Genome sequence analysis reveals potential for virulence genes and multi-drug resistance in an Enterococcus faecalis 2A (XJ05) strain that causes lamb encephalitis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Enterococcus is an important component of normal flora in human and animals, but in recent years, the pathogenicity of Enterococcus has been confirmed in clinical medicine. More and more animal infections have been reported in veterinary clinics. For the last decades, outbreaks of encephalitis in lambs have become much more common in Northern Xinjiang, China. Consequent studies have confirmed that these affected lambs had been commonly infected with E. faecalis. More than 60 E. faecalis were isolated from the brain of infected lambs, A highly virulent strain entitled E. faecalis 2A (XJ05) were selected, sequenced and analyzed. RESULT:Using whole genome sequence and de novo assembly, 18 contigs with NGS and annotation were obtained. It is confirmed that the genome has a size of 2.9 Mb containing 2783 protein-coding genes, as well as 54 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. Some key features of this strain were identified, which included 7 predicted antibiotic resistance genes and 18 candidate virulence factor genes. CONCLUSION:The E. faecalis 2A (XJ05) genome is conspicuous smaller than E.faecalis V583, but not significantly different from other non-pathogenic E. faecalis. It carried 7 resistance genes including 4 kind of antibiotics which were consistent with the results of extensive drug resistance phenotypic, including aminoglycoside, macrolide, phenicol, and tetracycline. 2A (XJ05) also carried 18 new virulence factor genes related to virulence, hemolysin genes (cylA, cylB, cylM, cylL) may play an important role in lamb encephalitis by E. faecalis 2A (XJ05).
Project description:Virulence-associated traits have frequently been studied in enterococci and are considered to contribute towards the pathogenicity of infections. In the present study, Enterococcus isolates were collected during diagnostic investigations from meat turkeys in Germany. Twenty-eight isolates of three different Enterococcus species were analyzed for five selected putative virulence traits to understand their potential role in the pathogenicity using the chicken embryo lethality assay. Ten E. faecalis, ten E. faecium, and eight E. gallinarum isolates were examined for the presence of common virulence genes and their phenotypic expression, namely, the cytolysin operon, five individual cyl genes (cylL L , cylL S , cylM, cylB, and cylA), gelatinase (gelE), hyaluronidase (hyl Efm ), aggregation substance (asa1), and enterococcal surface protein (esp). The Enterococcus isolates showed significant species-dependent differences in the presence of genotypic traits (p < 0.001 by Fisher's exact test; Cramer's V?=?0.68). At least one gene and up to three virulence traits were found in E. faecalis, while six E. faecium isolates and one E. gallinarum isolate did not display any virulence-associated pheno- or genotype. More than half of the Enterococcus isolates (n?=?15) harbored the gelE gene, but only E. faecalis (n?=?10) expressed the gelatinase activity in vitro. The hyl Efm gene was found in five E. gallinarum isolates only, while seven isolates showed the hyaluronidase activity in the phenotypic assay. In Cramer's V statistic, a moderate association was indicated for species (V???0.35) or genotype (V?<?0.43) and the results from the embryo lethality assay, but the differences were not significant. All E. gallinarum isolates were less virulent with mortality rates ranging between 0 and 30%. Two E. faecalis isolates were highly virulent, harboring the whole cyl-operon as well as gelE and asa1 genes. Likewise, one E. faecium isolate caused high embryo mortality but did not harbor any of the investigated virulence genes. For the first time, Enterococcus isolates of three different species collected from diseased turkeys were investigated for their virulence properties in comparison. The results differed markedly between the Enterococcus species, with E. faecalis harboring the majority of investigated genes and virulence traits. However, the genotype did not entirely correlate with the phenotype or the isolates' virulence potential and pathogenicity for chicken embryos.
Project description:The hemolytic ability, the presence of cyl genes, and the diagnostic accuracy of cytolysin molecular detection were investigated in the genus Enterococcus by using 164 strains from 20 different species (26 reference strains, 42 clinical isolates from human and veterinary origin, and 96 isolates from ewe cheese and milk). Hemolysis was assayed with sheep and horse erythrocytes and under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Screening of cytolysin genes (cylL(L), cylL(S), cylM, cylB, and cylA) was performed with new specific primers and the anaerobic assay of beta-hemolysis was used as the "gold standard" for the evaluation of cyl gene-based PCRs. Since beta-hemolysis and cyl genes were found in 10 and 14 species, respectively, the hemolytic ability seems to be spread throughout the genus ENTEROCOCCUS: Beta-hemolysis was observed in 6 of 26 (23%) reference strains, 14 of 42 (33%) clinical isolates, and 6 of 96 (6%) food isolates. The presence of cyl genes was detected in 15 of 26 (58%) reference strains, 37 of 42 (88%) clinical isolates, and 67 of 96 (70%) food isolates. These data indicate a virulence potential in food isolates, reinforcing the need of their safety assessment. Analysis of phenotypic-genotypic congruence suggests a divergent sequence evolution of cyl genes and the effect of environmental factors in the regulation of cytolysin expression. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of cytolysin molecular detection points to cylL(L)-based PCR and cylL(L)L(S)MBA-based PCR as the most reliable approaches. Nevertheless, the low sensitivity (46%) and gene variability indicated by our study strongly recommend the phenotypic assay for the assessment of hemolytic ability in enterococci, followed by the molecular screening of cyl genes in nonhemolytic strains to evaluate their virulence potential.
Project description:Enterococcus faecalis is a significant threat in the nosocomial setting due to the emergence of isolates that are multi-antibiotic resistant, refractory to the available therapies and equipped with a variety of pathogenicity determinants. This bacterium uses quorum-sensing systems to regulate its physiological processes, including the expression of virulence traits, to adapt and proliferate within a host. Here, we describe the construction and application of two bioluminescence-based reporter systems for the direct detection of the quorum-sensing regulated expression of (i) the gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone (GBAP) and (ii) the cytolysin small subunit (CylL(S)) in natural samples. The two E. faecalis reporters conditionally expressed bioluminescence in the presence of GBAP and CylL(S) both in the supernatants of liquid cultures and in an agar-overlay assay in as little as three hours, with a high level of sensitivity. Biosensors employed to investigate the interaction between the fsr and cyl systems revealed that fsr impeded CylL(S) activity by 75%. Furthermore, we identified a clinical E. faecalis isolate that acted as a biological cheater, producing cytolysin only upon sensing CylL(S)-producers in its environment. This isolate enhanced its virulence during polymicrobial systemic infection of Galleria mellonella.
Project description:Background:High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a novel molecular technique based on the real-time PCR that can be used to detect vancomycin resistance Enterococcus (VRE). The purpose of this study was to identify VRE species with HRMA in clinical isolates. Results:Out of 49 Enterococcus isolates, 11 (22.44%) E. faecium isolates and 19 (38.77%) E. faecalis isolates were detected. Average melting temperatures for divIVA in E.faecalis, alanine racemase in E.faecium, and vanA in VRE strains were obtained as 79.9?±?0.5?°C, 85.4?±?0.5?°C, and 82.99?±?0.5?°C, respectively. Furthermore, the data showed that the HRMA method was sensitive to detect 100?CFU/ml for the divIVA, alanine racemase, and vanA genes. Also, out of 49 Enterococcus spp., which were isolated by HRMA assay, 8 isolates (16.32%) of E. faecium and 18 isolates (36.73%) of E. faecalis were detected. The vanA gene was reported in 2 isolates (25%) of E. faecium and 9 isolates (50%) of E. faecalis. Conclusions:This study demonstrated that using the HRMA method, we can detect E. faecium, E. faecalis, and the vanA gene with high sensitivity and specificity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We investigated the virulence factors, genes, antibiotic resistance patterns, and genotypes (VRE and ESBL/AmpC) production in Enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from fecal samples of humans, dogs, and cats. METHODS:A total of 100 fecal samples from 50 humans, 25 dogs, and 25 cats were used in the study. MICs of nine antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of genes responsible for antibiotic resistance (VRE and ESBL/AmpC) and virulence genes both in Enterococcus species, such as cytolysin (cylA, cylB, cylM), aggregation substance (agg), gelatinase (gelE), enterococcal surface protein (esp), cell wall adhesins (efaAfs and efaAfm), and in Enterobacteriaceae, such as cytolysin (hemolysin) and gelatinase production (afa, cdt, cnf1, hlyA, iutA, papC, sfa). RESULTS:Enterococcus faecium was the most prevalent species in humans and cats, whereas Enterococcus faecalis was the species isolated in the remaining samples. A total of 200 Enterobacteriaceae strains were also detected, mainly from humans, and Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated species in all types of samples. In the Enterococcus spp, the highest percentages of resistance for ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were detected in cat isolates (41.6%, 52.8%, 38.9%, 23.6%, 62.5%, 20.8%, and 23.6% respectively), and in E. coli, a higher rate of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime emerged in cat and dog samples, if compared with humans (75.4% and 66.0%, 80.0% and 71.4%, and 32.0% and 27.2%, respectively). Regarding the total number of enterococci, 5% and 3.4% of the strains were vancomycin and teicoplanin resistant, and the vancomycin resistance (van A) gene has been detected in all samples by PCR amplification. All the Enterobacteriaceae strains were confirmed as ESBL producers by PCR and sequencing, and the most frequent ESBL genes in E. coli strains from humans and pet samples were blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15. CONCLUSIONS:Our results provide evidence that one or more virulence factors were present in both genera, underlining again the ability of pet strains to act as pathogens.
Project description:In this study, prevalence, biotechnological and safety profiles of 588 Enterococcus isolates isolated from raw milk and Istrian cheese during different stages of ripening were analyzed. Despite the low and variable presence of enterococci in milk ((3.65±2.93) log CFU/mL), highly comparable enterococcal populations were established after 30 days of cheese ripening ((7.96±0.80) log CFU/g), confirming Enterococcus spp. as a major part of the core microbiota of Istrian cheese. The dominant species were E. faecium (53.8%) and E. faecalis (42.4%), while minor groups, consisting of E. durans (2.84%) and E. casseliflavus (0.95%), also occurred. A pronounced intraspecies variability was noticed based on molecular fingerprinting, with 35 strains (genotypes) detected. Most of the genotypes were farm-specific with one third being shared between the farms. This genotype variability reflected particular differences of Istrian cheese production, mainly variable salt concentration, ripening temperature and air humidity as well as microclimatic or vegetation conditions. There was considerable variation between the strains of the same species regarding wide range of biotechnologically important traits as well as their ability to survive in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. A considerable number of strains were resistant to critically important antibiotics such as tetracycline (43.56%), erythromycin (35.79%) and vancomycin (23.48%). Polymerase chain reaction-based detection did not identify any of the common genetic determinants for vancomycin and erythromycin resistance; for tetracycline tetM gene was detected. The presence of virulence genes including agg, efaAfs, gelE, cylM, cylB, cylA, esp, efaAfm, cob and cpd was frequently recorded, especially among E. faecalis strains.
Project description:Pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmids are unique to the species Enterococcus faecalis. Many pheromone-responsive plasmids, including those frequently isolated from sites of infection, express a novel cytolysin that possesses both hemolytic and bacteriocin activities. Further, this cytolysin has been shown to be a toxin in several disease models. In the present study, nucleotide sequence determination, mutagenesis, and complementation analysis were used to determine the organization of the E. faecalis plasmid pAD1 cytolysin determinant. Four open reading frames are required for expression of the cytolysin precursor (cylLL, cylLS, cylM, and cylB). The inferred products of two of these open reading frames, CyILL and CyILS, constitute the cytolysin precursor and bear structural resemblance to posttranslationally modified bacteriocins termed lantibiotics. Similarities between the organization of the E. faecalis cytolysin determinant and expression units for lantibiotics exist, indicating that the E. faecalis cytolysin represents a new branch of this class and is the first known to possess toxin activity.
Project description:Enterococcus, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic cocci belonging to the lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes, is known to be able to resist a wide range of hostile conditions such as different pH levels, high concentration of NaCl (6.5%), and the extended temperatures between 5(°)C and 65(°)C. Despite being the third most common nosocomial pathogen, our understanding on its virulence factors is still poorly understood. The current study was aimed to determine the prevalence of different virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. For this purpose, 79 clinical isolates of Malaysian enterococci were evaluated for the presence of virulence genes. pilB, fms8, efaAfm, and sgrA genes are prevalent in all clinical isolates. In conclusion, the pathogenicity of E. faecalis and E. faecium could be associated with different virulence factors and these genes are widely distributed among the enterococcal species.
Project description:Enterococcus spp. are opportunistic pathogens that cause lameness in broiler chickens, resulting in serious economic losses worldwide. Virulence of Enterococcus spp. is associated with several putative virulence genes including fsr, efm, esp, cylA, cad1, ace, gelE, and asa1. In this study, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the simultaneous detection of these virulence genes in Enterococcus spp. was developed, and detection limits for E. faecium, E. faecalis, and E. hirae were 64.0 pg/?L, 320.0 pg/?L, and 1.6 ng/?L DNA, respectively. Among 80 Enterococcus isolates tested, efm and cad1 were detected in all 26 E. faecium samples, and only cad1 was observed in E. hirae. Additionally, the presence of virulence genes in 25 E. faecalis isolates were 100% for cad1, 88.0% for gelE, 64.0% for fsr, 44.0% for asa1, 16.0% for cylA, and 4.0% for esp. No virulence genes were found in E. gallinarum isolates. A total of 49 isolates were resistant to tigecycline and to at least 2 different classes of antibiotics. The most prevalent resistance was to ciprofloxacin (73.5%), quinupristin/dalfopristin (55.1%), and tetracycline (49.0%). No strains were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. This is the first multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously detect eight virulence genes in Enterococcus spp., and the method provides diagnostic value for accurate, rapid, and convenient detection of virulence genes. Additionally, we report the prevalence of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus isolates from commercial broiler chickens suffering lameness.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered hotspots for the environmental dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) are candidates for gauging the degree of AMR bacteria in wastewater. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are recognized indicators of fecal contamination in water. Comparative genomics of enterococci isolated from conventional activated sludge (CAS) and biological aerated filter (BAF) WWTPs was conducted. RESULTS:VRE isolates, including E. faecalis (n?=?24), E. faecium (n?=?11), E. casseliflavus (n?=?2) and E. gallinarum (n?=?2) were selected for sequencing based on WWTP source, species and AMR phenotype. The pangenomes of E. faecium and E. faecalis were both open. The genomic fraction related to the mobilome was positively correlated with genome size in E. faecium (p?<?0.001) and E. faecalis (p?<?0.001) and with the number of AMR genes in E. faecium (p?=?0.005). Genes conferring vancomycin resistance, including vanA and vanM (E. faecium), vanG (E. faecalis), and vanC (E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarum), were detected in 20 genomes. The most prominent functional AMR genes were efflux pumps and transporters. A minimum of 16, 6, 5 and 3 virulence genes were detected in E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum, respectively. Virulence genes were more common in E. faecalis and E. faecium, than E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum. A number of mobile genetic elements were shared among species. Functional CRISPR/Cas arrays were detected in 13 E. faecalis genomes, with all but one also containing a prophage. The lack of a functional CRISPR/Cas arrays was associated with multi-drug resistance in E. faecium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated differential clustering of isolates based on original source but not WWTP. Genes related to phage and CRISPR/Cas arrays could potentially serve as environmental biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS:There was no discernible difference between enterococcal genomes from the CAS and BAF WWTPs. E. faecalis and E. faecium have smaller genomes and harbor more virulence, AMR, and mobile genetic elements than other Enterococcus spp.