The Salivary Microbiome Is Altered in Children With Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Correlates With Disease Activity.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergen-mediated inflammatory disease affecting the esophagus. Although microbial communities may affect the host immune responses, little is known about the role of the microbiome in EoE. We compared the composition of the salivary microbiome in children with EoE with that of non-EoE controls to test the hypotheses that the salivary microbiome is altered in children with EoE and is associated with disease activity. METHODS:Saliva samples were collected from 26 children with EoE and 19 non-EoE controls comparable for age and ethnicity. The salivary microbiome was profiled using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Disease activity was assessed using the Eosinophilic Esophagitis Endoscopic Reference Score and the Eosinophilic Esophagitis Histologic Scoring System (EoEHSS). RESULTS:A trend toward lower microbial richness and alpha diversity was noted in children with EoE. Although the overall salivary microbiome composition was similar between children with and without EoE, specific taxa such as Streptococcus (q value = 0.06) tended to be abundant in children with active EoE compared with non-EoE controls. Haemophilus was significantly abundant in children with active EoE compared with inactive EoE (q value = 0.0008) and increased with the increasing EoEHSS and Eosinophilic Esophagitis Histology Scoring System (q value = 5e-10). In addition, 4 broad salivary microbial communities correlated with the EoEHSS. DISCUSSION:The composition of the salivary microbiome community structure can be altered in children with EoE. A relative abundance of Haemophilus positively correlates with the disease activity. These findings indicate that perturbations in the salivary microbiome may have a role in EoE pathobiology and could serve as a noninvasive marker of disease activity.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The mucosa affected by eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is composed of a stratified squamous epithelia and contains intraepithelial eosinophils. To date, no studies have identified the esophageal microbiome in patients with EoE or the impact of treatment on these organisms. The aim of this study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in EoE and determine whether treatments change this profile. We hypothesized that clinically relevant alterations in bacterial populations are present in different forms of esophagitis.<h4>Design</h4>In this prospective study, secretions from the esophageal mucosa were collected from children and adults with EoE, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and normal mucosa using the Esophageal String Test (EST). Bacterial load was determined using quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities, determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, were compared between health and disease.<h4>Results</h4>Samples from a total of 70 children and adult subjects were examined. Bacterial load was increased in both EoE and GERD relative to normal subjects. In subjects with EoE, load was increased regardless of treatment status or degree of mucosal eosinophilia compared with normal. Haemophilus was significantly increased in untreated EoE subjects as compared with normal subjects. Streptococcus was decreased in GERD subjects on proton pump inhibition as compared with normal subjects.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Diseases associated with mucosal eosinophilia are characterized by a different microbiome from that found in the normal mucosa. Microbiota may contribute to esophageal inflammation in EoE and GERD.
Project description:Abnormalities in the gut microbiome are associated with suppressed Th2 response (Belizario et al., 2018 Mediators Inflamm. 2018:2037838) and predisposition to atopic disease such as asthma and eczema. We investigated if this applies to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Stool bacterial DNA was extracted and followed by 16S rRNA amplification from 12 patients with eosinophilic esophagitis and 12 controls. Alpha- and beta-diversity were analyzed. Only two patients had asthma or atopy and one patient was on budesonide. No patients were on PPIs. Patients with EoE had lower gut microbiota alpha diversity (species richness, P = 0.09; Shannon index, P = 0.01). The microbial composition was distinct as evidenced by significantly different beta diversity (P = 0.03) when compared to healthy controls. There were also significant differences in relative abundance at multiple taxonomic levels when comparing the two communities; at the phylum level, we observed a marked decrease in Firmicutes and increase in Bacteroidetes and at the order and family level there were significant decreases in Clostridia and Clostridiales in patients with EoE (q ? 0.1). We conclude that there are significant differences in microbial community structure, microbial richness, and evenness and a significant decrease in taxa within the Clostridia in patients with EoE. Our data suggest that Clostridia based interventions could be tested as adjuncts to current therapeutic strategies in EoE.
Project description:Serum from children with active and inactive treated eosinophilic esophagitis was analyzed for detection of microRNA Individual serum samples from children with eosinophilic esophagitis were analyzed for detection of microRNA. (n=5 for active EoE and n=5 for inactive EoE)
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Elucidating esophageal biochemical composition in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) can offer novel insights into its pathogenesis, which remains unclear. Using Raman spectroscopy, we profiled and compared the biochemical composition of esophageal samples obtained from children with active (aEoE) and inactive EoE (iEoE) with non-EoE controls, examined the relationship between spectral markers and validated EoE activity indices. METHODS:In vitro Raman spectra from children with aEoE (n = 8; spectra = 51) and iEoE (n = 6; spectra = 48) and from non-EoE controls (n = 10; spectra = 75) were acquired. Mann-Whitney test was used to assess the differences in their Raman intensities (median [interquartile range]) and identify spectral markers. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate the relationship between spectral markers and endoscopic and histologic activity indices. RESULTS:Raman peaks attributable to glycogen content (936/1,449 cm) was lower in children with aEoE (0.20 [0.18-0.21]) compared with that in non-EoE controls (0.24 [0.23-0.29]). Raman intensity of proteins (1,660/1,209 cm) was higher in children with aEoE compared with that in non-EoE controls (3.20 [3.07-3.50] vs 2.91 [2.59-3.05]; P = 0.01), whereas that of lipids (1,301/1,260 cm) was higher in children with iEoE (1.56 [1.49-1.63]) compared with children with aEoE (1.40 [1.30-1.48]; P = 0.02). Raman peaks attributable to glycogen and lipid inversely correlated with eosinophilic inflammation and basal zone hyperplasia. Raman mapping substantiated our findings. DISCUSSION:This is the first study to identify spectral traits of the esophageal samples related to EoE activity and tissue pathology and to profile tissue-level biochemical composition associated with pediatric EoE. Future research to determine the role of these biochemical alterations in development and clinical course of EoE can advance our understanding of EoE pathobiology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Links between food allergens and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have been established, but the interplay between EoE- and IgE-associated immediate hypersensitivity to foods remains unclear. OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine the prevalence of IgE-associated food allergy at the time of diagnosis of EoE in children and to determine whether differences existed in presentation and disease compared to subjects with EoE alone. METHODS:Eosinophilic esophagitis patients were stratified based on the diagnosis of IgE-associated immediate hypersensitivity (EoE + IH vs. EoE-IH). Clinical, histologic, pathologic, and endoscopic differences were investigated using a retrospective database. RESULTS:We found that 29% of the 198 EoE patients in our cohort had EoE + IH. These subjects presented at a younger age than those without IH (6.05 vs. 8.09 years, P = 0.013) and were more likely to have comorbid allergic disease. Surprisingly, the EoE + IH group presented with significantly different clinical symptoms, with increased dysphagia, gagging, cough, and poor appetite compared to their counterparts in the EoE-IH group. Male gender, allergic rhinitis, the presence of dysphagia, and younger age were independently associated with having EoE + IH. Specific IgE levels to common EoE-associated foods were higher in EoE + IH, regardless of eliciting immediate hypersensitivity symptoms. In contrast, IgE levels for specific foods triggering EoE were relatively lower in both the groups than IgE levels for immediate reactions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Immediate hypersensitivity is common in children with EoE and identifies a population of EoE patients with distinct clinical characteristics. Our study describes a subtype of EoE in which IgE-mediated food allergy may impact the presentation of paediatric EoE.
Project description:To review the understanding of the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and the role of the immune system in the disease process.Peer-reviewed articles on EoE from PubMed searching for "Eosinophilic Esophagitis and fibrosis" in the period of 1995 to 2013.Studies on the clinical and immunologic features, pathogenesis, and management of EoE.Recent work has revealed that thymic stromal lymphopoietin and basophil have an increased role in the pathogenesis of disease. Additional understanding on the role of fibrosis in EoE is emerging.The incidence of EoE is increasing like most atopic disease. Similar to other allergic diseases, EoE is treated with topical steroids and/or allergen avoidance.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a chronic food allergic disease, lacks sensitive and specific peripheral biomarkers. We hypothesized that levels of EoE-related biomarkers captured using a 1-hour minimally invasive Esophageal String Test (EST) would correlate with mucosal eosinophil counts and tissue concentrations of these same biomarkers. We aimed to determine whether a 1-hour EST accurately distinguishes active from inactive EoE or a normal esophagus. METHODS:In a prospective, multisite study, children and adults (ages 7-55 years) undergoing a clinically indicated esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed an EST with an esophageal dwell time of 1 hour. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: active EoE, inactive EoE, and normal esophageal mucosa. Eosinophil-associated protein levels were compared between EST effluents and esophageal biopsy extracts. Statistical modeling was performed to select biomarkers that best correlated with and predicted eosinophilic inflammation. RESULTS:One hundred thirty-four subjects (74 children, 60 adults) with active EoE (n = 62), inactive EoE (n = 37), and patient controls with a normal esophagus (n = 35) completed the study. EST-captured eosinophil-associated biomarkers correlated significantly with peak eosinophils/high-power field, endoscopic visual scoring, and the same proteins extracted from mucosal biopsies. Statistical modeling, using combined eotaxin-3 and major basic protein-1 concentrations, led to the development of EoE scores that distinguished subjects with active EoE from inactive EoE or normal esophagi. Eighty-seven percent of children, 95% of parents, and 92% of adults preferred the EST over endoscopy if it provided similar information. DISCUSSION:The 1-hour EST accurately distinguishes active from inactive EoE in children and adults and may facilitate monitoring of disease activity in a safe and minimally invasive fashion.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic disorder in children that requires continued assessment of disease activity, involving repeated sedation, endoscopy, and biopsy analysis. We investigated whether mucosal impedance measurements can be used to monitor disease activity in pediatric patients with EoE. METHODS:We measured mucosal impedance at 3 locations in the esophagus in pediatric patients (1-18 years old; 32 with active EoE, 10 with inactive EoE, 32 with nonerosive reflux disease [NERD]) and 53 children with symptoms but normal findings from histologic analyses (controls) undergoing routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy at the Vanderbilt Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic. Pathologists reviewed biopsies per routine protocol, determined eosinophilic density, and graded spongiosis on an ordinal visual scale. Mucosal impedance measurements were compared within patient groups. The primary outcome was correlation of mucosal impedance measurements with disease activity, based on severity of spongiosis and eosinophil counts. RESULTS:Mucosal impedance measurements were significantly lower in patients with active EoE at 2, 5, and 10?cm above the squamo-columnar junction (median values of 1069, 1368, and 1707, respectively) compared to patients with inactive EoE (median values of 3663, 3657, and 4494, respectively), NERD (median values of 2754, 3243, and 4387), and controls (median values of 3091, 3760, and 4509) (P?<?0.001 for all comparisons to patients with active EoE). We found inverse correlations between mucosal impedance measurements and eosinophil count (P?<?0.001), and spongiosis severity (P?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Mucosal impedance measurements may provide immediate information about mucosal inflammation in children. Patients with active EoE have significantly lower mucosal impedance values than patients with inactive EoE, NERD, or controls; mucosal impedance measurements correlate inversely with eosinophil counts and spongiosis severity. Mucosal impedance is a promising rapid and less-invasive method to monitor EoE activity in pediatric patients with EoE; it could reduce costs and risks of disease monitoring.
Project description:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic condition characterized by eosinophilic-predominant inflammation and esophageal dysfunction.1,2 EoE represents a rapidly increasing cause of morbidity and a growing health problem.
Project description:Clinical experiences and recent studies suggest that eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has the potential to induce caregiver (CG) and child stress. The specific sources of CG EoE-related stress remain uncertain. To address this, we performed a survey of CGs and youth attending a patient with EoE education symposium that measured potential stressful elements in their daily life. Our results indicated that CGs experienced most stress associated with purchasing, preparation, and completion of meals. We conclude that providers should consider this in choosing therapeutic approaches for children with EoE.