:Inhibition of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 by necrostatin-1 decreases systemic and pulmonary inflammation, decreases lung injury, and increases survival in neonatal mice with sepsis. Targeting the necroptosis pathway might represent a new therapeutic strategy for neonatal sepsis.
Project description:Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), released into the circulation during sepsis, causes lung injury via an as yet unknown mechanism. Since endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with acute lung injury (ALI), we hypothesized that CIRP causes ALI via induction of ER stress. To test this hypothesis, we studied the lungs of wild-type (WT) and CIRP knockout (KO) mice at 20?h after induction of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). WT mice had significantly more severe ALI than CIRP KO mice. Lung ER stress markers (BiP, pIRE1?, sXBP1, CHOP, cleaved caspase-12) were increased in septic WT mice, but not in septic CIRP KO mice. Effector pathways downstream from ER stress - apoptosis, NF-?B (p65), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1?), neutrophil chemoattractants (MIP-2, KC), neutrophil infiltration (MPO activity), lipid peroxidation (4-HNE), and nitric oxide (iNOS) - were significantly increased in WT mice, but only mildly elevated in CIRP KO mice. ER stress markers were increased in the lungs of healthy WT mice treated with recombinant murine CIRP, but not in the lungs of TLR4 KO mice. This suggests CIRP directly induces ER stress via TLR4 activation. In summary, CIRP induces lung ER stress and downstream responses to cause sepsis-associated ALI.
Project description:Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) functions as damage-associated molecular pattern and has been demonstrated to be responsible in part for the damage occurring after renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). A short peptide derived from CIRP, named C23, binds to myeloid differentiation factor 2, a Toll-like receptor 4 coreceptor. We hypothesize that C23 reduces renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) injury by blocking CIRP. We observed that pretreatment with C23 significantly decreased the levels of recombinant mouse CIRP-induced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in a dose-dependent fashion in cultured macrophages. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to bilateral renal pedicle clamps for 35?min to induce ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 h and harvest of blood and renal tissue. C23 peptide (8?mg/kg) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally at the beginning of reperfusion. Plasma TNF-?, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), and IL-6 levels were decreased in C23-treated RIR mice as compared with vehicle-treated mice by 74%, 85%, and 68%, respectively. Expressions of TNF-? and keratinocyte chemoattractant in the kidneys from C23-treated mice were decreased by 55% and 60%, respectively. Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in the kidney of C23-treated mice were significantly reduced by 46% and 55%, respectively. Renal tissue histological assessments revealed significant reduction in damage score by 44% in C23-treated mice. Finally, a survival study revealed a significant survival advantage with a 70% survival rate in C23 group vs. 37% in vehicle group. Thus, C23 has potential as a novel therapy for the patients suffering from I/R-induced renal injury.
Project description:Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) exaggerates inflammation and tissue injury in sepsis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are released by activated neutrophils during sepsis. NETs contribute to pathogen clearance, but excessive NET formation (NETosis) causes inflammation and tissue damage. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is associated with NETosis by increasing histone citrullination and chromatin decondensation. We hypothesized that CIRP induces NETosis in the lungs during sepsis via upregulating PAD4 expression. Sepsis was induced in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CIRP<sup>-/-</sup> mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). After 20?h of CLP induction, NETs in the lungs of WT and CIRP<sup>-/-</sup> mice were quantified by flow cytometry by staining the single cell suspensions with MPO and CitH3 Abs. PAD4 expression in the lungs of WT and CIRP<sup>-/-</sup> mice after sepsis was assessed by Western blotting. In vitro effects of recombinant mouse (rm) CIRP for NETosis and PAD4 expression in the bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDN) were assessed by flow cytometry and Western blotting, respectively. After 20?h of CLP, NETosis in the lungs was significantly decreased in CIRP<sup>-/-</sup> mice compared to WT mice, which also correlated with the decreased PAD4 expression. Intratracheal administration of rmCIRP into WT mice significantly increased NETosis and PAD4 expression in the lungs compared to vehicle-injected mice. In vitro culture of BMDN with rmCIRP significantly increased NETosis and PAD4 expression compared to PBS-treated control. Fluorescence microscopy revealed typical web-like structures consistent with NETs in rmCIRP-treated BMDN. Thus, CIRP serves as a novel inducer of NETosis via PAD4 during sepsis.
Project description:Sepsis and septic shock are enormous public health problems with astronomical financial repercussions on health systems worldwide. The central nervous system (CNS) is closely intertwined in the septic process but the underlying mechanism is still obscure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a ubiquitous energy sensor enzyme and plays a key role in regulation of energy homeostasis and cell survival. In this study, we hypothesized that activation of AMPK in the brain would attenuate inflammatory responses in sepsis, particularly in the lungs. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR, 20 ng), an AMPK activator, or vehicle (normal saline) by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection, followed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) at 30 min post-ICV. The septic mice treated with AICAR exhibited elevated phosphorylation of AMPK? in the brain along with reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), compared with the vehicle. Similarly, the expressions of TNF-?, IL-1?, keratinocyte-derived chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 as well as myeloperoxidase activity in the lungs of AICAR-treated mice were significantly reduced. Moreover, histological findings in the lungs showed improvement of morphologic features and reduction of apoptosis with AICAR treatment. We further found that the beneficial effects of AICAR on septic mice were diminished in AMPK?2 deficient mice, showing that AMPK mediates these effects. In conclusion, our findings reveal a new functional role of activating AMPK in the CNS to attenuate inflammatory responses and acute lung injury in sepsis.
Project description:Sepsis is the third leading cause of death in the neonatal population, due to susceptibility to infection conferred by immaturity of both the innate and adaptive components of the immune system. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are specialized adaptive immune cells that possess important innate-like characteristics and have not yet been well-studied in septic neonates. We hypothesized that iNKT cells would play an important role in mediating the neonatal immune response to sepsis. To study this, we subjected 5- to 7-day-old neonatal C57BL/6 mice to sepsis by intraperitoneal (i.p.) cecal slurry (CS) injection. Thirty hours prior to or immediately following sepsis induction, pups received i.p. injection of the iNKT stimulator KRN7000 (KRN, 0.2?µg/g) or vehicle. Ten hours after CS injection, blood and tissues were collected for various analyses. Thirty-hour pretreatment with KRN resulted in better outcomes in inflammation, lung injury, and survival, while immediate treatment with KRN resulted in worse outcomes compared to vehicle treatment. We further analyzed the activation status of neonatal iNKT cells for 30?h after KRN administration, and showed a peak in frequency of CD69 expression on iNKT cells and serum IFN-? levels at 5 and 10?h, respectively. We then used CD1d knockout neonatal mice to demonstrate that KRN acts through the major histocompatibility complex-like molecule CD1d to improve outcomes in neonatal sepsis. Finally, we identified that KRN pretreatment exerts its protective effect by increasing systemic levels of TGF-?1. These findings support the importance of iNKT cells for prophylactic immunomodulation in neonates susceptible to sepsis.
Project description:Sepsis represents uncontrolled inflammation due to an infection. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a stress-induced damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). A subset of neutrophils expressing ICAM-1+ neutrophils was previously shown to produce high levels of reactive oxygen species. The role of CIRP for the development and function of ICAM-1+ neutrophils during sepsis is unknown. We hypothesize that CIRP induces ICAM-1 expression in neutrophils causing injury to the lungs during sepsis. Using a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, we found increased expression of CIRP and higher frequencies and numbers of ICAM-1+ neutrophils in the lungs. Conversely, the CIRP-/- mice showed significant inhibition in the frequencies and numbers of ICAM-1+ neutrophils in the lungs compared to wild-type (WT) mice in sepsis. In vitro treatment of bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDN) with recombinant murine CIRP (rmCIRP) significantly increased ICAM-1+ phenotype in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The effect of rmCIRP on increasing frequencies of ICAM-1+ neutrophils was significantly attenuated in BMDN treated with anti-TLR4 Ab or NF-?B inhibitor compared, respectively, with BMDN treated with isotype IgG or DMSO. The frequencies of iNOS producing and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) forming phenotypes in rmCIRP-treated ICAM-1+ BMDN were significantly higher than those in ICAM-1- BMDN. Following sepsis the ICAM-1+ neutrophils in the lungs showed significantly higher levels of iNOS and NETs compared to ICAM-1- neutrophils. We further revealed that ICAM-1 and NETs were co-localized in the neutrophils treated with rmCIRP. CIRP-/- mice showed significant improvement in their survival outcome (78% survival) over that of WT mice (48% survival) in sepsis. Thus, CIRP could be a novel therapeutic target for regulating iNOS producing and NETs forming ICAM-1+ neutrophils in the lungs during sepsis.