Bilateral pulmonary vein stenting for treatment of massive hemoptysis caused by pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition. Massive hemoptysis caused by pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) after radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is rare. However, bilateral lung hemorrhage following bilateral PVS is extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION:We herein describe a 62-year-old man with refractory massive hemoptysis after radiofrequency catheter ablation for AF, which was successfully controlled by surgical lobectomy and endovascular bilateral PV stenting. The hemorrhage was derived from the bilateral lungs following PV obstruction and bilateral PVS, which was definitively diagnosed by bronchoscopic examination. The patient had no recurrence of hemoptysis during a follow-up period of 30 months, and the PV stents had not narrowed as shown by computed tomography 30 months after stent placement. CONCLUSIONS:Massive hemoptysis can be caused by bilateral PVS after radiofrequency catheter ablation for AF, and hemorrhage from the bilateral lungs in such patients is extremely rare. Nevertheless, cardiologists, interventional radiologists, and pulmonologists should consider the potential for massive hemoptysis caused by PVS.
Project description:A 66-year-old female, whom received a pulmonary vein (PV) isolation (PVAI) with linear ablation of the carina lines between the superior and inferior PVs of both the right and left PVs for atrial fibrillation (AF), was admitted to receive a radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of symptomatic drug-refractory atrial tachycardia (AT). The EnSiteTM analysis by the AdvisorTM HD Grid catheter during the AT could easily detect that the carina between the right superior and inferior PVs exhibited a low voltage area (< 0.5 mV), in addition to the fact that the electrical activation turned around the right PVs in a figure 8, even though mapping was performed during AT. This AT was steadily terminated, after commencing the radiofrequency energy delivery to the carina of the right PVs.
Project description:We hypothesized that pulmonary vein (PV) orientation influences tissue contact of the contact force (CF) sensing radiofrequency ablation catheter (CFC) and therefore atrial fibrillation (AF) free survival after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). The aim of this study was to determine the association between PV orientation, CF and AF free survival in patients undergoing CFC PVI.Sixty consecutive patients undergoing CFC PVI were included. ECG-triggered cardiac CT scans were obtained in all patients before PVI, and the PV orientation was measured at the insertion in the LA for all PVs in both the transverse and frontal plane. PVs were assigned to 1 of 4 orientation groups: ventral-caudal, dorsal-caudal, ventral-cranial and dorsal-cranial.Mean age was 59 years, 88% had paroxysmal AF. AF free survival off anti-arrhythmic drugs after a median follow-up of 12 months was 58% after a single PVI procedure. No association was found between PV orientation and CF. Furthermore, no association was found between PV orientation and AF free survival. In univariate analysis, the number of lesions with a mean CF of 10 g was associated with AF free survival. However, in multivariate analysis, only the AF duration was significantly associated with AF free survival.This study shows that in patients undergoing PVI with the CFC ablation system, PV orientation does not affect CF and is not associated with AF free survival. PV orientation assessment does not appear to be necessary in patients undergoing CFC PVI.
Project description:This article reviews methods for lesion set assessment during radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is the foundation for AF ablation, but PV reconnection can lead to treatment failure. Testing for entrance block can help confirm PVI, although complex electrograms that consist of both near- and far-field potentials may make assessment of entrance block challenging. Differential pacing maneuvers can help appropriately identify PV potentials. After entrance block has been achieved, pacing within the PVs to demonstrate capture of PV musculature with exit block may also help to confirm completeness of lesion sets for PVI. Employing a waiting period of at least 30 min or administering adenosine or isoproterenol can reveal dormant conduction, warranting adjunctive ablation. Additional techniques to confirm durable PVI include testing the ablation lines for excitability with high amplitude pacing, and automated waveform analysis of local electrogram morphology. Newer techniques like real-time magnetic resonance imaging and acoustic radiation force impulse elastography may have a role in testing the completeness of lesion sets in the future.
Project description:The current challenge in atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment is to develop effective, efficient, and safe ablation strategies. This randomized controlled trial assesses the medium-term efficacy of duty-cycled radiofrequency ablation via the circular pulmonary vein ablation catheter (PVAC) vs. conventional electro-anatomically guided wide-area circumferential ablation (WACA).One hundred and eighty-eight patients (mean age 62 ± 12 years, 116 M : 72 F) with paroxysmal AF were prospectively randomized to PVAC or WACA strategies and sequentially followed for 12 months. The primary endpoint was freedom from symptomatic or documented >30 s AF off medications for 7 days at 12 months post-procedure. One hundred and eighty-three patients completed 12 m follow-up. Ninety-four patients underwent PVAC PV isolation with 372 of 376 pulmonary veins (PVs) successfully isolated and all PVs isolated in 92 WACA patients. Three WACA and no PVAC patients developed tamponade. Fifty-six percent of WACA and 60% of PVAC patients were free of AF at 12 months post-procedure (P = ns) with a significant attrition rate from 77 to 78%, respectively, at 6 months. The mean procedure (140 ± 43 vs. 167 ± 42 min, P<0.0001), fluoroscopy (35 ± 16 vs. 42 ± 20 min, P<0.05) times were significantly shorter for PVAC than for WACA. Two patients developed strokes within 72 h of the procedure in the PVAC group, one possibly related directly to PVAC ablation in a high-risk patient and none in the WACA group (P = ns). Two of the 47 patients in the PVAC group who underwent repeat ablation had sub-clinical mild PV stenoses of 25-50% and 1 WACA patient developed delayed severe PV stenosis requiring venoplasty.The pulmonary vein ablation catheter is equivalent in efficacy to WACA with reduced procedural and fluoroscopy times. However, there is a risk of thrombo-embolic and pulmonary stenosis complications which needs to be addressed and prospectively monitored.NCT00678340.
Project description:Pulmonary veins (PVs) are a major source of ectopic beats that initiate AF. PV isolation from the left atrium is an effective therapy for the majority of paroxysmal AF. However, investigators have reported that ectopy originating from non-PV areas can also initiate AF. Patients with recurrent AF after persistent PV isolation highlight the need to identify non-PV ectopy. Furthermore, adding non-PV ablation after multiple AF ablation procedures leads to lower AF recurrence and a higher AF cure rate. These findings suggest that non-PV ectopy is important in both the initiation and recurrence of AF. This article summarises current knowledge about the electrophysiological characteristics of non-PV AF, suitable mapping and ablation strategies, and the safety and efficacy of catheter ablation of AF initiated by ectopic foci originating from non-PV areas.
Project description:Background:Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) with multielectrode duty-cycled radiofrequency (PVAC) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). We describe pulmonary vein (PV) reconnection at repeat ablation in patients with AF recurrence after PVAC PVI and analyze the correlation between the time of AF recurrence and the observed PV reconnection patterns. Methods:Eighty-five patients undergoing a redo PVI for recurrent AF 9.2 ± 3.8 months after an initial PVAC PVI procedure was retrospectively enrolled. Results:A total of 93% had PV reconnections with a mean of 2.97 ± 1.2 reconnected PVs/patients and 75% of formerly isolated PVs were found reconnected. The highest reconnection rates (94%) were observed for left common trunks (CTs). A total of 33% patients had three and four reconnected PVs, respectively, while 7% were without PV reconnection. There was a moderate but significant negative correlation between the time of AF recurrences and the extending of PV reconnections at redo PVI for patients with proven PV reconnection (r = -0.32, P = 0.005), whereas five out of six patients without PV reconnection had recurrences within the first 9 months after PVI. Conclusions:At redo ablation most patients with recurrence of AF after PVAC PVI had PV reconnection(s). Patients with PV reconnection(s) showed a moderate negative correlation between the number of reconnected PVs and the time of AF recurrence with more extensive PV reconnections resulting in earlier PV recurrences after the blanking period. Patients without PV reconnection experienced early AF recurrences, indicating non-PV triggers contribute to AF recurrences in these patients.
Project description:The efficacy and safety of catheter ablation for the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been improved in recent years. Radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation for maintaining sinus rhythm is superior to the current antiarrhythmic drug therapy in selected patients. Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is the cornerstone of various catheter ablation strategies. It is well recognized that pulmonary vein (PV) antrum contributes to the AF initiation and/or perpetuation. Since PV stenosis is a complication of ablation within a PV, the ablation site for PVI has shifted to the junction between the left atrium and the PV rather than the ostium of the PV. However, PV reconnection after ablation is the major cause of recurrence of AF. The recovery of PV conduction could be caused by anatomical variations such as the failure to produce complete transmural lesion or gaps at the ablation line due to the transient electrophysiologic effects from the RF ablation. In this review, we discussed several factors to be considered for the achievement of the best PVI, including clinical aspects and technical aspects.
Project description:Pulmonary hemorrhage is a potentially serious complication of radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary neoplasms that may occur with or without hemoptysis. Several factors influence the development of parenchymal hemorrhage, including tumor size, tumor location, and procedural technique. As radiofrequency ablation has become more common, the prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of hemorrhage is vital. The authors report a case of radiofrequency ablation of a solitary pulmonary metastasis complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage and hemoptysis.
Project description:Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (AF) is performed with the endoscopically assisted laser balloon ablation system (EAS). We hypothesized that placement of a circular mapping catheter (CMC) in the pulmonary vein (PV) distal to the laser balloon during ablation is feasible and safe.Out of 58 included patients, 37 underwent mapping-guided EAS PVI, with the CMC inside the PV during laser ablation, and 21 patients underwent standard EAS PVI, with the CMC outside the PV during laser ablation.Mean age was 56 years and 81% had paroxysmal AF. In the mapping-guided ablation group, 91% of PVs were isolated with the CMC in the PV during EAS ablation, isolation was completed in 9% of PVs after the CMC was removed from the PV. After passing a learning curve in 18 patients, a significant drop in unsuccessfully isolated PVs was observed in the mapping guided EAS PVI group (15% to 4%, P = 0.020). No major complications were seen in the mapping-guided EAS PVI group. However, in the standard EAS PVI group, laser ablation was complicated by a temporary phrenic nerve palsy in 1 patient. After a median follow-up of 16.7 months, there was no statistical difference in AF free survival among treatment groups (mapping-guided: 56% vs. 52%, P = 0.875).Mapping guided EAS PVI with a distal CMC in the PV during laser ablation is feasible and seems safe as the standard EAS PVI approach.
Project description:To test polymorphisms rs2200733 (chromosome 4q25) and rs2106261 (ZFHX3) were associated with AF recurrence after catheter ablation in a Chinese Han cohort. A total of 235 AF patients who underwent catheter ablation were recruited consecutively. Two polymorphisms were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and genotyped using high resolution melting analysis. Primary endpoints for AF recurrence were defined as the time to the first recurrence of atrial tachycardia/flutter/fibrillation (AT/AF). AT/AF recurrence was observed in 76 patients (35%). Allelic analysis demonstrated that rs2200733 was strongly associated with AF recurrence after ablation (P = 0.011) and the minor allele T increased the risk for recurrence (OR = 1.715). Diameters of the right atrium as well as the left and right superior pulmonary veins (PVs) were associated with rs2200733 in different genetic models (P = 0.040, 0.047 and 0.028, respectively). No significant association was detected between rs2106261 and AT/AF recurrence after ablation or atrial/PV diameters in any models. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, only rs2200733 was an independent factor of AF recurrence after ablation (HR = 0.532, P = 0.022). In Chinese Han population, rs2200733 but not rs2106261 is associated with AT/AF recurrence after ablation. The patients with genotype TT have larger size of right atrium and superior PVs than those of CC genotype. The findings suggest that rs2200733 may play a key role in regulating proper development and differentiation of atria/PVs.