ABSTRACT: Despite reducing the prevalent foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in chickens decreases campylobacteriosis, few effective approaches are available. The aim of this study was to use microbial metabolic product bile acids to reduce C. jejuni chicken colonization. Broiler chicks were fed with deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The birds were also transplanted with DCA modulated anaerobes (DCA-Anaero) or aerobes (DCA-Aero). The birds were infected with human clinical isolate C. jejuni 81-176 or chicken isolate C. jejuni AR101. Notably, C. jejuni 81-176 was readily colonized intestinal tract at d16 and reached an almost plateau at d21. Remarkably, DCA excluded C. jejuni cecal colonization below the limit of detection at 16 and 28 days of age. Neither chicken ages of infection nor LCA or UDCA altered C. jejuni AR101 chicken colonization level, while DCA reduced 91% of the bacterium in chickens at d28. Notably, DCA diet reduced phylum Firmicutes but increased Bacteroidetes compared to infected control birds. Importantly, DCA-Anaero attenuated 93% of C. jejuni colonization at d28 compared to control infected birds. In conclusion, DCA shapes microbiota composition against C. jejuni colonization in chickens, suggesting a bidirectional interaction between microbiota and microbial metabolites.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans. Chickens act as the reservoir host for C. jejuni, wherein the pathogen asymptomatically colonizes the ceca leading to contamination of carcasses during slaughter. The major colonization factors in C. jejuni include motility, intestinal epithelial attachment, acid/bile tolerance, and quorum sensing. Reducing the expression of the aforementioned factors could potentially reduce C. jejuni colonization in chickens. This study investigated the efficacy of subinhibitory concentration (SIC; compound concentration not inhibiting bacterial growth) of carvacrol in reducing the expression of C. jejuni colonization factors in vitro. Moreover, the effect of carvacrol on the expression of C. jejuni proteome was investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The motility assay was conducted at 42°C, and the motility zone was measured after 24 h of incubation. For the adhesion assay, monolayers of primary chicken enterocytes (?105 cells/well) were inoculated with C. jejuni (6 log cfu/well) either in the presence or absence of carvacrol, and the adhered C. jejuni were enumerated after 90 min of incubation at 42°C. The effect of carvacrol on C. jejuni quorum sensing and susceptibility to acid/bile stress was investigated using a bioluminescence assay and an acid-bile survival assay, respectively. The SIC (0.002%) of carvacrol reduced the motility of C. jejuni strains S-8 and NCTC 81-176 by ?50 and 35%, respectively (P < 0.05). Carvacrol inhibited C. jejuni S-8 and NCTC 81-176 adhesion to chicken enterocytes by ?0.8 and 1.5 log cfu/mL, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, carvacrol reduced autoinducer-2 activity and increased the susceptibility of C. jejuni to acid and bile in both the strains (P < 0.05). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry revealed that the SIC of carvacrol reduced the expression of selected C. jejuni colonization proteins critical for motility (methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein), adhesion (GroL), growth and metabolism (AspA, AcnB, Icd, Fba, Ppa, AnsA, Ldh, Eno, PurB-1), and anaerobic respiration (NapB, HydB, SdhA, NrfA) (P < 0.05). Results suggest the mechanisms by which carvacrol could reduce C. jejuni colonization in chickens.
Project description:Worldwide Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne disease. Contamination of chicken meat with digesta from C. jejuni-positive birds during slaughter and processing is a key route of transmission to humans through the food chain. Colonization of chickens with C. jejuni elicits host innate immune responses that may be modulated by dietary additives to provide a reduction in the number of campylobacters colonizing the gastrointestinal tract and thereby reduce the likelihood of human exposure to an infectious dose. Here we report the effects of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) on broiler chickens colonized with C. jejuni when challenged at either an early stage in development at 6 days of age or 20 days old when campylobacters are frequently detected in commercial flocks. GOS-fed birds had increased growth performance, but the levels of C. jejuni colonizing the cecal pouches were unchanged irrespective of the age of challenge. Dietary GOS modulated the immune response to C. jejuni by increasing cytokine IL-17A expression at colonization. Correspondingly, reduced diversity of the cecal microbiota was associated with Campylobacter colonization in GOS-fed birds. In birds challenged at 6 days-old the reduction in microbial diversity was accompanied by an increase in the relative abundance of Escherichia spp. Whilst immuno-modulation of the Th17 pro-inflammatory response did not prevent C. jejuni colonization of the intestinal tract of broiler chickens, the study highlights the potential for combinations of prebiotics, and specific competitors (synbiotics) to engage with the host innate immunity to reduce pathogen burdens.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is associated with several post-infectious manifestations, including onset of the autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Poorly-cooked chicken meat is the most frequent source of infection as C. jejuni colonizes the avian intestine in a commensal relationship. However, not all chickens are equally colonized and resistance seems to be genetically determined. We hypothesize that differences in immune response may contribute to variation in colonization levels between susceptible and resistant birds. Using high-throughput sequencing in an avian infection model, we investigate gene expression associated with resistance or susceptibility to colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with C. jejuni and find that gut related immune mechanisms are critical for regulating colonization. Amongst a single population of 300 4-week old chickens, there was clear segregation in levels of C. jejuni colonization 48 hours post-exposure. RNAseq analysis of caecal tissue from 14 C. jejuni-susceptible and 14 C. jejuni-resistant birds generated over 363 million short mRNA sequences which were investigated to identify 219 differentially expressed genes. Significantly higher expression of genes involved in the innate immune response, cytokine signaling, B cell and T cell activation and immunoglobulin production, as well as the renin-angiotensin system was observed in resistant birds, suggesting an early active immune response to C. jejuni. Lower expression of these genes in colonized birds suggests suppression or inhibition of a clearing immune response thus facilitating commensal colonization and generating vectors for zoonotic transmission. This study describes biological processes regulating C. jejuni colonization of the avian intestine and gives insight into the differential immune mechanisms incited in response to commensal bacteria in general within vertebrate populations. The results reported here illustrate how an exaggerated immune response may be elicited in a subset of the population, which alters host-microbe interactions and inhibits the commensal state, therefore having wider relevance with regard to inflammatory and autoimmune disease.
Project description:Source attribution studies report that the consumption of contaminated poultry is the primary source for acquiring human campylobacteriosis. Oral administration of an engineered Escherichia coli strain expressing the Campylobacter jejuni N-glycan reduces bacterial colonization in specific-pathogen-free leghorn chickens, but only a fraction of birds respond to vaccination. Optimization of the vaccine for commercial broiler chickens has great potential to prevent the entry of the pathogen into the food chain. Here, we tested the same vaccination approach in broiler chickens and observed similar efficacies in pathogen load reduction, stimulation of the host IgY response, the lack of C. jejuni resistance development, uniformity in microbial gut composition, and the bimodal response to treatment. Gut microbiota analysis of leghorn and broiler vaccine responders identified one member of Clostridiales cluster XIVa, Anaerosporobacter mobilis, that was significantly more abundant in responder birds. In broiler chickens, coadministration of the live vaccine with A. mobilis or Lactobacillus reuteri, a commonly used probiotic, resulted in increased vaccine efficacy, antibody responses, and weight gain. To investigate whether the responder-nonresponder effect was due to the selection of a C. jejuni "supercolonizer mutant" with altered phase-variable genes, we analyzed all poly(G)-containing loci of the input strain compared to nonresponder colony isolates and found no evidence of phase state selection. However, untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics identified a potential biomarker negatively correlated with C. jejuni colonization levels that is possibly linked to increased microbial diversity in this subgroup. The comprehensive methods used to examine the bimodality of the vaccine response provide several opportunities to improve the C. jejuni vaccine and the efficacy of any vaccination strategy.IMPORTANCE Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of human diarrheal disease worldwide and is listed by the World Health Organization as a high-priority pathogen. C. jejuni infection typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated chicken meat, so many efforts are targeted at reducing C. jejuni levels at the source. We previously developed a vaccine that reduces C. jejuni levels in egg-laying chickens. In this study, we improved vaccine performance in meat birds by supplementing the vaccine with probiotics. In addition, we demonstrated that C. jejuni colonization levels in chickens are negatively correlated with the abundance of clostridia, another group of common gut microbes. We describe new methods for vaccine optimization that will assist in improving the C. jejuni vaccine and other vaccines under development.
Project description:An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is considered as a chicken commensal. The gut microbiota and the immune status of the host may affect its colonization. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus of chickens, which allows secondary pathogens to invade or exacerbates their pathogenesis. To investigate the effect of IBDV-induced immunosuppression on the pathogenesis of C. jejuni, broiler chickens were inoculated with a very virulent (vv) strain of IBDV at 14 days post hatch followed by C. jejuni inoculation at 7 (Experiment A) or 9 (Experiment B) days post virus (IBDV) inoculation.vvIBDV-infection led to a depression in caecal lamina propria B lymphocytes and the anti-C. jejuni-antibody response starting at 14 days post C. jejuni inoculation (pbi). The C. jejuni-colonization pattern was comparable between mono-inoculated groups of both experiments, but it varied for vvIBDV?+?C. jejuni co-inoculated groups. In Experiment A significant higher numbers of colony forming units (CFU) of C. jejuni were detected in the caecum of co-inoculated birds compared to C. jejuni-mono-inoculated birds in the early phase after C. jejuni-inoculation. In Experiment B the clearance phase was affected in the co-inoculated group with significantly higher CFU at 21 days pbi compared to the mono-inoculated group (P?<?0.05). No major differences were seen in numbers local lamina propria T lymphocyte populations between C. jejuni-inoculated groups with or without vvIBDV-infection. Interestingly, both pathogens affected the microbiota composition. The consequences of these microflora changes for the host have to be elucidated further.Our data suggests that the timing between viral and bacterial infection might affect the outcome of C. jejuni colonization differently. Our results confirm previous studies that anti-Campylobacter-antibodies may specifically be important for the clearance phase of the bacteria. Therefore, as vvIBDV is widely distributed in the field, it may have a significant impact on the colonization and shedding rate of C. jejuni in commercial poultry flocks. Subsequently, successful IBDV-control strategies may indirectly also benefit the gut-health of chickens.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the most common causes of human bacterial enteritis worldwide primarily due to contaminated poultry products. Previously, we found a significant difference in C. jejuni colonization in the ceca between two genetically distinct broiler lines (Line A (resistant) has less colony than line B (susceptible) on day 7 post inoculation). We hypothesize that different mechanisms between these two genetic lines may affect their ability to resist C. jejuni colonization in chickens. The molecular mechanisms of the local host response to C. jejuni colonization in chickens have not been well understood. In the present study, to profile the cecal gene expression in the response to C. jejuni colonization and to compare differences between two lines at the molecular level, RNA of ceca from two genetic lines of chickens (A and B) were applied to a chicken whole genome microarray for a pair-comparison between inoculated (I) and non-inoculated (N) chickens within each line and between lines. Our results demonstrated that metabolism process and insulin receptor signaling pathways are key contributors to the different response to C. jejuni colonization between lines A and B. With C. jejuni inoculation, lymphocyte activation and lymphoid organ development functions are important for line A host defenses, while cell differentiation, communication and signaling pathways are important for line B. Interestingly, circadian rhythm appears play a critical role in host response of the more resistant A line to C. jejuni colonization. A dramatic differential host response was observed between these two lines of chickens. The more susceptible line B chickens responded to C. jejuni inoculation with a dramatic up-regulation in lipid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism, which is undoubtedly for use in the response to the colonization with little or no change in immune host defenses. However, in more resistant line A birds the host defense responses were characterized by an up-regulation lymphocyte activation, probably by regulatory T cells and an increased expression of the NLR recognition receptor NALP1. To our knowledge, this is the first time each of these responses has been observed in the avian response to an intestinal bacterial pathogen.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic foodborne pathogen causing acute gastroenteritis in humans. Chickens are often colonized at very high numbers by C. jejuni, up to 10(9) CFU per gram of caecal content, with no detrimental effects on their health. Farm control strategies are being developed to lower the C. jejuni contamination of chicken food products in an effort to reduce human campylobacteriosis incidence. It is believed that intestinal microbiome composition may affect gut colonization by such undesirable bacteria but, although the chicken microbiome is being increasingly characterized, information is lacking on the factors affecting its modulation, especially by foodborne pathogens. This study monitored the effects of C. jejuni chicken caecal colonization on the chicken microbiome in healthy chickens. It also evaluated the capacity of a feed additive to affect caecal bacterial populations and to lower C. jejuni colonization. From day-0, chickens received or not a microencapsulated feed additive and were inoculated or not with C. jejuni at 14 days of age. Fresh caecal content was harvested at 35 days of age. The caecal microbiome was characterized by real time quantitative PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing. We observed that the feed additive lowered C. jejuni caecal count by 0.7 log (p<0.05). Alpha-diversity of the caecal microbiome was not affected by C. jejuni colonization or by the feed additive. C. jejuni colonization modified the caecal beta-diversity while the feed additive did not. We observed that C. jejuni colonization was associated with an increase of Bifidobacterium and affected Clostridia and Mollicutes relative abundances. The feed additive was associated with a lower Streptococcus relative abundance. The caecal microbiome remained relatively unchanged despite high C. jejuni colonization. The feed additive was efficient in lowering C. jejuni colonization while not disturbing the caecal microbiome.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. Importance: Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of food-borne bacterial diarrheal disease in the developed world. Chicken is the most common source of infection. C. jejuni infection of chickens had previously not been considered to cause disease, and it was thought that C. jejuni was part of the normal microbiota of birds. In this work, we show that modern rapidly growing chicken breeds used in intensive production systems have a strong inflammatory response to C. jejuni infection that can lead to diarrhea, which, in turn, leads to damage to the feet and legs on the birds due to standing on wet litter. The response and level of disease varied between breeds and is related to regulation of the inflammatory immune response. These findings challenge the paradigm that C. jejuni is a harmless commensal of chickens and that C. jejuni infection may have substantial impact on animal health and welfare in intensive poultry production:
Project description:We have constructed plasmids to be used for in vitro signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) of Campylobacter jejuni and used these to generate STM libraries in three different strains. Statistical analysis of the transposon insertion sites in the C. jejuni NCTC 11168 chromosome and the plasmids of strain 81-176 indicated that their distribution was not uniform. Visual inspection of the distribution suggested that deviation from uniformity was not due to preferential integration of the transposon into a limited number of hot spots but rather that there was a bias towards insertions around the origin. We screened pools of mutants from the STM libraries for their ability to colonize the ceca of 2-week-old chickens harboring a standardized gut flora. We observed high-frequency random loss of colonization proficient mutants. When cohoused birds were individually inoculated with different tagged mutants, random loss of colonization-proficient mutants was similarly observed, as was extensive bird-to-bird transmission of mutants. This indicates that the nature of campylobacter colonization in chickens is complex and dynamic, and we hypothesize that bottlenecks in the colonization process and between-bird transmission account for these observations.