Arabidopsis Histone Methyltransferase SUVH5 Is a Positive Regulator of Light-Mediated Seed Germination.
ABSTRACT: Plant lifecycle starts from seed germination, which is regulated by various environmental cues and endogenous hormones. Light promotes seed germination mainly by phytochrome B (PHYB) during the initial phase of imbibition, which involves genome-wide light-responsive transcription changes. Recent studies indicated an involvement of multiple epigenetic factors in the control of seed germination. However, few studies have been reported about the role of a histone methyltransferase in light-mediated seed germination process. Here, we identified SUVH5, a histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase, as a positive regulator in light-mediated seed germination in Arabidopsis. Loss of function of SUVH5 leads to decreased PHYB-dependent seed germination. RNA-sequencing analysis displayed that SUVH5 regulates 24.6% of light-responsive transcriptome in imbibed seeds, which mainly related to hormonal signaling pathways and developmental processes. Furthermore, SUVH5 represses the transcription of ABA biosynthesis and signal transduction-related genes, as well as a family of DELAY OF GERMINATION (DOG) genes via dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) in imbibed seeds. Taken together, our findings revealed that SUVH5 is a novel positive regulator of light-mediated seed germination in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Histone acetylation is involved in the regulation of gene expression in plants and eukaryotes. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from histones, which is associated with the repression of gene expression. To study the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of gene expression during seed germination, trichostatin A (TSA), a specific inhibitor of histone deacetylase, was used to treat imbibing Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. GeneChip arrays were used to show that TSA induces up-regulation of 45 genes and down-regulation of 27 genes during seed germination. Eight TSA-up-regulated genes were selected for further analysis - RAB18, RD29B, ATEM1, HSP70 and four late embryogenesis abundant protein genes (LEA). A gene expression time course shows that these eight genes are expressed at high levels in the dry seed and repressed upon seed imbibition at an exponential rate. In the presence of TSA, the onset of repression of the eight genes is not affected but the final level of repressed expression is elevated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and HDAC assays show that there is a transient histone deacetylation event during seed germination at one day after imbibition, which serves as a key developmental signal that affects the repression of the eight genes. Experiment Overall Design: Three samples: Unimbibed seeds, untreated imbibed seeds, TSA-treated imbibed seeds.
Project description:Red light promotes germination after activating phytochrome phyB, which destabilizes the germination repressor PIF1. Early upon seed imbibition, canopy light, unfavorable for photosynthesis, represses germination by stabilizing PIF1 after inactivating phyB. Paradoxically, later upon imbibition, canopy light stimulates germination after activating phytochrome phyA. phyA-mediated germination is poorly understood and, intriguingly, is inefficient, compared to phyB-mediated germination, raising the question of its physiological significance. A genetic screen identified polyamine uptake transporter 2 (put2) mutants that overaccumulate polyamines, a class of antioxidant polycations implicated in numerous cellular functions, which we found promote phyA-mediated germination. In WT seeds, our data suggest that canopy light represses polyamines accumulation through PIF1 while red light promotes polyamines accumulation. We show that canopy light also downregulates PIF1 levels, through phyA; however, PIF1 reaccumulates rapidly, which limits phyA-mediated germination. High polyamines levels in decaying seeds bypass PIF1 repression of germination and stimulate phyA-mediated germination, suggesting an adaptive mechanism promoting survival when viability is compromised.
Project description:Seeds maintain a dormant state to withstand adverse conditions and germinate when conditions become favourable to give rise to a new generation of flowering plants. Seed dormancy and germination are tightly controlled by internal and external signals. Although phytochrome photoreceptors are proposed to regulate primary seed dormancy, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that the REVEILLE1 (RVE1) and RVE2 transcription factors promote primary seed dormancy and repress red/far-red-light-reversible germination downstream of phytochrome B (phyB) in Arabidopsis thaliana. RVE1 and RVE2 expression is downregulated after imbibition and by phyB. RVE1 directly binds to the promoter of GIBBERELLIN 3-OXIDASE 2, inhibits its transcription and thus suppresses the biosynthesis of bioactive gibberellins. In addition, DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 also acts downstream of phyB. This study identifies a signalling pathway that integrates environmental light input with internal factors to control both seed dormancy and germination.
Project description:Seed is an essential propagation organ and a critical strategy adopted by terrestrial flowering plants to colonize the land. The ability of seeds to accurately respond to light is vital for plant survival. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we reveal a circuit of triple feed-forward loops adopted by Arabidopsis seeds to exclusively repress germination in dark conditions and precisely initiate germination under diverse light conditions. We identify that de-etiolated 1 (DET1), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is a central repressor of light-induced seed germination. Genetic analysis demonstrates that DET1 functions upstream of long hypocotyl in far-red 1 (HFR1) and phytochrome interacting factor 1 (PIF1), the key positive and negative transcription regulators in seed germination. We further find that DET1 and constitutive photomorphogenic 10 (COP10) target HFR1 for protein degradation by assembling a COP10-DET1-damaged DNA binding protein 1-cullin4 E3 ligase complex. Moreover, DET1 and COP10 directly interact with and promote the protein stability of PIF1. Computational modeling reveals that phytochrome B (phyB)-DET1-HFR1-PIF1 and phyB-DET1-Protease-PIF1 are new signaling pathways, independent of the previously identified phyB-PIF1 pathway, respectively mediating the rapid and time-lapse responses to light irradiation. The model-simulated results are highly consistent with their experimental validations, suggesting that our mathematical model captures the essence of Arabidopsis seed germination networks. Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive molecular framework for light-regulated seed germination, improving our understanding of how plants respond to changeable environments.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Seeds adjust their germination based on conditions experienced before and after dispersal. Post-dispersal cues are expected to be more accurate predictors of offspring environments, and thus offspring success, than pre-dispersal cues. Therefore, germination responses to conditions experienced during seed maturation may be expected to be superseded by responses to conditions experienced during seed imbibition. In taxa of disturbed habitats, neighbours frequently reduce the performance of germinants. This leads to the hypotheses that a vegetative canopy will reduce germination in such taxa, and that a vegetative canopy experienced during seed imbibition will over-ride germination responses to a canopy experienced during seed maturation, since it is a more proximal cue of immediate competition. These hypotheses were tested here in Arabidopsis thaliana METHODS: Seeds were matured under a simulated canopy (green filter) or white light. Fresh (dormant) seeds were imbibed in the dark, white light or canopy at two temperatures (10 or 22 °C), and germination proportions were recorded. Germination was also recorded in after-ripened (less dormant) seeds that were induced into secondary dormancy and imbibed in the dark at each temperature, either with or without brief exposure to red and far-red light.<h4>Key results</h4>Unexpectedly, a maturation canopy expanded the conditions that elicited germination, even as seeds lost and regained dormancy. In contrast, an imbibition canopy impeded or had no effect on germination. Maturation under a canopy did not modify germination responses to red and far-red light. Seed maturation under a canopy masked genetic variation in germination.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results challenge the hypothesis that offspring will respond more strongly to their own environment than to that of their parents. The observed relaxation of germination requirements caused by a maturation canopy could be maladaptive for offspring by disrupting germination responses to light cues after dispersal. Alternatively, reduced germination requirements could be adaptive by allowing seeds to germinate faster and reduce competition in later stages even though competition is not yet present in the seedling environment. The masking of genetic variation by maturation under a canopy, moreover, could impede evolutionary responses to selection on germination.
Project description:Seed germination is a complicated biological process that requires regulated enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. The action of polyamine oxidase (PAO) produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which promotes dicot seed germination. However, whether and, if so, how PAOs regulate monocot seed germination via H2O2 production is unclear. Herein, we report that the coleorhiza is the main physical barrier to radicle protrusion during germination of rice seed (a monocot seed) and that it does so in a manner similar to that of dicot seed micropylar endosperm. We found that H2O2 specifically and steadily accumulated in the coleorhizae and radicles of germinating rice seeds and was accompanied by increased PAO activity as the germination percentage increased. These physiological indexes were strongly decreased in number by guazatine, a PAO inhibitor. We also identified 11 PAO homologs (OsPAO1-11) in the rice genome, which could be classified into four subfamilies (I, IIa, IIb, and III). The OsPAO genes in subfamilies I, IIa, and IIb (OsPAO1-7) encode PAOs, whereas those in subfamily III (OsPAO8-11) encode histone lysine-specific demethylases. In silico-characterized expression profiles of OsPAO1-7 and those determined by qPCR revealed that OsPAO5 is markedly upregulated in imbibed seeds compared with dry seeds and that its transcript accumulated to a higher level in embryos than in the endosperm. Moreover, its transcriptional abundance increased gradually during seed germination in water and was inhibited by 5 mM guazatine. Taken together, these results suggest that PAO-generated H2O2 is involved in coleorhiza-limited rice seed germination and that OsPAO5 expression accounts for most PAO expression and activity during rice seed germination. These findings should facilitate further study of PAOs and provide valuable information for functional validation of these proteins during seed germination of monocot cereals.
Project description:Seed dormancy and germination are relevant processes for a successful seedling establishment in the field. Light is one of the most important environmental factors involved in the relief of dormancy to promote seed germination. In Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, phytochrome photoreceptors tightly regulate gene expression at different levels. The contribution of alternative splicing (AS) regulation in the photocontrol of seed germination is still unknown. The aim of this work is to study gene expression modulated by light during germination of A. thaliana seeds, with focus on AS changes. Hence, we evaluated transcriptome-wide changes in stratified seeds irradiated with a pulse of red (Rp) or far-red (FRp) by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Our results show that the Rp changes the expression of ?20% of the transcriptome and modifies the AS pattern of 226 genes associated with mRNA processing, RNA splicing, and mRNA metabolic processes. We further confirmed these effects for some of the affected AS events. Interestingly, the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses show that the Rp modulates the AS of splicing-related factors (At-SR30, At-RS31a, At-RS31, and At-U2AF65A), a light-signaling component (At-PIF6), and a dormancy-related gene (At-DRM1). Furthermore, while the phytochrome B (phyB) is responsible for the AS pattern changes of At-U2AF65A and At-PIF6, the regulation of the other AS events is independent of this photoreceptor. We conclude that (i) Rp triggers AS changes in some splicing factors, light-signaling components, and dormancy/germination regulators; (ii) phyB modulates only some of these AS events; and (iii) AS events are regulated by R and FR light, but this regulation is not directly associated with the intensity of germination response. These data will help in boosting research in the splicing field and our understanding about the role of this mechanism during the photocontrol of seed germination.
Project description:Auxin was recognized as a secondary dormancy phytohormone, controlling seed dormancy and germination. However, the exogenous auxin-controlled seed dormancy and germination remain unclear in physiological process and gene network.Tobacco seeds soaked in 1000 mg/l auxin solution showed markedly decreased germination compared with that in low concentration of auxin solutions and ddH2O. Using an electron microscope, observations were made on the seeds which did not unfold properly in comparison to those submerged in ddH2O. The radicle traits measured by WinRHIZO, were found to be also weaker than the other treatment groups. Quantified by ELISA, there was no significant difference found in ?-1,3glucanase activity and abscisic acid (ABA) content between the seeds imbibed in gradient concentration of auxin solution and those soaked in ddH2O. However, gibberellic acid (GA) and auxin contents were significantly higher at the time of exogenous auxin imbibition and were gradually reduced at germination. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), revealed that the transcriptome of auxin-responsive dormancy seeds were more similar to that of the imbibed seeds when compared with primary dormancy seeds by principal component analysis. The results of gene differential expression analysis revealed that auxin-controlled seed secondary dormancy was associated with flavonol biosynthetic process, gibberellin metabolic process, adenylyl-sulfate reductase activity, thioredoxin activity, glutamate synthase (NADH) activity and chromatin regulation. In addition, auxin-responsive germination responded to ABA, auxin, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) mediated signaling pathway (red, far red and blue light), glutathione and methionine (Met) metabolism.In this study, exogenous auxin-mediated seed secondary dormancy is an environmental model that prevents seed germination in an unfavorable condition. Seeds of which could not imbibe normally, and radicles of which also could not develop normally and emerge. To complete the germination, seeds of which would stimulate more GA synthesis to antagonize the stimulation of exogenous auxin. Exogenous auxin regulates multi-metabolic networks controlling seed secondary dormancy and germination, of which the most important thing was that we found the auxin-responsive seed secondary dormancy refers to epigenetic regulation and germination to enhance Met pathway. Therefore, this study uncovers a previously unrecognized transcriptional regulatory networks and physiological development process of seed dormancy and germination with superfluous auxin signal activate.
Project description:Release of dormancy and induction of seed germination are complex traits finely regulated by hormonal signals and environmental cues such as temperature and light. The Red (R):Far-Red (FR) phytochrome photoreceptors mediate light regulation of seed germination. We investigated the possible involvement of heterotrimeric G-protein complex in the phytochrome signaling pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination. Germination rates of null mutants of the alpha (Galpha) and beta (Gbeta) subunits of the G-protein (Atgpa1-4 and agb1-2, respectively) and the double mutant (agb1-2/gpa1-4) are lower than the wildtype (WT) under continuous or pulsed light. The Galpha and Gbeta subunits play a role in seed germination under hourly pulses of R lower than 0.1 micromol m(-2) s(-1) whereas the Gbeta subunit plays a role in higher R fluences. The germination of double mutants of G-protein subunits with phyA-211 and phyB-9 suggests that AtGPA1 seems to act as a positive regulator of phyA and probably phyB signaling pathways, while the role of AGB1 is ambiguous. The imbibition of seeds at 4 degrees C and 35 degrees C alters the R and FR light responsiveness of WT and G-protein mutants to a similar magnitude. Thus, Galpha and Gbeta subunits of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex modulate light induction of seed germination by phytochromes and are dispensable for the control of dormancy by low and high temperatures prior to irradiation. We discuss the possible indirect role of the G-protein complex on the phytochrome-regulated germination through hormonal signaling pathways.
Project description:Karrikins are a class of seed germination stimulants identified in smoke from wildfires. Microarray analysis of imbibed Arabidopsis thaliana seeds was performed to identify transcriptional responses to KAR(1) before germination. A small set of genes that are regulated by KAR(1), even when germination is prevented by the absence of gibberellin biosynthesis or light, were identified. Light-induced genes, putative HY5-binding targets, and ABRE-like promoter motifs were overrepresented among KAR(1)-up-regulated genes. KAR(1) transiently induced the light signal transduction transcription factor genes HY5 and HYH. Germination of afterripened Arabidopsis seed was triggered at lower fluences of red light when treated with KAR(1). Light-dependent cotyledon expansion and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation were enhanced in the presence of germination-active karrikins. HY5 is important for the Arabidopsis hypocotyl elongation, but not seed germination, response to karrikins. These results reveal a role for karrikins in priming light responses in the emerging seedling, and suggest that the influence of karrikins on postfire ecology may not be limited to germination recruitment.