The Effects of Superimposed Whole-Body Electromyostimulation During Short-Term Strength Training on Physical Fitness in Physically Active Females: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of short-term strength training with and without superimposed whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on straight sprinting speed (SSS), change of direction speed (CODS), vertical and horizontal jumping, as well as on strength and power in physically active females. Twenty-two active female participants (n = 22; mean ± SD: age: 20.5 ± 2.3 years; height: 171.9 ± 5.5 cm; body mass: 64.0 ± 8.2 kg; strength training experience 5.1 ± 3.6 years) were randomly assigned to two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed WB-EMS (S+E). Both groups trained twice a week over a period of 4 weeks and differed in the application of free weights or WB-EMS during four strength (e.g., split squats, glute-ham raises) and five sprinting and jumping exercises (e.g., side and box jumps, skippings). The WB-EMS impulse intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual maximal sustainable pain. SSS was tested via 30-m sprinting, CODS by a T-run, vertical and horizontal jumping using four different jump tests at pre-, post-, and retests. Maximal strength (Fmax) and power (Pmax) testing procedures were conducted on the Leg Press (LP), Leg Extension (LE), and Leg Curl (LC) machine. Significant time × group interaction effects revealed significant decreases of contact time of the Drop Jump and split time of CODS (p ? 0.043; ? p 2 = 0.15-0.25) for S (? 11.6%) compared to S+E (? 5.7%). Significant time effects (p < 0.024; ? p 2 = 0.17-0.57) were observed in both groups for SSS (S+E: ?6.3%; S: ?8.0%) and CODS (S+E: ?1.8%; S: ?2.0%) at retest, for jump test performances (S+E: ?13.2%; S: ?9.2%) as well as Fmax and Pmax for LE (S+E: ?13.5%; S: ?13.3%) and LC (S+E: ?18.2%; S: ?26.7%) at post- and retests. The findings of this study indicate comparable effects of short-term strength training with and without superimposed WB-EMS on physical fitness in physically active females. Therefore, WB-EMS training could serve as a reasonable but not superior alternative to classic training regimes in female exercisers.
Project description:Background: Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) gained increasing interest in sports within recent years. However, few intervention studies have examined the effects of WB-EMS on trained subjects in comparison to conventional strength training. Objective: The aim of the present mini-meta-analysis of 5 recently conducted and published randomized controlled WB-EMS trails of our work group was to evaluate potentially favorable effects of WB-EMS in comparison to conventional strength training. Methods: We included parameter of selected leg muscle's strength and power as well as sprint and jump performance. All subjects were moderately trained athletes [>2 training sessions/week, >2 years of experience in strength training; experimental group (n = 58): 21.5 ± 3.3 y; 178 ± 8 cm; 74.0 ± 11 kg; control group (n = 54): 21.0 ± 2.3 y; 179.0 ± 9 cm; 72.6 ± 10 kg]. The following WB-EMS protocols were applied to the experimental group (EG): 2 WB-EMS sessions/week, bipolar current superimposed to dynamic exercises, 85 Hz, 350 ?s, 70% of the individual pain threshold amperage. The control groups (CG) underwent the same training protocols without WB-EMS, but with external resistance. Results: Five extremely homogenous studies (all studies revealed an I 2 = 0%) with 112 subjects in total were analyzed with respect to lower limb strength and power in leg curl, leg extension and leg press machines, sprint-and jump performance. Negligible effects in favor of WB-EMS were found for Fmax of leg muscle groups [SMD: 0.11 (90% CI: -0.08, 0.33), p = 0.73, I 2 = 0%] and for CMJ [SMD: 0.01 (90% CI: -0.34, 0.33), p = 0.81, I 2 = 0%]. Small effects, were found for linear sprint [SMD: 0.22 (90% CI: -0.15, 0.60), p = 0.77, I 2 = 0%] in favor of the EMS-group compared to CON. Conclusion: We conclude that WB-EMS is a feasible complementary training stimulus for performance enhancement. However, additional effects on strength and power indices seem to be limited and sprint and jump-performance appear to be benefiting only slightly. Longer training periods and more frequent application times and a slightly larger stimulus could be investigated in larger samples to further elucidate beneficial effects of WB-EMS on performance parameters in athletes.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of dynamic superimposed submaximal whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) training on maximal strength and power parameters of the leg muscles compared with a similar dynamic training without WB-EMS. Eighteen male sport students were randomly assigned either to a WB-EMS intervention (INT; n = 9; age: 28.8 (SD: 3.0) years; body mass: 80.2 (6.6) kg; strength training experience: 4.6 (2.8) years) or a traditional strength training group (CON; n = 9; age: 22.8 (2.5) years; body mass: 77.6 (9.0) kg; strength training experience: 4.5 (2.9) years). Both training intervention programs were performed twice a week over a period of 8 weeks with the only difference that INT performed all dynamic exercises (e.g., split squats, glute-ham raises, jumps, and tappings) with superimposed WB-EMS. WB-EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of the individual maximal tolerable pain to ensure dynamic movement. Before (PRE), after (POST) and 2 weeks after the intervention (FU), performance indices were assessed by maximal strength (Fmax) and maximal power (Pmax) testing on the leg extension (LE), leg curl (LC), and leg press (LP) machine as primary endpoints. Additionally, vertical and horizontal jumps and 30 m sprint tests were conducted as secondary endpoints at PRE, POST and FU testing. Significant time effects were observed for strength and power parameters on LE and LC (LE Fmax +5.0%; LC Pmax +13.5%). A significant time × group interaction effect was merely observed for Fmax on the LE where follow-up post hoc testing showed significantly higher improvements in the INT group from PRE to POST and PRE to FU (INT: +7.7%, p < 0.01; CON: +2.1%). These findings indicate that the combination of dynamic exercises and superimposed submaximal WB-EMS seems to be effective in order to improve leg strength and power. However, in young healthy adults the effects of superimposed WB-EMS were similar to the effects of dynamic resistance training without EMS, with the only exception of a significantly greater increase in leg extension Fmax in the WB-EMS group.
Project description:Whole-body electromyostiulation (WB-EMS) has experienced a boom in recent years, even though its effectiveness is controversial. A sedentary lifestyle is deeply rooted in the European population, mainly in the elderly. This experimental study analyzed the impact of WB-EMS on the physical fitness of postmenopausal women. Thirty-four healthy sedentary women between 55 and 69 years followed an experimental design pre-post-test. Both groups conducted a ten-week aerobic and strength training program. The experimental group overlaid the WB-EMS during exercise. At the end of the intervention, both groups improved upper and lower body strength, lower extremity flexibility, agility, and speed levels (pBonferroni < 0.05). Significant interactions were observed at upper and lower body strength, agility, speed, and cardiovascular endurance (p < 0.05). The WB-EMS group scored better agility than the control group at the end of the intervention (pBonferroni < 0.05) and was the only group that improved cardiovascular endurance. WB-EMS shows a favorable isolate effect on the development of dynamic leg strength, agility, and cardiovascular endurance but did not in dynamic arm strength, gait speed, balance, or flexibility of postmenopausal women.
Project description:Background: Age-related problems such as chronic diseases, functional limitation and dependence, reduce the quality of life in the elderly, and increase public spending in health. It has been established that physical activity plays a fundamental role in the health of the elderly. The whole body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) could be a successful methodology as high-intensity training to improve the physical fitness of older people. Methods: A minimum of 13 women between 55 and 70 years old will be randomized in two groups. The exercise with WB-EMS group (EX + WB-EMS) will conduct a resistance strength training program with superimposed WB-EMS while the exercise group (EX) will perform only resistance strength and aerobic training. Balance, strength, flexibility, agility, speed, and aerobic performance (EXERNET battery and progressive resistance test), as well as body composition, blood parameters and physical activity reporting (IPAQ-E) will be assessed to analyze the effects of whole body electromyostimulation in the physical fitness and the health in postmenopausal women. Discussion: Innovative and scientifically well-designed protocols are needed to enhance the knowledge of the body's responses within this training methodology which is being used by a big quantity of population. This trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of whole-body electromyostimulation in physical fitness and health in elderly women. Trial Registration: ISRCTN15558857 registration data: 27/11/2019 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS), an innovative training technology, is considered as a joint-friendly, highly customizable and particularly time-effective option for improving muscle strength and stability, body composition and pain relief. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of 16 weeks of once-weekly WB-EMS on maximum isometric trunk (MITS), leg extensor strength (MILES), lean body mass (LBM) and body-fat content. A cohort of 54 male amateur golfers, 18 to 70 years old and largely representative for healthy adults, were randomly assigned to a WB-EMS (<i>n</i> = 27) or a control group (CG: <i>n</i> = 27). Bipolar low-frequency WB-EMS combined with low-intensity movements was conducted once per week for 20 min at the participants' locations, while the CG maintained their habitual activity. The intention to treat analysis with multiple imputation was applied. After 16 weeks of once-weekly WB-EMS application with an attendance rate close to 100%, we observed significant WB-EMS effects on MITS (<i>p</i> < 0.001), MILES (<i>p</i> = 0.001), LBM (<i>p</i> = 0.034), but not body-fat content (<i>p</i> = 0.080) and low-back pain (LBP: <i>p</i> ≥ 0.078). In summary, the commercial setting of once-weekly WB-EMS application is effective to enhance stability, maximum strength, body composition and, to a lower extent, LBP in amateur golfers widely representative for a healthy male cohort.
Project description:Plyometric training and beta-alanine supplementation are common among soccer players, although its combined use had never been tested. Therefore, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare the effects of a plyometric training program, with or without beta-alanine supplementation, on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during an in-season training period. Athletes (23.7 ± 2.4 years) were assigned to either a plyometric training group receiving a placebo (PLACEBO, n = 8), a plyometric training group receiving beta-alanine supplementation (BA, n = 8), or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric training program (CONTROL, n = 9). Athletes were evaluated for single and repeated jumps and sprints, endurance, and change-of-direction speed performance before and after the intervention. Both plyometric training groups improved in explosive jumping (ES = 0.27 to 1.0), sprinting (ES = 0.31 to 0.78), repeated sprinting (ES = 0.39 to 0.91), 60 s repeated jumping (ES = 0.32 to 0.45), endurance (ES = 0.35 to 0.37), and change-of-direction speed performance (ES = 0.36 to 0.58), whereas no significant changes were observed for the CONTROL group. Nevertheless, compared to the CONTROL group, only the BA group showed greater improvements in endurance, repeated sprinting and repeated jumping performances. It was concluded that beta-alanine supplementation during plyometric training may add further adaptive changes related to endurance, repeated sprinting and jumping ability.
Project description:Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) induces high-intense stimuli to skeletal muscles with low strain on joints and the autonomic nervous system and may thus be suitable for frail, older people. However, if trained at very high intensities, WB-EMS may damage muscles and kidneys (rhabdomyolysis). This study aimed at investigating the feasibility, safety and preliminary efficacy of WB-EMS in frail, older people. Seven frail (81.3 ± 3.5 years), 11 robust (79.5 ± 3.6 years), 10 young (29.1 ± 6.4 years) participants completed an eight-week WB-EMS training (week 1-4: 1x/week; week 5-8: 1.5x/week) consisting of functional exercises addressing lower extremity strength and balance. Feasibility was assessed using recruitment, adherence, retention, and dropout rates. The satisfaction with WB-EMS was measured using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale for older adults (PACES-8). In week 1, 3, and 8 creatine kinase (CK) was assessed immediately before, 48 and 72 h after WB-EMS. Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis (muscle pain, muscle weakness, myoglobinuria) and adverse events were recorded. Functional capacity was assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG), Choice Stepping Reaction Time Test (CSRT), 30-second Chair-Stand Test (30-STS), maximum isometric leg strength and handgrip strength. The recruitment rate of frail individuals was 46.2%, adherence 88.3% and the dropout rate 16.7%. All groups indicated a high satisfaction with WB-EMS. CK activity was more pronounced in young individuals with significant changes over time. Within older people CK increased borderline-significantly in the frail group from baseline to week 1 but not afterwards. In robust individuals CK increased significantly from baseline to week 1 and 3. No participant reached CK elevations close to the threshold of ≥5,000 U/l and no symptoms of rhabdomyolysis were observed. With the exception of the TUG (<i>p</i> = 0.173), frail individuals improved in all tests of functional capacity. Compared to the young and robust groups, frail individuals showed the greater improvements in the SPPB, handgrip strength, maximum isokinetic hip-/knee extension and flexion strength. WB-EMS is feasible for frail older people. There were no clinical signs of exertional rhabdomyolysis. WB-EMS proved to be sufficiently intense to induce meaningful changes in functional capacity with frail individuals showing greater improvements for several measures.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sarcopenia, defined as loss of muscle mass, quality, and function, is associated with reduced quality of life and adverse health outcomes including disability and mortality. Electromyostimulation (EMS) has been suggested to attenuate the loss of muscle mass and function in elderly, sedentary individuals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EMS on muscle strength and function during 4 weeks of inpatient medical rehabilitation.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients receiving 4 weeks of inpatient medical rehabilitation diagnosed with sarcopenia using bioimpedance analysis were eligible to participate. One hundred and thirty-four patients (55.7 ± 7.9 years, 25.4% female) were randomly assigned to three groups: whole-body (WB) EMS (n = 48): stimulation of major muscle groups (pectoral muscles, latissimus, trapezius, abdominals, upper arm and leg, lower back muscles, gluteal muscles, and thighs); part-body (PB) EMS (n = 42): stimulation of leg muscles including gluteal muscles and thighs; and control group (CG, n = 44). All participants performed six 20 min training sessions including dynamic movements (squats, lunges, biceps curl, chest press, butterfly reverse, reverse lunges, standing diagonal crunches, etc.) with superimposed (WB-, PB-) EMS or without EMS (CG) in addition to the standard rehabilitation programme. Primary outcome variables included muscle function assessed by chair rise test and 6 min walking test as well as muscle strength (isometric grip strength, leg, arm, and back extension).<h4>Results</h4>Primary outcome variables chair rise test and leg extension improved significantly (P = 0.001, η<sup>2</sup> = 0.06 and P = 0.008, η<sup>2</sup> = 0.06; EMS vs. CG) in that chair rise test results increased in WB-EMS from 5 (4; 7) to 7 (5; 9), in PB-EMS from 5 (5; 7) to 7 (6; 8), and in CG from 6 (4; 7) to 7 (5; 8) repetitions. Knee extension increased in WB-EMS from 692.3 ± 248.6 to 831.7 ± 298.7 N, in PB-EMS from 682.8 ± 257.8 to 790.2 ± 270.2 N, and in CG from 638.5 ± 236.9 to 703.2 ± 218.6 N. No adverse events or side effects occurred.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We conclude that EMS might be an additional training option to improve muscle function and strength in sarcopenic patients during a 4 week rehabilitation programme. EMS provides greater functional and strength improvements compared with standard treatment with additional potential health benefits for sarcopenic cardiac and orthopaedic patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physical exercise and nutritional treatment are promising measures to prevent muscle wasting that is frequently observed in advanced-stage cancer patients. However, conventional exercise is not always suitable for these patients due to physical weakness and therapeutic side effects. In this pilot study, we examined the effect of a combined approach of the novel training method whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) and individualized nutritional support on body composition with primary focus on skeletal muscle mass in advanced cancer patients under oncological treatment. METHODS:In a non-randomized controlled trial design patients (56.5% male; 59.9?±?12.7 years) with advanced solid tumors (UICC III/IV, N?=?131) undergoing anti-cancer therapy were allocated to a usual care control group (n?=?35) receiving individualized nutritional support or to an intervention group (n?=?96) that additionally performed a supervised physical exercise program in form of 20 min WB-EMS sessions (bipolar, 85 Hz) 2×/week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome of skeletal muscle mass and secondary outcomes of body composition, body weight and hand grip strength were measured at baseline, in weeks 4, 8 and 12 by bioelectrical impedance analysis and hand dynamometer. Effects of WB-EMS were estimated by linear mixed models. Secondary outcomes of physical function, hematological and blood chemistry parameters, quality of life and fatigue were assessed at baseline and week 12. Changes were analyzed by t-tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank or Mann-Whitney-U-tests. RESULTS:Twenty-four patients of the control and 58 of the WB-EMS group completed the 12-week trial. Patients of the WB-EMS group had a significantly higher skeletal muscle mass (0.53 kg [0.08, 0.98]; p?=?0.022) and body weight (1.02 kg [0.05, 1.98]; p?=?0.039) compared to controls at the end of intervention. WB-EMS also significantly improved physical function and performance status (p?<?0.05). No significant differences of changes in quality of life, fatigue and blood parameters were detected between the study groups after 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS:Supervised WB-EMS training is a safe strength training method and combined with nutritional support it shows promising effects against muscle wasting and on physical function in advanced-stage cancer patients undergoing treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02293239 (Date: November 18, 2014).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Resistance training has a positive impact on functional capacity and muscle mass in the elderly. However, due to physical limitations or a simple aversion against regular exercise, a majority of the elderly do not reach the recommended exercise doses. This led us to evaluate the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS), a novel, time-efficient, and smooth training technology on physical function, fat-free mass, strength, falls-efficacy, and social participation of the elderly.<h4>Methods</h4>The present study is a randomized, parallel group clinical trial approved by the Ethics Committee of our Institution. Sixty-six volunteers (age ? 60 years) will be recruited from the geriatric outpatient department in a tertiary hospital and primary care units and randomized into two groups: WB-EMS group or active control group (aCG). The WB-EMS or aCG protocol will consist of 16 sessions for 8 consecutive weeks, twice per week. The primary outcomes will be maximal isometric knee extension (IKE), functional lower extremity strength, fat-free mass, gait speed, and risk of falls measured before and after intervention. The secondary outcomes will be social participation and falls-efficacy assessed before and after the intervention and at three and six months of follow-up. Participant's satisfaction with and awareness of electrical stimulation therapy will also be assessed immediately after the 8-week intervention.<h4>Discussion</h4>Patients receiving WB-EMS exercises are believed to have better outcomes than those receiving conventional, more time-consuming resistance exercises. Hence, innovative, time-efficient, joint-friendly, and highly individualized exercise technologies (such as WB-EMS) may be a good choice for the elderly with time constraints, physical limitations, or little enthusiasm, who are exercising less than the recommended amounts for impact on muscle mass, strength, and function.