Risk Factors for Recurrent Acute Kidney Injury in Children Who Undergo Multiple Cardiac Surgeries: A Retrospective Analysis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Determine the risk factors for repeated episodes of acute kidney injury in children who undergo multiple cardiac surgical procedures. DESIGN:Single-center retrospective chart review. SETTING:Cardiac ICU at a quaternary pediatric care center. PATIENTS:Birth to 18 years who underwent at least two cardiac surgical procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:One-hundred eighty patients underwent two cardiac surgical procedures and 89 underwent three. Acute kidney injury was defined by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine criteria. Acute kidney injury frequency was 26% (n = 46) after surgery 1, 20% (n = 36) after surgery 2, and 24% (n = 21) after surgery 3, with most acute kidney injury occurring on postoperative days 1 and 2. The proportion of patients with severe acute kidney injury increased from surgery 1 to surgery 3. Patients with acute kidney injury had a significantly longer duration of ventilation and length of stay after each surgery. The odds of acute kidney injury after surgery 3 was 2.40 times greater if acute kidney injury was present after surgery 1 or 2 (95% CI, 1.26-4.56; p = 0.008) after adjusting for confounders. The time between surgeries was not significantly associated with acute kidney injury (p = 0.85). CONCLUSIONS:In a heterogeneous population of pediatric patients with congenital heart disease undergoing multiple cardiopulmonary bypass surgeries, odds of acute kidney injury after a third surgery was increased by the presence of acute kidney injury after prior procedures. Time between surgery did not play a role in increasing odds of acute kidney injury. Further studies in a larger multicenter investigation are necessary to confirm these findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study assessed whether i.v. sildenafil citrate prevented acute kidney injury in at-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS:In a double-blind RCT, adults at increased risk of acute kidney injury undergoing cardiac surgery in a single UK tertiary centre were randomised to receive sildenafil citrate 12.5 mg kg-1 i.v. over 150 min or dextrose 5% at the commencement of surgery. The primary outcome was serum creatinine measured at six post-randomisation time points. The primary analysis used a linear mixed-effects model adjusted for the stratification variables, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, and surgical procedure. Secondary outcomes considered clinical events and potential disease mechanisms. Effect estimates were expressed as mean differences (MDs) or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS:The analysis population comprised eligible randomised patients that underwent valve surgery or combined coronary artery bypass graft and valve surgery, with cardiopulmonary bypass, between May 2015 and June 2018. There were 60 subjects in the sildenafil group and 69 in the placebo control group. The difference between groups in creatinine concentration was not statistically significant (MD: 0.88 ?mol L-1 [-5.82, 7.59]). There was a statistically significant increase in multiple organ dysfunction scores in the sildenafil group (MD: 0.54 [0.02, 1.07]; P=0.044). Secondary outcomes, and biomarkers of kidney injury, endothelial function, and inflammatory cell activation, were not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS:These results do not support the use of i.v. sildenafil citrate for kidney protection in adult cardiac surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN18386427.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To understand the effect of tight glycemic control on cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. DESIGN:Secondary analysis of data from the Safe Pediatric Euglycemia after Cardiac Surgery trial of tight glycemic control versus standard care. SETTING:Pediatric cardiac ICUs at University of Michigan, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, and Boston Children's Hospital. PATIENTS:Children 0-36 months old undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury was assigned using the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria with the modification that a greater than 0.1?mg/dL increase in serum creatinine was required to assign cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. We explored associations between cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury and tight glycemic control and clinical outcomes. Of 799 patients studied, cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury occurred in 289 patients (36%), most of whom had stage II or III disease (72%). Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury rates were similar between treatment groups (36% vs 36%; p = 0.99). Multivariable modeling showed that patients with cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury were younger (p = 0.002), underwent more complex surgery (p = 0.005), and had longer cardiopulmonary bypass times (p = 0.002). Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury was associated with longer mechanical ventilation and ICU and hospital stays and increased mortality. Patients at University of Michigan had higher rates of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury compared with Boston Children's Hospital patients (66% vs 15%; p < 0.001), but University of Michigan patients with cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury had shorter time to extubation and ICU and hospital stays compared with Boston Children's Hospital patients. CONCLUSIONS:Tight glycemic control did not reduce the cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury rate in this trial cohort. We observed significant differences in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury rates between the two study sites, and there was a differential effect of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury on clinical outcomes by site. These findings warrant further investigation to identify causal variation in perioperative practices that affect cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury epidemiology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We sought to determine whether a pilot goal-directed perfusion initiative could reduce the incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. METHODS:On the basis of the available literature, we identified goals to achieve during cardiopulmonary bypass (including maintenance of oxygen delivery >300 mL O2/min/m2 and reduction in vasopressor use) that were combined into a goal-directed perfusion initiative and implemented as a quality improvement measure in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Johns Hopkins during 2015. Goal-directed perfusion initiative patients were matched to controls who underwent cardiac surgery between 2010 and 2015 using propensity scoring across 15 variables. The primary and secondary outcomes were the incidence of acute kidney injury and the mean increase in serum creatinine within the first 72 hours after cardiac surgery. RESULTS:We used the goal-directed perfusion initiative in 88 patients and matched these to 88 control patients who were similar across all variables, including mean age (61 years in controls vs 64 years in goal-directed perfusion initiative patients, P = .12) and preoperative glomerular filtration rate (90 vs 83 mL/min, P = .34). Controls received more phenylephrine on cardiopulmonary bypass (mean 2.1 vs 1.4 mg, P < .001) and had lower nadir oxygen delivery (mean 241 vs 301 mL O2/min/m2, P < .001). Acute kidney injury incidence was 23.9% in controls and 9.1% in goal-directed perfusion initiative patients (P = .008); incidences of acute kidney injury stage 1, 2, and 3 were 19.3%, 3.4%, and 1.1% in controls, and 5.7%, 3.4%, and 0% in goal-directed perfusion initiative patients, respectively. Control patients exhibited a larger median percent increase in creatinine from baseline (27% vs 10%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:The goal-directed perfusion initiative was associated with reduced acute kidney injury incidence after cardiac surgery in this pilot study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Perioperative corticosteroid use may reduce acute kidney injury. We sought to test whether methylprednisolone reduces the risk of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. METHODS:We conducted a prespecified substudy of a randomized controlled trial involving patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (2007-2014); patients were recruited from 79 centres in 18 countries. Eligibility criteria included a moderate-to-high risk of perioperative death based on a preoperative score of 6 or greater on the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation I. Patients (n = 7286) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous methylprednisolone (250 mg at anesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients, caregivers, data collectors and outcome adjudicators were unaware of the assigned intervention. The primary outcome was postoperative acute kidney injury, defined as an increase in the serum creatinine concentration (from the preoperative value) of 0.3 mg/dL or greater (? 26.5 ?mol/L) or 50% or greater in the 14-day period after surgery, or use of dialysis within 30 days after surgery. RESULTS:Acute kidney injury occurred in 1479/3647 patients (40.6%) in the methylprednisolone group and in 1426/3639 patients (39.2%) in the placebo group (adjusted relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.11). Results were consistent across several definitions of acute kidney injury and in patients with preoperative chronic kidney disease. INTERPRETATION:Intraoperative corticosteroid use did not reduce the risk of acute kidney injury in patients with a moderate-to-high risk of perioperative death who had cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Our results do not support the prophylactic use of steroids during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00427388.
Project description:Patients with left ventricular assist devices presenting for noncardiac surgery are increasingly commonplace; however, little is known about their outcomes. Accordingly, the authors sought to determine the frequency of complications, risk factors, and staffing patterns.The authors performed a retrospective study at their academic tertiary care center, investigating all adult left ventricular assist device patients undergoing noncardiac surgery from 2006 to 2015. The authors described perioperative profiles of noncardiac surgery cases, including patient, left ventricular assist device, surgical case, and anesthetic characteristics, as well as staffing by cardiac/noncardiac anesthesiologists. Through univariate and multivariable analyses, the authors studied acute kidney injury as a primary outcome; secondary outcomes included elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase suggestive of left ventricular assist device thrombosis, intraoperative bleeding complication, and intraoperative hypotension. The authors additionally studied major perioperative complications and mortality.Two hundred and forty-six patients underwent 702 procedures. Of 607 index cases, 110 (18%) experienced postoperative acute kidney injury, and 16 (2.6%) had elevated lactate dehydrogenase. Of cases with complete blood pressure data, 176 (27%) experienced intraoperative hypotension. Bleeding complications occurred in 45 cases (6.4%). Thirteen (5.3%) patients died within 30 days of surgery. Independent risk factors associated with acute kidney injury included major surgical procedures (adjusted odds ratio, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 17.3; P = 0.03) and cases prompting invasive arterial line monitoring (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 10.3; P = 0.02) or preoperative fresh frozen plasma transfusion (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.8; P = 0.02).Intraoperative hypotension and acute kidney injury were the most common complications in left ventricular assist device patients presenting for noncardiac surgery; perioperative management remains a challenge.
Project description:Acute kidney injury occurs commonly in children following congenital cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Aminophylline, a methylxanthine nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, has been effective in the management of acute kidney injury in certain populations. This study sought to determine whether postoperative administration of aminophylline attenuates acute kidney injury in children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Single-center, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.Tertiary center, pediatric cardiovascular ICU.A total of 144 children after congenital heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Seventy-two patients were randomized to receive aminophylline and 72 patients received placebo. Study drug was administered every 6 hours for 72 hours.The primary outcome variable was the development of any acute kidney injury, defined by the serum creatinine criteria of the Kidney Diseases: Improving Global Outcomes. Secondary outcomes included the development of severe acute kidney injury, time between cardiovascular ICU admission and first successful extubation, percent fluid overload, total fluid balance, urine output, bioelectrical impedance, and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. The unadjusted rate and severity of acute kidney injury were not different between groups; 43 of 72 (60%) of the treatment group and 36 of 72 (50%) of the placebo group developed acute kidney injury (p = 0.32). Stage 2/3 acute kidney injury occurred in 23 of 72 (32%) of the treatment group and 15 of 72 (21%) of the placebo group (p = 0.18). Secondary outcome measures also demonstrated no significant difference between treatment and placebo groups. Aminophylline administration was safe; no deaths occurred in either group, and rates of adverse events were similar (14% in the treatment group vs 18% in the placebo group; p = 0.30).In this placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, we found no effect of aminophylline to prevent acute kidney injury in children recovering from cardiac surgery performed with cardiopulmonary bypass. Future study of preoperative aminophylline administration to prevent acute kidney injury may be warranted.
Project description:Background:When safe to do so, avoiding blood transfusions in cardiac surgery can avoid the risk of transfusion-related infections and other complications while protecting a scarce resource and reducing costs. This protocol describes a kidney substudy of the Transfusion Requirements in Cardiac Surgery III (TRICS-III) trial, a multinational noninferiority randomized controlled trial to determine whether the risk of major clinical outcomes in patients undergoing planned cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is no greater with a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion. Objective:The objective of this substudy is to determine whether the risk of acute kidney injury is no greater with a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion, and whether this holds true in patients with and without preexisting chronic kidney disease. Design and Setting:Multinational noninferiority randomized controlled trial conducted in 73 centers in 19 countries (2014-2017). Patients:Patients (~4800) undergoing planned cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurements:The primary outcome of this substudy is perioperative acute kidney injury, defined as an acute rise in serum creatinine from the preoperative value (obtained in the 30-day period before surgery), where an acute rise is defined as ?26.5 ?mol/L in the first 48 hours after surgery or ?50% in the first 7 days after surgery. Methods:We will report the absolute risk difference in acute kidney injury and the 95% confidence interval. We will repeat the primary analysis using alternative definitions of acute kidney injury, including staging definitions, and will examine effect modification by preexisting chronic kidney disease (defined as a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Limitations:It is not possible to blind patients or providers to the intervention; however, objective measures will be used to assess outcomes, and outcome assessors will be blinded to the intervention assignment. Results:Substudy results will be reported by the year 2018. Conclusions:This substudy will provide generalizable estimates of the risk of acute kidney injury of a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion in the presence of anemia during cardiac surgery done with cardiopulmonary bypass. Trial Registration:www.clinicaltrials.gov; clinical trial registration number NCT 02042898.
Project description:Postoperative acute kidney injury is associated with high mortality and poor prognosis. Additional investigations into the risk factors for this condition and the outcomes of patients who undergo surgeries under non-general anesthesia (GA) are necessary.This retrospective cohort study included data on all surgeries performed in adult patients from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. Patients were divided into those undergoing surgeries with non-GA and those undergoing surgeries with GA. We analyzed the nephrological evaluation patterns, the risk factors for acute kidney injury, and prognoses after acute kidney injury by reviewing mortality, progression to end-stage renal disease, and serum creatinine doubling/estimated glomerular filtration rate halving from baseline.Of 74,524 patients, 20,332 underwent surgery with non-GA. These patients had baseline (adjusted odds ratio [OR], .68, 95% confidence interval [CI], .63-.72; P < .01] and follow-up serum creatinine levels (adjusted OR, .34; 95% CI, .33-.36; P < .01) less frequently measured than those undergoing GA. However, the incidence of acute kidney injury did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Moreover, postoperative acute kidney injury after non-GA surgery showed a worse clinical prognosis which was similar with that of GA operations.Patients undergoing surgeries under non-GA did not receive sufficient evaluation for their risks of acute kidney injury. As an acute kidney injury in non-GA was associated a worse prognosis as in GA surgeries, more clinical attention should be considered.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with a less favorable outcome. Off-pump surgery results in lower kidney dysfunction than conventional on-pump arrest surgery. On-pump arrest surgery results in a lower revascularization rate compared with off-pump surgery. On-pump beating heart (OPBH) CABG combines the advantages of beating heart surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. This study compared the renal outcomes of 3 cardiac surgical methods. From January 2010 to December 2012, 373 patients who underwent on-pump CABG were enrolled. Propensity analysis was performed to compare the postoperative outcomes of postoperative AKI, renal replacement therapy (RRT), intensive care unit (ICU) stay, mortality, and extubating time. In total, 98 patients received conventional on-pump surgery, 160 received OPBH surgery, and 115 received off-pump surgery. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons scores of these 3 groups were 6.1?±?13.6, 7.4?±?13.6, and 5.6?±?10.9, respectively. Propensity analysis revealed lower AKI incidence in the off-pump group than in the on-pump surgery group. No substantial differences were observed in mortality, RRT, and the ICU stay between the off-pump and OPBH surgery groups. Among the 3 surgical methods, off-pump surgery results in lower AKI incidence. The short-term outcome, including kidney function, of OPBH surgery is similar to that of the off-pump group. Therefore, OPBH surgery is a considerable choice for patients with a high surgical risk.
Project description:Acute kidney injury is a serious complication of elective major surgery. Acute dialysis is used to support life in the most severe cases. We examined whether rates and outcomes of acute dialysis after elective major surgery have changed over time.We used data from Ontario's universal health care databases to study all consecutive patients who had elective major surgery at 118 hospitals between 1995 and 2009. Our primary outcomes were acute dialysis within 14 days of surgery, death within 90 days of surgery and chronic dialysis for patients who did not recover kidney function.A total of 552,672 patients underwent elective major surgery during the study period, 2231 of whom received acute dialysis. The incidence of acute dialysis increased steadily from 0.2% in 1995 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.2) to 0.6% in 2009 (95% CI 0.6-0.7). This increase was primarily in cardiac and vascular surgeries. Among patients who received acute dialysis, 937 died within 90 days of surgery (42.0%, 95% CI 40.0-44.1), with no change in 90-day survival over time. Among the 1294 patients who received acute dialysis and survived beyond 90 days, 352 required chronic dialysis (27.2%, 95% CI 24.8-29.7), with no change over time.The use of acute dialysis after cardiac and vascular surgery has increased substantially since 1995. Studies focusing on interventions to better prevent and treat perioperative acute kidney injury are needed.