Staple-line leak post primary sleeve gastrectomy. A two patient case series and literature review.
ABSTRACT: There is an increasing trend in the number of bariatric surgeries performed worldwide, partly because bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) remains the most common bariatric surgery procedure performed, representing more than 50% of all primary bariatric interventions. Major surgical complications of SG include staple-line bleeding, leaking, and stenosis. A leak along the staple-line most commonly occurs at the gastroesophageal junction (GOJ). From January 2018 to December 2018, our centre performed 226 bariatric procedures, of which, 97.8% were primary bariatric procedures. The mean age and BMI were 38.7±8.3 years and 44?kg/m2, respectively. Out of the 202 primary SG performed, we encountered two cases of a staple-line leak (0.99%). This is the first reported case series of SG leaks from the Southeast Asia region. A summary of their characteristics, clinical presentation, subsequent management, and the outcome is discussed. Based on the latest available evidence from the literature, several methods may decrease staple-line leaks in SG. These include the use of a bougie size greater than 40 Fr, routine use of methylene blue test during surgery, beginning transection at 2-6?cm from the pylorus, mobilising the fundus before transection, and staying away from the GOJ at the last firing. Other methods include the proper alignment of the staple-line, control of staple-line bleeding, and performing staple-line reinforcement. The management of a staple-line leak remains challenging due to limited systematic, evidence-based literature being available. Therefore, a tailored approach is needed to manage this complication.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass has become a prominent bariatric procedure. Yet, early and late complications, primarily leaks and strictures, are not uncommon. This study summarizes our experience with endoscopic treatment of laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass complications. METHODS:This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients referred to our hospital from 2015 to 2017 with post laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass complications. Therapy was tailored to each case, including fully covered self-expandable metal stents, fibrin glue, septotomy, internal drainage with pigtail stents, through-the-scope and pneumatic dilation. Success was defined as resuming oral nutrition without enteral or parenteral support or further surgical intervention. RESULTS:Nine patients presented with acute or early leaks: 5 (56%) had staple-line leaks, 3 (33%) had anastomotic leaks and 1 (11%) had both. All were treated with stents. Adjunctive endoscopic drainage was applied in 4 patients (44%). Overall 5 patients (56%) with acute/ early leaks recovered completely, including all 3 patients with anastomotic leak and the patient with both leaks but only 1/5 with staple line leak (20%). Complication rate in the leak group reached 22%. Eight patients presented with strictures, 7 at the anastomosis and one due to remnant stomach misalignment. All anastomotic strictures were dilated successfully. However, the patient with the pouch stricture required conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass after 3 failed attempts of dilation. CONCLUSION:Endoscopic treatments of laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass complications are relatively effective and safe. Anastomosis-related complications are more amenable to endoscopic treatment compared to staple line leaks.
Project description:Pancreatic leak or fistula is the most frequent complication after left pancreatectomy. We performed a single-blinded, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial comparing stapled left pancreatectomy with stapled left pancreatectomy using mesh reinforcement of the staple line with either Seamguard or Peristrips Dry.All patients undergoing left pancreatectomy at a large tertiary hospital were eligible for participation. Patients were randomized to either mesh reinforcement or no-mesh reinforcement intraoperatively after being determined a candidate for resection. Patients were blinded to the result of their randomization for 6 weeks. Primary outcome measure was clinically significant leak as defined by the ISGPF (International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula) pancreatic leak grading system.One hundred patients were randomized to either mesh (54) or no-mesh (46) reinforcement of their pancreatic transection. There was 1 death in each group. ISGPF grade B and C leaks were seen in 1.9% (1/53) of patients undergoing resection with mesh reinforcement and 20% (11/45) of patients without mesh reinforcement (P = .0007).Mesh reinforcement of pancreatic transection line significantly reduces the incidence of significant pancreatic fistula in patients undergoing left pancreatectomy.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01359410.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Endoscopic techniques have become the first-line therapy in bariatric surgery-related complications such as leaks and fistulas. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of self-expandable stents, clipping, and tissue sealants in closing of post-bariatric surgery leak/fistula.<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic literature search of the Medline/Scopus databases was performed to identify full-text articles published up to February 2019 on the use of self-expandable stents, clipping, or tissue sealants as primary endoscopic strategies used for leak/fistula closure. Meta-analysis of studies reporting stents was performed with the PRISMA guidelines.<h4>Results</h4>Data concerning the efficacy of self-expanding stents in the treatment of leaks/fistulas after bariatric surgery were extracted from 40 studies (493 patients). The overall proportion of successful leak/fistula closure was 92% (95% CI, 90-95%). The overall proportion of stent migration was 23% (95% CI, 19-28%). Seventeen papers (98 patients) reported the use of clipping: the over-the-scope clips (OTSC) system was used in 85 patients with a successful closure rate of 67.1% and a few complications (migration, stenosis, tear). The successful fistula/leak closure using other than OTSC types was achieved in 69.2% of patients. In 10 case series (63 patients), fibrin glue alone was used with a 92.8-100% success rate of fistula closure that usually required repeated sessions at scheduled intervals. The complications of fibrin glue applications were reported in only one study and included pain and fever in 12.5% of patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Endoscopic techniques are effective for management of post-bariatric leaks and fistulas in properly selected patients.
Project description:Gastric leaks represent serious complications of bariatric surgery. With the increasing popularity and performance of bariatric procedures, the incidence of leaks and associated complications are expected to increase. Minimally invasive natural orifice surgery represents a novel and promising approach to gastric leak management, especially for morbidly obese patients who are at much higher risk from open or laparoscopic surgical procedures. The present article reports two cases of the safe and successful use of the EndoGastric Solutions StomaphyX device to alter the flow of gastric contents and repair gastric leaks resulting from bariatric revision surgery. Both patients were at a high risk and could not undergo another open or laparoscopic surgery to correct the leaks that were not healing. The StomaphyX procedures lasted approximately 30 min, were performed without any complications, and resulted in the resolution of the gastric leaks in both patients.
Project description:Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is one of the most efficient bariatric interventions in morbidly obese patients. The most severe risk of this procedure seems to be the staple line leak, and the management of this complication can be very arduous.To share our experience in managing the staple line leak after LSG and to help to find the best procedure that should be preferred.In the 2010-2015 period we performed 223 LSG, with about 5 demonstrating severe complications - two patients with severe bleeding requiring revision surgery, and three patients with resection surface leak.We always primarily treated the staple line leak with a laparoscopic revision. Once the fistula did not spontaneously close after this treatment. A series of other methods were then indicated for this patient and only the sixth one resulted in the desirable therapeutic success. At first, our team opted for laparoscopic revision with drainage. The next procedure involved applying Ovesco and Boston clips. As a third method we performed abscess drainage through a nasobiliary tube inserted via gastroscopy. Due to failure we performed the second laparoscopic revision with staple line resuture, the next intervention was an open revision with fistula excision and suture, and finally we opted for the application of a self-expanding metallic stent, which proved to be definitely curative.Without any guidelines it is very difficult to determine the right procedure addressing the staple line leak after LSG. It depends mainly on the clinician's experience and is lengthy and often untraditional.
Project description:To describe a modified technique of deployment of stents using the overtube developed for balloon-assisted enteroscopy in post-sleeve gastrectomy (SG) complications.Between January 2010 and December 2015, all patients submitted to an endoscopic stenting procedure to treat a post-SG stenosis or leakage were retrospectively collected. Procedures from patients in which the stent was deployed using the balloon-overtube-assisted modified over-the-wire (OTW) stenting technique were described. The technical success, corresponding to proper placement of the stent in the stomach resulting in exclusion of the SG leak or the stenosis, was evaluated. Complications related to stenting were also reported.Five procedures were included to treat 2 staple line leaks and 3 stenoses. Two types of stents were used, including a fully covered self-expandable metal stent designed for the SG anatomy (Hanarostent, ECBB-30-240-090; M.I. Tech, Co., Ltd, Seoul, South Korea) in 4 procedures and a biodegradable stent (BD stent 019-10A-25/20/25-080, SX-ELLA, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic) in the remaining procedure. In all cases, an overtube was advanced with the endoscope through the SG to the duodenum. After placement of the guidewire and removal of the endoscope, the stent was easily advanced through the overtube. The overtube was pulled back and the stent was successfully deployed under fluoroscopic guidance. Technical success was achieved in all patients.The adoption of a modified technique of deployment of OTW stents using an overtube may represent an effective option in the approach of SG complications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intraoperative testing of anastomoses and staples lines is commonly performed to minimize the risk of postoperative leaks in bariatric surgery, but its impact is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the association between leak testing and 30-d postoperative leak, bleed, reoperation, and readmission rates for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS:This is a retrospective observational study utilizing 2015-2016 data from the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program database. Postoperative outcomes were compared using ?2 test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with 30-d outcomes. RESULTS:We included 237,081 patients. Leak testing was performed on 73.0% and 92.1% of LSG and RYGB patients, respectively. LSG was associated with lower rates of leak, bleed, reoperation, and readmission than RYGB. On multivariable analysis, intraoperative leak testing was associated with increased rates of postoperative leak for LSG and RYGB (OR 1.48 and 1.90, respectively) and lower rates of bleed for LSG (OR 0.76). There were no significant associations between leak testing and rates of reoperation or readmission. CONCLUSIONS:Use of intraoperative leak testing was not associated with improved outcomes for either LSG or RYGB. A prospective trial investigating leak testing is warranted to better elucidate its impact.
Project description:Background and Aims:Therapeutic endoscopy plays a major role in the management of postbariatric anastomotic leaks, offering an effective treatment alternative to repeated surgery. In recent years, management has been moving from bridging and closing the leak's orifice toward an approach that uses vacuum therapy or internal drainage. Our aim was to demonstrate different treatment options for the management of postbariatric leaks. Methods:We describe 3 different endoscopic techniques for postbariatric leaks in 2 patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 1 patient who had undergone sleeve gastrectomy. Results:The first patient had a 20-mm early post-RYGB leak with an intra-abdominal associated collection treated with 5 sessions of endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT). The second patient had a 12-mm acute postgastric sleeve leak with an associated collection, in whom therapy with EVT had failed, and who was then treated with endoscopic internal drainage (EID). The last patient had a chronic intra-abdominal collection after RYGB, despite reoperation, in whom therapy with EID and esophageal stent had failed, and who was treated with a diabolo-shaped lumen-apposing metal stent placed between the gastric pouch and the gastric remnant. Weight-loss intention was not compromised in any patient. All patients remain well. Conclusions:Staple-line or anastomotic leaks are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after surgery. There are myriad endoscopic techniques, with varying reported efficacy. Often, more than one endoscopic approach can be used concomitantly, whereas in other cases, therapies are applied sequentially depending on the initial clinical response. Multiple therapeutic options should be considered before endoscopic failure.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Entrapment of an orally introduced tube by stapling/stitching is an intra-operative complication of bariatric surgery with grave consequences. Incidence is unknown. No prevention/management strategy is available. A systematic review was performed to assess the absolute reported observed risk and incidence. Additionally, data on 3 cases during our entire sleeve gastrectomy (SG) experience is evaluated.<h4>Methods</h4>Literature is reviewed using PubMed/Web of science data-bases. Data was recorded prospectively. Videos of orally introduced tube staplings were re-watched, presentation/recognition/management were re-evaluated. A protocol ensuring the removal of the small caliber orogastric tube (OGT) by the surgeons direct inspection was introduced after the 3rd entrapment.<h4>Results</h4>Review revealed OGT as the most commonly entrapped tube following temperature probe and bougie. SG/stapling were the most common causative operation/reason, respectively. Leak rates over 20%, conversion, early-late re-operations and mortality were reported. During our 948 consecutive SGs, 3 OGT entrapments (0.32%), third one with double stapling, occurred. All were recognized/managed intraoperatively by freeing the entrapped-end of the OGT from the sleeve part of the staple-line. In doubly stapled case, second transected end could only be recognized when routine reinforcement suturing come in proximity. Defects were continuously stitched with barbed suture. No morbidity occurred. One-year excess-weight-loss was 82%. A pre-protocol incidence of 0.56% (n: 3/534) dropped to nil in the remaining 414.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Iatrogenic stapling of the OGT during SG is rare, but morbid. It must be avoided by a strict protocol. Upon occurrence/recognition, stapling must immediately stop until the "entirety" of the tube, including the "specimen-part", is retrieved, to avoid double entrapment.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>In any surgical procedure, various aspects of technique may affect patient outcomes. As new procedures enter practice, it is difficult to evaluate the association of each aspect of technique with patient outcomes.<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the associations between technique and outcomes in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>In this cohort study of bariatric surgery programs participating in a statewide surgical quality improvement collaborative, 30 surgeons submitted intraoperative videos from representative sleeve gastrectomies performed on 6915 patients with morbid obesity. These videos were reviewed by blinded peer surgeons on key technical elements, and 605 reviews were linked to sleeve gastrectomy outcomes of all of the surgeons' patients from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016.<h4>Exposures</h4>Surgeons' technical approaches to 5 controversial aspects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: dissection of the proximal stomach, sleeve caliber, sleeve anatomy, staple line reinforcement, and leak testing.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The 30-day outcomes were rate of postoperative hemorrhage and staple line leak. The 1-year outcomes were percentage of total weight lost and reflux severity (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Health-Related Quality of Life instrument).<h4>Results</h4>A total of 30 surgeons submitted 46 videos of operations performed on 6915 patients (mean [SD] age, 45.4 [11.7] years; 5494 [79.5%] female; 4706 [68.1%] White). Complete dissection of the proximal stomach was associated with reduced hemorrhage rates (higher ratings for complete mobilization of fundus were associated with a decrease in hemorrhage rate from 2.1% [25th percentile] to 1.0% [75th percentile], P = .01; higher ratings for visualization of the left crus were associated with a decrease in hemorrhage rate from 1.5% to 0.94%, P = .006; and higher ratings for complete division of the short gastrics were associated with a decrease in hemorrhage rate from 2.8% to 1.2%, P = .03). The reduction in hemorrhage rates came at the expense of higher leak rates (higher ratings for complete mobilization of fundus were associated with an increase in leak rate from 0.05% [25th percentile] to 0.16% [75th percentile], P < .001; higher ratings for visualization of the left crus were associated with an increase in leak rate from 0.1% to 0.2%, P = .003; and higher ratings for complete division of the short gastrics were associated with an increase in leak rate from 0.02% to 0.1%, P = .01). Surgeons who stapled more tightly to the bougie had smaller decreases in reflux than those who stapled less tightly (-2.0 to -1.3 on a 50-point scale, P = .002). Staple line reinforcement (buttressing and oversewing) was associated with a small (2 of 1000 cases) decrease in hemorrhage rates. Staple line buttressing was also associated with a similarly small increase in leak rates (1 of 1000 cases). Leak testing was associated with a statistically insignificant change in the staple line leak rate (0.16%-0.22%, P = .47).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Variations in surgical technique can be measured by video review and are associated with differences in patient outcomes.