The Effects of Superimposed Whole-Body Electromyostimulation During Short-Term Strength Training on Physical Fitness in Physically Active Females: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of short-term strength training with and without superimposed whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on straight sprinting speed (SSS), change of direction speed (CODS), vertical and horizontal jumping, as well as on strength and power in physically active females. Twenty-two active female participants (n = 22; mean ± SD: age: 20.5 ± 2.3 years; height: 171.9 ± 5.5 cm; body mass: 64.0 ± 8.2 kg; strength training experience 5.1 ± 3.6 years) were randomly assigned to two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed WB-EMS (S+E). Both groups trained twice a week over a period of 4 weeks and differed in the application of free weights or WB-EMS during four strength (e.g., split squats, glute-ham raises) and five sprinting and jumping exercises (e.g., side and box jumps, skippings). The WB-EMS impulse intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual maximal sustainable pain. SSS was tested via 30-m sprinting, CODS by a T-run, vertical and horizontal jumping using four different jump tests at pre-, post-, and retests. Maximal strength (Fmax) and power (Pmax) testing procedures were conducted on the Leg Press (LP), Leg Extension (LE), and Leg Curl (LC) machine. Significant time × group interaction effects revealed significant decreases of contact time of the Drop Jump and split time of CODS (p ? 0.043; ?p2 = 0.15-0.25) for S (? 11.6%) compared to S+E (? 5.7%). Significant time effects (p < 0.024; ?p2 = 0.17-0.57) were observed in both groups for SSS (S+E: ?6.3%; S: ?8.0%) and CODS (S+E: ?1.8%; S: ?2.0%) at retest, for jump test performances (S+E: ?13.2%; S: ?9.2%) as well as Fmax and Pmax for LE (S+E: ?13.5%; S: ?13.3%) and LC (S+E: ?18.2%; S: ?26.7%) at post- and retests. The findings of this study indicate comparable effects of short-term strength training with and without superimposed WB-EMS on physical fitness in physically active females. Therefore, WB-EMS training could serve as a reasonable but not superior alternative to classic training regimes in female exercisers.
Project description:Background: Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) gained increasing interest in sports within recent years. However, few intervention studies have examined the effects of WB-EMS on trained subjects in comparison to conventional strength training. Objective: The aim of the present mini-meta-analysis of 5 recently conducted and published randomized controlled WB-EMS trails of our work group was to evaluate potentially favorable effects of WB-EMS in comparison to conventional strength training. Methods: We included parameter of selected leg muscle's strength and power as well as sprint and jump performance. All subjects were moderately trained athletes [>2 training sessions/week, >2 years of experience in strength training; experimental group (n = 58): 21.5 ± 3.3 y; 178 ± 8 cm; 74.0 ± 11 kg; control group (n = 54): 21.0 ± 2.3 y; 179.0 ± 9 cm; 72.6 ± 10 kg]. The following WB-EMS protocols were applied to the experimental group (EG): 2 WB-EMS sessions/week, bipolar current superimposed to dynamic exercises, 85 Hz, 350 ?s, 70% of the individual pain threshold amperage. The control groups (CG) underwent the same training protocols without WB-EMS, but with external resistance. Results: Five extremely homogenous studies (all studies revealed an I 2 = 0%) with 112 subjects in total were analyzed with respect to lower limb strength and power in leg curl, leg extension and leg press machines, sprint-and jump performance. Negligible effects in favor of WB-EMS were found for Fmax of leg muscle groups [SMD: 0.11 (90% CI: -0.08, 0.33), p = 0.73, I 2 = 0%] and for CMJ [SMD: 0.01 (90% CI: -0.34, 0.33), p = 0.81, I 2 = 0%]. Small effects, were found for linear sprint [SMD: 0.22 (90% CI: -0.15, 0.60), p = 0.77, I 2 = 0%] in favor of the EMS-group compared to CON. Conclusion: We conclude that WB-EMS is a feasible complementary training stimulus for performance enhancement. However, additional effects on strength and power indices seem to be limited and sprint and jump-performance appear to be benefiting only slightly. Longer training periods and more frequent application times and a slightly larger stimulus could be investigated in larger samples to further elucidate beneficial effects of WB-EMS on performance parameters in athletes.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of dynamic superimposed submaximal whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) training on maximal strength and power parameters of the leg muscles compared with a similar dynamic training without WB-EMS. Eighteen male sport students were randomly assigned either to a WB-EMS intervention (INT; n = 9; age: 28.8 (SD: 3.0) years; body mass: 80.2 (6.6) kg; strength training experience: 4.6 (2.8) years) or a traditional strength training group (CON; n = 9; age: 22.8 (2.5) years; body mass: 77.6 (9.0) kg; strength training experience: 4.5 (2.9) years). Both training intervention programs were performed twice a week over a period of 8 weeks with the only difference that INT performed all dynamic exercises (e.g., split squats, glute-ham raises, jumps, and tappings) with superimposed WB-EMS. WB-EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of the individual maximal tolerable pain to ensure dynamic movement. Before (PRE), after (POST) and 2 weeks after the intervention (FU), performance indices were assessed by maximal strength (Fmax) and maximal power (Pmax) testing on the leg extension (LE), leg curl (LC), and leg press (LP) machine as primary endpoints. Additionally, vertical and horizontal jumps and 30 m sprint tests were conducted as secondary endpoints at PRE, POST and FU testing. Significant time effects were observed for strength and power parameters on LE and LC (LE Fmax +5.0%; LC Pmax +13.5%). A significant time × group interaction effect was merely observed for Fmax on the LE where follow-up post hoc testing showed significantly higher improvements in the INT group from PRE to POST and PRE to FU (INT: +7.7%, p < 0.01; CON: +2.1%). These findings indicate that the combination of dynamic exercises and superimposed submaximal WB-EMS seems to be effective in order to improve leg strength and power. However, in young healthy adults the effects of superimposed WB-EMS were similar to the effects of dynamic resistance training without EMS, with the only exception of a significantly greater increase in leg extension Fmax in the WB-EMS group.
Project description:Intramuscular density of monocarboxylate-transporter (MCT) could affect the ability to perform high amounts of fast and explosive actions during a soccer game. MCTs have been proven to be essential for lactate shuttling and pH regulation during exercise and can undergo notable adaptational changes depending on training. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and direction of potential effects of a 7-weeks training period of jumps with superimposed whole-body electromyostimulation on soccer relevant performance surrogates and MCT density in soccer players. For this purpose, 30 amateur soccer players were randomly assigned to three groups. One group performed dynamic whole-body strength training including 3 x 10 squat jumps with WB-EMS (EG, n = 10) twice a week in addition to their daily soccer training routine. A jump training group (TG, n = 10) performed the same training routine without EMS, whereas a control group (CG, n = 8) merely performed their daily soccer routine. 2 (Time: pre vs. post) x 3 (group: EG, TG, CG) repeated measures analyses of variance (rANOVA) revealed neither a significant time, group nor interaction effect for VO2peak, Total Time to Exhaustion and Lamax as well as MCT-1 density. Due to a lack of task-specificity of the underlying training stimuli, we conclude that seven weeks of WB-EMS superimposed to jump exercise twice a week does not relevantly influence aerobic performance or MCT density.
Project description:The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between countermovement jump (CMJ) height and inertial power in squat and sprint variables with change of direction (COD) performance. Fifty young healthy active males participated in the study. To determine these relationships, we carried out a 10-m linear sprint test (T 10 m), vertical jump tests (CMJ and CMJ Abalakov), an assessment of power relative to bodyweight in a flywheel squat (Pbw), and 10-m COD sprints with two different turn types (COD-90° and COD-180°). T10 m showed statistically large and moderate correlations with T10 m COD-180° (r = 0.55) and T10-m COD-90° (r = 0.41), respectively. Moderate to large correlations between jumping height, linear sprinting, and sprints with COD were found (r = -0.43 to r = -0.59), and there were unclear correlations between jumping height and the loss of speed caused by executing COD (DEC-COD). Pbw showed a large correlation with CMJ Abalakov and CMJ jump height (r = 0.65 and r = 0.57, respectively), and a moderate and large correlation with T 10 m, T 10 m COD-180°, and T10 m COD-90° (r = -0.33, r = -0.38, and r = -0.54, respectively). Despite the existence of substantial correlations between variables, straight linear sprinting, jumping performance, CODs and squat power were, for the most part, separate motor qualities (R2 from 14% to 34%), suggesting that all of them should be specifically assessed and trained.
Project description:Background: Age-related problems such as chronic diseases, functional limitation and dependence, reduce the quality of life in the elderly, and increase public spending in health. It has been established that physical activity plays a fundamental role in the health of the elderly. The whole body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) could be a successful methodology as high-intensity training to improve the physical fitness of older people. Methods: A minimum of 13 women between 55 and 70 years old will be randomized in two groups. The exercise with WB-EMS group (EX + WB-EMS) will conduct a resistance strength training program with superimposed WB-EMS while the exercise group (EX) will perform only resistance strength and aerobic training. Balance, strength, flexibility, agility, speed, and aerobic performance (EXERNET battery and progressive resistance test), as well as body composition, blood parameters and physical activity reporting (IPAQ-E) will be assessed to analyze the effects of whole body electromyostimulation in the physical fitness and the health in postmenopausal women. Discussion: Innovative and scientifically well-designed protocols are needed to enhance the knowledge of the body's responses within this training methodology which is being used by a big quantity of population. This trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of whole-body electromyostimulation in physical fitness and health in elderly women. Trial Registration: ISRCTN15558857 registration data: 27/11/2019 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:The aim of this study was to study the effects of a 6-session (one per week) WB-EMS training intervention on maximum oxygen uptake, aerobic and gas exchange thresholds, running economy, and muscular power in male recreational runners. Twelve men were randomized into WB-EMS intervention (n = 6; 27.0 ± 7.5 years; 70.1 ± 11.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.5 m) or control (n = 6; 27.0 ± 6.1 years; 73.6 ± 3.4 kg; 1.77 ± 0.3 m). The WB-EMS group reduced the running training frequency to one per week and followed one WB-EMS training session per week during 6 weeks. Participants in the control group maintained their usual running endurance training. Each participant completed four assessments: physiological parameters [(i) VO2max, aerobic and gas exchange threshold values, and (ii) running economy at two intensities], muscular power (vertical jump), and anthropometric parameters both at baseline and after the intervention. Participants in the WB-EMS group improved VO2max, aerobic and gas exchange threshold values, running economy, and vertical jump (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. There, WB-EMS seems to be an effective training methodology leading to improvements in performance during endurance training volume reduction in male recreational runners.
Project description:Menopause is associated with losses in strength and power along with weight and fat mass gains, which may result from menopause-related hormonal changes, aging-associated diseases, and decreased physical activity time. The objective of this study is to analyze if whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) is suitable for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal physical deterioration. Thirty-four healthy sedentary women between 55 and 69 years followed an experimental design pre-post test. Both groups conducted 10 weeks of aerobic and strength training program. The experimental group conducted the training with superimposed WB-EMS during exercise. At the end of the intervention, the experimental group obtained better power (Squat: mean difference (MD) = 38.69 W [1.75,75.62], d = 0.81; Bench press: MD = 25.64 W [17.48, 33.82], d = 2.39) and velocity (Squat: MD = 0.04 m·s-1 [0.01, 0.08], d = 0.98; Bench press: MD = 0.10 m·s-1 [0.06, 0.14], d = 1.90) score improvements than the other group (pBonferroni < 0.05). Furthermore, trivial to small effects were found in the body composition of the participants of both groups (p > 0.050). WB-EMS showed a favorable isolated effect on the development of power and velocity, but it induced negligible effects on the body composition of postmenopausal women.
Project description:This study assessed differences in agility performance between athletes of team and individual sports by assessing change-of-direction speed (CODS) as pre-planned agility and reactive agility (RA) as non-planed in different spatial configurations. The study involved 36 individual (sprint, hurdles, jumping, tennis, and judo) and 34 team (soccer, basketball, and handball) athletes. CODS and RA were measured with a light-based reactive training system in a frontal (FR), universal (UN), semicircular (SC), and lateral (LA) design. Lower limb power and sprint performance were also measured in a 10 m single leg jump test and 15 m sprint. Individual athletes showed significantly better performance in three of the eight agility tests: LA-RA, UN-RA, and SC-CODS (p < 0.008, p < 0.036, and p < 0.027, respectively) and were found to present stronger correlations (p < 0.01) between jump test performance and the CODS condition. Team athletes showed stronger associations between sprint performance and the CODS condition. In the RA condition both jump and sprint performance showed stronger correlations in the group of individual athletes. Agility performance as measured by CODS and RA should improve with enhanced of motor proficiency. Finally, the tests applied in this experiment seem to be multidimensional, but require spatio-temporal adjustment for their implementation, so that they meet the requirements of the particular sport.
Project description:PURPOSE:Running at high speed and sudden change in direction or activity stresses the knee. Surprisingly, not many studies have investigated the effects of sprinting on knee's kinetics and kinematics of soccer players. Hence, this study is aimed to investigate indices of injury risk factors of jumping-landing maneuvers performed immediately after sprinting in male soccer players. METHODS:Twenty-three collegiate male soccer players (22.1±1.7 years) were tested in four conditions; vertical jump (VJ), vertical jump immediately after slow running (VJSR), vertical jump immediately after sprinting (VJFR) and double horizontal jump immediately after sprinting (HJFR). The kinematics and kinetics data were measured using Vicon motion analyzer (100Hz) and two Kistler force platforms (1000Hz), respectively. RESULTS:For knee flexion joint angle, (p = 0.014, ? = 0.15) and knee valgus moment (p = 0.001, ? = 0.71) differences between condition in the landing phase were found. For knee valgus joint angle, a main effect between legs in the jumping phase was found (p = 0.006, ? = 0.31), which suggests bilateral deficit existed between the right and left lower limbs. CONCLUSION:In brief, the important findings were greater knee valgus moment and less knee flexion joint angle proceeding sprint (HJFR & VJFR) rather than no sprint condition (VJ) present an increased risk for knee injuries. These results seem to suggest that running and sudden subsequent jumping-landing activity experienced during playing soccer may negatively change the knee valgus moment. Thus, sprinting preceding a jump task may increase knee risk factors such as moment and knee flexion joint angle.
Project description:This study analysed the relationships between sprinting, jumping and strength abilities, with regard to 800 m running performance. Fourteen athletes of national and international levels in 800 m (personal best: 1:43-1:58 min:ss) completed sprint tests (20 m and 200 m), a countermovement jump, jump squat and full squat test as well as an 800 m race. Significant relationships (p < 0.01) were observed between 800 m performance and sprint tests: 20 m (r = 0.72) and 200 m (r = 0.84). Analysing the 200 m run, the magnitude of the relationship between the first to the last 50 m interval times and the 800 m time tended to increase (1st 50 m: r = 0.71; 2nd 50 m: r = 0.72; 3rd 50 m: r = 0.81; 4th 50 m: r = 0.85). Performance in 800 m also correlated significantly (p < 0.01-0.05) with strength variables: the countermovement jump (r = -0.69), jump squat (r = -0.65), and full squat test (r = -0.58). Performance of 800 m in high-level athletes was related to sprint, strength and jumping abilities, with 200 m and the latest 50 m of the 200 m being the variables that most explained the variance of the 800 m performance.