Structure and mechanism of pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct recognition by the Rad4/XPC nucleotide excision repair complex.
ABSTRACT: Failure in repairing ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage can lead to mutations and cancer. Among UV-lesions, the pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct (6-4PP) is removed from the genome much faster than the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), owing to the more efficient recognition of 6-4PP by XPC-RAD23B, a key initiator of global-genome nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here, we report a crystal structure of a Rad4-Rad23 (yeast XPC-Rad23B ortholog) bound to 6-4PP-containing DNA and 4-?s molecular dynamics (MD) simulations examining the initial binding of Rad4 to 6-4PP or CPD. This first structure of Rad4/XPC bound to a physiological substrate with matched DNA sequence shows that Rad4 flips out both 6-4PP-containing nucleotide pairs, forming an 'open' conformation. The MD trajectories detail how Rad4/XPC initiates 'opening' 6-4PP: Rad4 initially engages BHD2 to bend/untwist DNA from the minor groove, leading to unstacking and extrusion of the 6-4PP:AA nucleotide pairs towards the major groove. The 5' partner adenine first flips out and is captured by a BHD2/3 groove, while the 3' adenine extrudes episodically, facilitating ensuing insertion of the BHD3 ?-hairpin to open DNA as in the crystal structure. However, CPD resists such Rad4-induced structural distortions. Untwisting/bending from the minor groove may be a common way to interrogate DNA in NER.
Project description:DNA repair is critical for maintaining genomic integrity. Finding DNA lesions initiates the entire repair process. In human nucleotide excision repair (NER), XPC-RAD23B recognizes DNA lesions and recruits downstream factors. Although previous studies revealed the molecular features of damage identification by the yeast orthologs Rad4-Rad23, the dynamic mechanisms by which human XPC-RAD23B recognizes DNA defects have remained elusive. Here, we directly visualized the motion of XPC-RAD23B on undamaged and lesion-containing DNA using high-throughput single-molecule imaging. We observed three types of one-dimensional motion of XPC-RAD23B along DNA: diffusive, immobile and constrained. We found that consecutive AT-tracks led to increase in proteins with constrained motion. The diffusion coefficient dramatically increased according to ionic strength, suggesting that XPC-RAD23B diffuses along DNA via hopping, allowing XPC-RAD23B to bypass protein obstacles during the search for DNA damage. We also examined how XPC-RAD23B identifies cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) during diffusion. XPC-RAD23B makes futile attempts to bind to CPDs, consistent with low CPD recognition efficiency. Moreover, XPC-RAD23B binds CPDs in biphasic states, stable for lesion recognition and transient for lesion interrogation. Taken together, our results provide new insight into how XPC-RAD23B searches for DNA lesions in billions of base pairs in human genome.
Project description:The versatile nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway initiates as the XPC-RAD23B-CETN2 complex first recognizes DNA lesions from the genomic DNA and recruits the general transcription factor complex, TFIIH, for subsequent lesion verification. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of an NER initiation complex containing Rad4-Rad23-Rad33 (yeast homologue of XPC-RAD23B-CETN2) and 7-subunit coreTFIIH assembled on a carcinogen-DNA adduct lesion at 3.9-9.2 Å resolution. A ~30-bp DNA duplex could be mapped as it straddles between Rad4 and the Ssl2 (XPB) subunit of TFIIH on the 3' and 5' side of the lesion, respectively. The simultaneous binding with Rad4 and TFIIH was permitted by an unwinding of DNA at the lesion. Translocation coupled with torque generation by Ssl2 and Rad4 would extend the DNA unwinding at the lesion and deliver the damaged strand to Rad3 (XPD) in an open form suitable for subsequent lesion scanning and verification.
Project description:The xeroderma pigmentosum C protein complex (XPC) recognizes a variety of environmentally induced DNA lesions and is the key in initiating their repair by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. When bound to a lesion, XPC flips two nucleotide pairs that include the lesion out of the DNA duplex, yielding a productively bound complex that can lead to successful lesion excision. Interestingly, the efficiencies of NER vary greatly among different lesions, influencing their toxicity and mutagenicity in cells. Though differences in XPC binding may influence NER efficiency, it is not understood whether XPC utilizes different mechanisms to achieve productive binding with different lesions. Here, we investigated the well-repaired 10R-(+)-cis-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-N2-dG (cis-B[a]P-dG) DNA adduct in a duplex containing normal partner C opposite the lesion. This adduct is derived from the environmental pro-carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene and is likely to be encountered by NER in the cell. We have extensively investigated its binding to the yeast XPC orthologue, Rad4, using umbrella sampling with restrained molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. The NMR solution structure of this lesion in duplex DNA has shown that the dC complementary to the adducted dG is flipped out of the DNA duplex in the absence of XPC. However, it is not known whether the "pre-flipped" base would play a role in its recognition by XPC. Our results show that Rad4 first captures the displaced dC, which is followed by a tightly coupled lesion-extruding pathway for productive binding. This binding path differs significantly from the one deduced for the small cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer lesion opposite mismatched thymines [ Mu , H. , ( 2015 ) Biochemistry , 54 ( 34 ), 5263 - 7 ]. The possibility of multiple paths that lead to productive binding to XPC is consistent with the versatile lesion recognition by XPC that is required for successful NER.
Project description:Global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) is the main pathway for the removal of bulky lesions from DNA and is characterized by an extraordinarily wide substrate specificity. Remarkably, the efficiency of lesion removal varies dramatically and certain lesions escape repair altogether and are therefore associated with high levels of mutagenicity. Central to the multistep mechanism of damage recognition in NER is the sensing of lesion-induced thermodynamic and structural alterations of DNA by the XPC-RAD23B protein and the verification of the damage by the transcription/repair factor TFIIH. Additional factors contribute to the process: UV-DDB, for the recognition of certain UV-induced lesions in particular in the context of chromatin, while the XPA protein is believed to have a role in damage verification and NER complex assembly. Here we consider the molecular mechanisms that determine repair efficiency in GG-NER based on recent structural, computational, biochemical, cellular and single molecule studies of XPC-RAD23B and its yeast ortholog Rad4. We discuss how the actions of XPC-RAD23B are integrated with those of other NER proteins and, based on recent high-resolution structures of TFIIH, present a structural model of how XPC-RAD23B and TFIIH cooperate in damage recognition and verification.
Project description:The first eukaryotic NER factor that recognizes NER substrates is the heterodimeric XPC-RAD23B protein. The currently accepted hypothesis is that this protein recognizes the distortions/destabilization caused by DNA lesions rather than the lesions themselves. The resulting XPC-RAD23B-DNA complexes serve as scaffolds for the recruitment of subsequent NER factors that lead to the excision of the oligonucleotide sequences containing the lesions. Based on several well-known examples of DNA lesions like the UV radiation-induced CPD and 6-4 photodimers, as well as cisplatin-derived intrastrand cross-linked lesions, it is generally believed that the differences in excision activities in human cell extracts is correlated with the binding affinities of XPC-RAD23B to these DNA lesions. However, using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have found that XPC-RAD23B binding affinities of certain bulky lesions derived from metabolically activated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds such as benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, are not directly, or necessarily correlated with NER excision activities observed in cell-free extracts. These findings point to features of XPC-RAD23B-bulky DNA adduct complexes that may involve the formation of NER-productive or unproductive forms of binding that depend on the structural and stereochemical properties of the DNA adducts studied. The pronounced differences in NER cleavage efficiencies observed in cell-free extracts may be due to differences in the successful recruitment of subsequent NER factors by the XPC-RAD23B-DNA adduct complexes, and/or in the verification step. These phenomena appear to depend on the structural and conformational properties of the class of bulky DNA adducts studied.
Project description:Accessibility within chromatin is an important factor in the prompt removal of UV-induced DNA damage by nucleotide excision repair (NER). Chromatin remodeling by the SWI/SNF complex has been shown to play an important modulating role in NER in vitro and yeast in vivo. Nevertheless, the molecular basis of cross-talk between SWI/SNF and NER in mammalian cells is not fully understood. Here, we show that knockdown of Brg1, the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, negatively affects the elimination of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), but not of pyrimidine (6, 4)pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PP) following UV irradiation of mammalian cells. Brg1-deficient cells exhibit a lower chromatin relaxation as well as impaired recruitment of downstream NER factors, XPG and PCNA, to UV lesions. However, the assembly of upstream NER factors, DDB2 and XPC, at the damage site was unaffected by Brg1 knockdown. Interestingly, Brg1 interacts with XPC within chromatin and is recruited to UV-damaged sites in a DDB2- and XPC-dependent manner. Also, postirradiation decrease of XPC levels occurred more rapidly in Brg1-deficient than normal cells. Conversely, XPC transcription remained unaltered upon Brg1 knockdown indicating that Brg1 affects the stability of XPC protein following irradiation. Thus, Brg1 facilitates different stages of NER by initially modulating UV-induced chromatin relaxation and stabilizing XPC at the damage sites, and subsequently stimulating the recruitment of XPG and PCNA to successfully culminate the repair.
Project description:In plants, exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) light is unavoidable, resulting in DNA damage. Damaged DNA causes mutations, replication arrest, and cell death, thus efficient repair of the damaged DNA is essential. A light-independent DNA repair pathway called nucleotide excision repair (NER) is conserved throughout evolution. For example, the damaged DNA-binding protein Radiation sensitive 4 (Rad4) in <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i> is homologous to the mammalian NER protein Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC). In this study, we examined the role of the <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> Rad4/XPC homologue (AtRAD4) in plant UV tolerance by generating overexpression lines. AtRAD4 overexpression, both with and without an N-terminal yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) tag, resulted in increased UV tolerance. YFP-RAD4 localized to the nucleus, and UV treatment did not alter this localization. We also used yeast two-hybrid analysis to examine the interaction of AtRAD4 with <i>Arabidopsis</i> RAD23 and found that RAD4 interacted with RAD23B as well as with the structurally similar protein HEMERA (HMR). In addition, we found that <i>hmr</i> and <i>rad23</i> mutants exhibited increased UV sensitivity. Thus, our analysis suggests a role for RAD4 and RAD23/HMR in plant UV tolerance.
Project description:Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that processes helix-destabilizing and/or -distorting DNA lesions, such as UV-induced photoproducts. Here, we investigate the dynamic protein-DNA interactions during the damage recognition step using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. Quantum dot-labeled Rad4-Rad23 (yeast XPC-RAD23B ortholog) forms non-motile complexes or conducts a one-dimensional search via either random diffusion or constrained motion. Atomic force microcopy analysis of Rad4 with the ?-hairpin domain 3 (BHD3) deleted reveals that this motif is non-essential for damage-specific binding and DNA bending. Furthermore, we find that deletion of seven residues in the tip of ?-hairpin in BHD3 increases Rad4-Rad23 constrained motion at the expense of stable binding at sites of DNA lesions, without diminishing cellular UV resistance or photoproduct repair in vivo. These results suggest a distinct intermediate in the damage recognition process during NER, allowing dynamic DNA damage detection at a distance.
Project description:Nucleotide excision repair (NER) excises a variety of environmentally derived DNA lesions. However, NER efficiencies for structurally different DNA lesions can vary by orders of magnitude; yet the origin of this variance is poorly understood. Our goal is to develop computational strategies that predict and identify the most hazardous, repair-resistant lesions from the plethora of such adducts. In the present work, we are focusing on lesion recognition by the xeroderma pigmentosum C protein complex (XPC), the first and required step for the subsequent assembly of factors needed to produce successful NER. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the initial binding of Rad4, the yeast orthologue of human XPC, to a library of 10 different lesion-containing DNA duplexes derived from environmental carcinogens. These vary in lesion chemical structures and conformations in duplex DNA and exhibit a wide range of relative NER efficiencies from repair resistant to highly susceptible. We have determined a promising set of structural descriptors that characterize initial binding of Rad4 to lesions that are resistant to NER. Key initial binding requirements for successful recognition are absent in the repair-resistant cases: There is little or no duplex unwinding, very limited interaction between the ?-hairpin domain 2 of Rad4 and the minor groove of the lesion-containing duplex, and no conformational capture of a base on the lesion partner strand. By contrast, these key binding features are present to different degrees in NER susceptible lesions and correlate to their relative NER efficiencies. Furthermore, we have gained molecular understanding of Rad4 initial binding as determined by the lesion structures in duplex DNA and how the initial binding relates to the repair efficiencies. The development of a computational strategy for identifying NER-resistant lesions is grounded in this molecular understanding of the lesion recognition mechanism.
Project description:Global-genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) prevents ultraviolet (UV) light-induced skin cancer by removing mutagenic cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). These lesions are formed abundantly on DNA wrapped around histone octamers in nucleosomes, but a specialized damage sensor known as DDB2 ensures that they are accessed by the XPC initiator of GG-NER activity. We report that DDB2 promotes CPD excision by recruiting the histone methyltransferase ASH1L, which methylates lysine 4 of histone H3. In turn, methylated H3 facilitates the docking of the XPC complex to nucleosomal histone octamers. Consequently, DDB2, ASH1L and XPC proteins co-localize transiently on histone H3-methylated nucleosomes of UV-exposed cells. In the absence of ASH1L, the chromatin binding of XPC is impaired and its ability to recruit downstream GG-NER effectors diminished. Also, ASH1L depletion suppresses CPD excision and confers UV hypersensitivity. These findings show that ASH1L configures chromatin for the effective handoff between damage recognition factors during GG-NER activity.