Acid microenvironment promotes cell survival of human bone sarcoma through the activation of cIAP proteins and NF-?B pathway.
ABSTRACT: Extracellular acidification is a very common cause of stress in tumor microenvironment and of Darwinian pressure. In acid areas of the tumor, most cancer cells are-albeit slowly proliferating-more resistant to cell death than those in well-perfused regions. Tumor acidosis can directly regulate the expression of pro-survival proteins since a low extracellular pH activates the caspase-dependent cell death machinery. This mechanism has never been explored in bone sarcomas. We cultured osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma cells under low pH (pH 6.5), and we performed deep-sequencing and protein analysis. Both in in vitro and in vivo models, acidification activity enhanced tumor cells survival. However, we did not observe any change in ERK1 phosphorylation. On the contrary, both at the mRNA and protein level, we found a significant induction of TRAF adaptor proteins and of cIAP proteins (BIRC2 and/or BIRC3). As a consequence, the downstream nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-?B) survival pathway was increased. Furthermore, the treatment with the cIAP inhibitor LCL161 reverted the protection from apoptosis under low pH. In vitro results were confirmed both in Ewing sarcoma xenograft and in osteosarcoma patients, since the analysis of tumor tissues demonstrated that the levels of expression of TRAF1 or NF-?B1 significantly correlate with the level of expression of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), the most important proton pump in eukaryotes. Moreover, in the tissue sections of xenograft model, the nuclear translocation of RelB, a key subunit of the NF-?B transcriptional complex, localized in the tumor region that also corresponded to the acid microenvironment associated with the highest levels of expression of LAMP2 and V-ATPase, in the internal area of the tumor, as revealed by immunohistochemistry. Our data confirm that tumor acid microenvironment activates a stress-regulated switch to promote cell survival of bone sarcoma, and support the hypothesis that this mechanism is mediated by the recruitment of TRAF/cIAP complexes. Altogether, these results suggest that TRAF/cIAP can be considered as a target for anti-cancer therapies.
Project description:Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are the most common malignant primary bone tumors mainly occurring in children, adolescents and young adults. Current standard therapy includes multidrug chemotherapy and/or radiation specifically for Ewing sarcoma, associated with tumor resection. However, patient survival has not evolved for the past decade and remains closely related to the response of tumor cells to chemotherapy, reaching around 75% at 5 years for patients with localized forms of osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma but less than 30% in metastatic diseases and patients resistant to initial chemotherapy. Despite Ewing sarcoma being characterized by specific EWSR1-ETS gene fusions resulting in oncogenic transcription factors, currently, no targeted therapy could be implemented. It seems even more difficult to develop a targeted therapeutic strategy in osteosarcoma which is characterized by high complexity and heterogeneity in genomic alterations. Nevertheless, the common point between these different bone tumors is their ability to deregulate bone homeostasis and remodeling and divert them to their benefit. Therefore, targeting different actors of the bone tumor microenvironment has been hypothesized to develop new therapeutic strategies. In this context, it is well known that the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway plays a key role in cancer development, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma as well as in bone remodeling. Moreover, recent studies highlight the implication of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in angiogenesis and immuno-surveillance, two key mechanisms involved in metastatic dissemination. This review focuses on the role played by this signaling pathway in the development of primary bone tumors and the modulation of their specific microenvironment.
Project description:Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone tumor, with three cases per million worldwide. In clinical terms, Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, rapidly fatal malignancy that mainly develops not only in osseous sites (85%) but also in extra-skeletal soft tissue. It spreads naturally to the lungs, bones, and bone marrow with poor prognosis in the two latter cases. Bone lesions from primary or secondary (metastases) tumors are characterized by extensive bone remodeling, more often due to osteolysis. Osteoclast activation and subsequent bone resorption are responsible for the clinical features of bone tumors, including pain, vertebral collapse, and spinal cord compression. Based on the "vicious cycle" concept of tumor cells and bone resorbing cells, drugs, which target osteoclasts, may be promising agents as adjuvant setting for treating bone tumors, including Ewing sarcoma. There is also increasing evidence that cellular and molecular protagonists present in the bone microenvironment play a part in establishing a favorable "niche" for tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic value of drugs targeting the bone tumor microenvironment in Ewing sarcoma. The first part of the review will focus on targeting the bone resorbing function of osteoclasts by means of bisphosphonates or drugs blocking the pro-resorbing cytokine receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand. Second, the role of this peculiar hypoxic microenvironment will be discussed in the context of resistance to chemotherapy, escape from the immune system, or neo-angiogenesis. Therapeutic interventions based on these specificities could be then proposed in the context of Ewing sarcoma.
Project description:Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are the most prevalent bone pediatric tumors. Despite intensive basic and medical research studies to discover new therapeutics and to improve current treatments, almost 40% of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma patients succumb to the disease. Patients with poor prognosis are related to either the presence of metastases at diagnosis or resistance to chemotherapy. Over the past ten years, considerable interest for the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway has taken place within the cancer research community. This signaling pathway operates at different steps of tumor progression: Primary tumor growth, angiogenesis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and metastatic dissemination. This review discusses the current knowledge about the involvement of the Hippo signaling pathway in cancer and specifically in paediatric bone sarcoma progression.
Project description:Bone tumors make up a significant portion of noncentral nervous system solid tumor diagnoses in pediatric oncology patients. Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma, both with distinct clinical and pathologic features, are the two most commonly encountered bone cancers in pediatrics. Although mutations in the germline have classically been more associated with osteosarcoma, there is recent evidence germline alterations in patients with Ewing sarcoma also play a significant role in pathogenesis. Treatment advances in this patient population have lagged behind that of other pediatric malignancies, particularly targeted interventions directed at the biologic underpinnings of disease. Recent advances in biologic and genomic understanding of these two cancers has expanded the potential for therapeutic advancement and prevention. In Ewing sarcoma, directed focus on inhibition of EWSR1-FLI1 and its effectors has produced promising results. In osteosarcoma, instead of a concentrated focus on one particular change, largely due to tumor heterogeneity, a more diversified approach has been adopted including investigations of growth factors inhibitors, signaling pathway inhibitors, and immune modulation. Continuing recently made treatment advances relies on clinical trial design and enrollment. Clinical trials should include incorporation of biological findings; specifically, for Ewing sarcoma, assessment of alternative fusions and, for osteosarcoma, stratification utilizing biomarkers. Expanded cancer genomics knowledge, particularly with solid tumors, as it relates to heritability and incorporation of family history has led to early identification of patients with cancer predisposition. In these patients through application of cost-effective evidence-based screening techniques the ultimate goal of cancer prevention is becoming a realization.
Project description:The pediatric bone sarcomas osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma represent a tremendous challenge for the clinician. Though less common than acute lymphoblastic leukemia or brain tumors, these aggressive cancers account for a disproportionate amount of the cancer morbidity and mortality in children, and have seen few advances in survival in the past decade, despite many large, complicated, and expensive trials of various chemotherapy combinations. To improve the outcomes of children with bone sarcomas, a better understanding of the biology of these cancers is needed, together with informed use of targeted therapies that exploit the unique biology of each disease. Here we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the contribution of receptor tyrosine kinases, intracellular signaling pathways, bone biology and physiology, the immune system, and the tumor microenvironment in promoting and maintaining the malignant phenotype. These observations are coupled with a review of the therapies that target each of these mechanisms, focusing on recent or ongoing clinical trials if such information is available. It is our hope that, by better understanding the biology of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, rational combination therapies can be designed and systematically tested, leading to improved outcomes for a group of children who desperately need them.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High grade primary bone sarcomas are rare cancers that affect mostly children and young adults. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are the most common histological subtypes in this age group, with current multimodality treatment strategies achieving 55-70% overall survival. As there remains an urgent need to develop new therapeutic interventions, we have reviewed published phase I/II trials that have been reported for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma in the last twenty years. RESULTS:We conducted a literature search for clinical trials between 1990 and 2010, either for trials enrolling bone sarcoma patients as part of a general sarcoma indication or trials specifically in osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. We identified 42 clinical trials that fulfilled our search criteria for general sarcoma that enrolled these patient groups, and eight and twenty specific trials for Ewing and osteosarcoma patients, respectively. For the phase I trials which enrolled different tumour types our results were incomplete, because the sarcoma patients were not mentioned in the PubMed abstract. A total of 3,736 sarcoma patients were included in these trials over this period, 1,114 for osteosarcoma and 1,263 for Ewing sarcoma. As a proportion of the worldwide disease burden over this period, these numbers reflect a very small percentage of the potential patient recruitment, approximately 0.6% for Ewing sarcoma and 0.2% for osteosarcoma. However, these data show an increase in recent activity overall and suggest there is still much room for improvement in the current trial development structures. CONCLUSION:Lack of resources and commercial investment will inevitably limit opportunity to develop sufficiently rapid improvements in clinical outcomes. International collaboration exists in many well founded co-operative groups for phase III trials, but progress may be more effective if there were also more investment of molecular and translational research into disease focused phase I/II clinical trials. Examples of new models for early translational and early phase trial collaboration include the European based EuroBoNeT network, the Sarcoma Alliance for Research through Collaboration network (SARC) and the new European collaborative translational trial network, EuroSarc.
Project description:In order to explore the potential of immune checkpoint blockade in sarcoma, we investigated expression and clinical relevance of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and CD8 in tumors of 208 sarcoma patients. Primary untreated osteosarcoma (n = 46), Ewing sarcoma (n = 32), alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 20), embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 77), synovial sarcoma (n = 22) and desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCT) (n = 11) were examined immunohistochemically. PD-L1 expression was predominantly detected in alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas (15% and 16%, respectively). In the alveolar subtype PD-L1 expression was associated with better overall, event-free and metastases-free survival. PD-1 expression on lymphocytes was predominantly seen in synovial sarcomas (18%). High levels of CD8+ lymphocytes were predominantly detected in osteosarcomas (35%) and associated with worse event-free survival in synovial sarcomas. Ewing sarcoma and DSRCTs showed PD-1 on tumor cells instead of on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Overall, expression and clinical associations were found to be subtype dependent. For the first time PD-1 expression on Ewing sarcoma (19%) and DSRCT (82%) tumor cells was described.
Project description:Background. Comorbidity is an important prognostic factor for survival in different cancers; however, neither the prevalence nor the impact of comorbidity has been investigated in bone sarcoma. Methods. All adult bone sarcoma patients from western Denmark treated at the Aarhus Sarcoma Centre in the period from 1979 to 2008 were identified through a validated population-based database. Charlson Comorbidity Index scores were computed, using discharge diagnoses from the Danish National Patient Registry. Survival was assessed as overall and disease-specific mortality. The impact of comorbidity was examined as rates according to the level of comorbidity as well as uni- and multivariately using proportional hazard models. Results. A total of 453 patients were identified. The overall prevalence of comorbidity was 19%. The prevalence increased with age and over the study period. In patients with Ewing/osteosarcoma, comorbidity was not associated with an increased overall or disease-specific mortality. However, patients with bone sarcomas other than Ewing/osteosarcoma had increased overall mortality. Independent prognostic factors for disease-specific survival were age, tumor size, stage at diagnosis, soft tissue involvement, grade, and surgery. Conclusion. The prevalence of comorbidity in bone sarcoma patients is low. Comorbidity impaired survival in patients with non-Ewing/nonosteosarcoma, histology. This emphasizes the importance of not only treating the sarcoma but also comorbidity.
Project description:Bone sarcomas are tumours belonging to the family of mesenchymal tumours and constitute a highly heterogeneous tumour group. The three main bone sarcomas are osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and chondrosarcoma each subdivided in diverse histological entities. They are clinically characterised by a relatively high morbidity and mortality, especially in children and adolescents. Although these tumours are histologically, molecularly and genetically heterogeneous, they share a common involvement of the local microenvironment in their pathogenesis. This review gives a brief overview of their specificities and summarises the main therapeutic advances in the field of bone sarcoma.
Project description:The lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) activates the NF-kappaB2 transcription factors, p100 and RelB, by regulating the NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK). Constitutive proteosomal degradation of NIK limits NF-kappaB activation in unstimulated cells by the ubiquitin:NIK E3 ligase comprised of subunits TNFR-associated factors (TRAF)3, TRAF2, and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP). However, the mechanism releasing NIK from constitutive degradation remains unclear. We found that insertion of a charge-repulsion mutation in the receptor-binding crevice of TRAF3 ablated binding of both LTbetaR and NIK suggesting a common recognition site. A homologous mutation in TRAF2 inhibited cIAP interaction and blocked NIK degradation. Furthermore, the recruitment of TRAF3 and TRAF2 to the ligated LTbetaR competitively displaced NIK from TRAF3. Ligated LTbetaR complexed with TRAF3 and TRAF2 redirected the specificity of the ubiquitin ligase reaction to polyubiquitinate TRAF3 and TRAF2, leading to their proteosomal degradation. Stimulus-dependent degradation of TRAF3 required the RING domain of TRAF2, but not of TRAF3, implicating TRAF2 as a key E3 ligase in TRAF turnover. The combined action of competitive displacement of NIK and TRAF degradation halted NIK turnover, and promoted its association with IKKalpha and signal transmission. These results indicate the LTbetaR modifies the ubiquitin:NIK E3 ligase, and also acts as an allosteric regulator of the ubiquitin:TRAF E3 ligase.