Neuroprotective Mitochondrial Remodeling by AKAP121/PKA Protects HT22 Cell from Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Stress.
ABSTRACT: Protein kinase A (PKA) is a ser/thr kinase that is critical for maintaining essential neuronal functions including mitochondrial homeostasis, bioenergetics, neuronal development, and neurotransmission. The endogenous pool of PKA is targeted to the mitochondrion by forming a complex with the mitochondrial scaffold A-kinase anchoring protein 121 (AKAP121). Enhanced PKA signaling via AKAP121 leads to PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the fission modulator Drp1, leading to enhanced mitochondrial networks and thereby blocking apoptosis against different toxic insults. In this study, we show for the first time that AKAP121/PKA confers neuroprotection in an in vitro model of oxidative stress induced by exposure to excess glutamate. Unexpectedly, treating mouse hippocampal progenitor neuronal HT22 cells with an acute dose or chronic exposure of glutamate robustly elevates PKA signaling, a beneficial compensatory response that is phenocopied in HT22 cells conditioned to thrive in the presence of excess glutamate but not in parental HT22 cells. Secondly, redirecting the endogenous pool of PKA by transiently transfecting AKAP121 or transfecting a constitutively active mutant of PKA targeted to the mitochondrion (OMM-PKA) or of an isoform of AKAP121 that lacks the KH and Tudor domains (S-AKAP84) are sufficient to significantly block cell death induced by glutamate toxicity but not in an oxygen deprivation/reperfusion model. Conversely, transient transfection of HT22 neuronal cells with a PKA-binding-deficient mutant of AKAP121 is unable to protect against oxidative stress induced by glutamate toxicity suggesting that the catalytic activity of PKA is required for AKAP121's protective effects. Mechanistically, AKAP121 promotes neuroprotection by enhancing PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1 to increase mitochondrial fusion, elevates ATP levels, and elicits an increase in the levels of antioxidants GSH and superoxide dismutase 2 leading to a reduction in the level of mitochondrial superoxide. Overall, our data supports AKAP121/PKA as a new molecular target that confers neuroprotection against glutamate toxicity by phosphorylating Drp1, to stabilize mitochondrial networks and mitochondrial function and to elicit antioxidant responses.
Project description:Defining the mechanisms underlying the control of mitochondrial fusion and fission is critical to understanding cellular adaptation to diverse physiological conditions. Here we demonstrate that hypoxia induces fission of mitochondrial membranes, dependent on availability of the mitochondrial scaffolding protein AKAP121. AKAP121 controls mitochondria dynamics through PKA-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of Drp1 and PKA-independent inhibition of Drp1-Fis1 interaction. Reduced availability of AKAP121 by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 relieves Drp1 inhibition by PKA and increases its interaction with Fis1, resulting in mitochondrial fission. High AKAP121 levels, seen in cells lacking Siah2, attenuate fission and reduce apoptosis of cardiomyocytes under simulated ischemia. Infarct size and degree of cell death were reduced in Siah2(-/-) mice subjected to myocardial infarction. Inhibition of Siah2 or Drp1 in hatching C. elegans reduces their life span. Through modulating Fis1/Drp1 complex availability, our studies identify Siah2 as a key regulator of hypoxia-induced mitochondrial fission and its physiological significance in ischemic injury and nematode life span.
Project description:Impaired regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, which shifts the balance towards fission, is associated with neuronal death in age-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. A role for mitochondrial dynamics in acute brain injury, however, has not been elucidated to date. Here, we investigated the role of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), one of the key regulators of mitochondrial fission, in neuronal cell death induced by glutamate toxicity or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro, and after ischemic brain damage in vivo. Drp1 siRNA and small molecule inhibitors of Drp1 prevented mitochondrial fission, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and cell death induced by glutamate or tBid overexpression in immortalized hippocampal HT-22 neuronal cells. Further, Drp1 inhibitors protected primary neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity and OGD, and reduced the infarct volume in a mouse model of transient focal ischemia. Our data indicate that Drp1 translocation and associated mitochondrial fission are key features preceding the loss of MMP and neuronal cell death. Thus, inhibition of Drp1 is proposed as an efficient strategy of neuroprotection against glutamate toxicity and OGD in vitro and ischemic brain damage in vivo.
Project description:Mitochondrial shape is determined by fission and fusion reactions, perturbation of which can contribute to neuronal injury and disease. Mitochondrial fission is catalyzed by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a large GTPase of the dynamin family that is highly expressed in neurons and regulated by various posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation. We report here that reversible phosphorylation of Drp1 at a conserved Ser residue by an outer mitochondrial kinase (PKA/AKAP1) and phosphatase (PP2A/Bβ2) impacts dendrite and synapse development in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. PKA/AKAP1-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser656 increased mitochondrial length and dendrite occupancy, enhancing dendritic outgrowth but paradoxically decreasing synapse number and density. Opposing PKA/AKAP1, PP2A/Bβ2-mediated dephosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser656 fragmented and depolarized mitochondria and depleted them from dendrites, stunting dendritic outgrowth but augmenting synapse formation. Raising and lowering intracellular calcium reproduced the effects of dephospho-Drp1 and phospho-Drp1on dendrite and synapse development, respectively, while boosting mitochondrial membrane potential with l-carnitine-fostered dendrite at the expense of synapse formation without altering mitochondrial size or distribution. Thus, outer mitochondrial PKA and PP2A regulate neuronal development by inhibiting and promoting mitochondrial division, respectively. We propose that the bioenergetic state of mitochondria, rather than their localization or shape per se, is the key effector of Drp1, altering calcium homeostasis to modulate neuronal morphology and connectivity.
Project description:The purpose of our study was to determine the toxic effects of hippocampal mutant APP (mAPP) and amyloid beta (A?) in human mAPP complementary DNA (cDNA) transfected with primary mouse hippocampal neurons (HT22). Hippocampal tissues are the best source of studying learning and memory functions in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy controls. However, investigating immortalized hippocampal neurons that express AD proteins provide an excellent opportunity for drug testing. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting & immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, we assessed messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of synaptic, autophagy, mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, dendritic protein MAP2 and assessed mitochondrial number and length in mAPP-HT22 cells that express Swedish/Indiana mutations. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring the levels of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate. Increased levels of mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial fission genes, Drp1 and Fis1 and decreased levels fusion (Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1) biogenesis (PGC1?, NRF1, NRF2 & TFAM), autophagy (ATG5 & LC3BI, LC3BII), mitophagy (PINK1 & TERT, BCL2 & BNIPBL), synaptic (synaptophysin & PSD95) and dendritic (MAP2) genes were found in mAPP-HT22 cells relative to WT-HT22 cells. Cell survival was significantly reduced mAPP-HT22 cells. GTPase-Drp1 enzymatic activity was increased in mAPP-HT22 cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed significantly increased mitochondrial numbers and reduced mitochondrial length in mAPP-HT22 cells. These findings suggest that hippocampal accumulation of mAPP and A? is responsible for abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and defective biogenesis, reduced MAP2, autophagy, mitophagy and synaptic proteins & reduced dendritic spines and mitochondrial structural and functional changes in mAPP hippocampal cells. These observations strongly suggest that accumulation of mAPP and A? causes mitochondrial, synaptic and autophagy/mitophagy abnormalities in hippocampal neurons, leading to neuronal dysfunction.
Project description:Alterations in the strength and interface area of contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria contribute to calcium (Ca2+) dysregulation and neuronal cell death, and have been implicated in the pathology of several neurodegenerative diseases. Weakening this physical linkage may reduce Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria, while fortifying these organelle contact sites may promote mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and cell death. Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels regulate mitochondrial respiration, and their activation attenuates mitochondrial damage in paradigms of oxidative stress. In the present study, we enhanced ER-mitochondrial coupling and investigated the impact of SK channels on survival of neuronal HT22 cells in conditions of oxidative stress. Using genetically encoded linkers, we show that mitochondrial respiration and the vulnerability of neuronal cells to oxidative stress was inversely linked to the strength of ER-mitochondrial contact points and the increase in mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Pharmacological activation of SK channels provided protection against glutamate-induced cell death and also in conditions of increased ER-mitochondrial coupling. Together, this study revealed that SK channel activation provided persistent neuroprotection in the paradigm of glutamate-induced oxytosis even in conditions where an increase in ER-mitochondrial coupling potentiated mitochondrial Ca2+ influx and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics.
Project description:This data article describes the influence of <i>Cimicifuga racemosa</i> extract Ze 450 on neuronal cells in models of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and cell death induced by oxidative stress. Effects of Ze 450 on glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity were assessed in primary cortical rat and mouse neurons and, further, glutamate-mediated oxidative stress was analyzed in HT22 cells lacking ionotropic glutamate receptors. This study especially focusses on mitochondrial parameters like mitochondrial ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production and mitochondrial integrity. Further the effects of Ze 450 on lipid-peroxidation, metabolic activity, cell proliferation and cell death were assessed under control conditions and oxidative challenge evoked by millimolar concentrations of glutamate in HT22 cells. These data support the findings in HT22, mHypo and HepG2 liver cells (Rabenau et al., 2018) .
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is often characterized by the impairment of mitochondrial function caused by excessive mitochondrial fragmentation. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which is primarily secreted from astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), has been suggested to play a role in synaptogenesis, spine morphology, and synaptic density of neurons. In this study, we investigate the protective role of TSP-1 in the recovery of mitochondrial morphology and function in amyloid ? (A?)-treated mouse hippocampal neuroblastoma cells (HT22). We observe that TSP-1 inhibits A?-induced mitochondrial fission by maintaining phosphorylated-Drp1 (p-Drp1) levels, which results in reduced Drp1 translocation to the mitochondria. By using gabapentin, a drug that antagonizes the interaction between TSP-1 and its neuronal receptor ?2?1, we observe that ?2?1 acts as one of the target receptors for TSP-1, and blocks the reduction of the p-Drp1 to Drp1 ratio, in the presence of A?. Taken together, TSP-1 appears to contribute to maintaining the balance in mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial functions, which is crucial for neuronal cell viability. These data suggest that TSP-1 may be a potential therapeutic target for AD.
Project description:A-kinase anchor protein 121 (AKAP121) assembles a multivalent signalling complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane that controls persistence and amplitude of cAMP and src signalling to mitochondria, and plays an essential role in oxidative metabolism and cell survival. Here, we show that AKAP121 levels are regulated post-translationally by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Seven In-Absentia Homolog 2 (Siah2), an E3-ubiquitin ligase whose expression is induced in hypoxic conditions, formed a complex and degraded AKAP121. In addition, we show that overexpression of Siah2 or oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) promotes Siah2-mediated ubiquitination and proteolysis of AKAP121. Upregulation of Siah2, by modulation of the cellular levels of AKAP121, significantly affects mitochondrial activity assessed as mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative capacity. Also during cerebral ischaemia, AKAP121 is degraded in a Siah2-dependent manner. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of attenuation of cAMP/PKA signaling, which occurs at the distal sites of signal generation mediated by proteolysis of an AKAP scaffold protein. By regulating the stability of AKAP121-signalling complex at mitochondria, cells efficiently and rapidly adapt oxidative metabolism to fluctuations in oxygen availability.
Project description:Mitochondrial shape is determined by fission and fusion reactions catalyzed by large GTPases of the dynamin family, mutation of which can cause neurological dysfunction. While fission-inducing protein phosphatases have been identified, the identity of opposing kinase signaling complexes has remained elusive. We report here that in both neurons and non-neuronal cells, cAMP elevation and expression of an outer-mitochondrial membrane (OMM) targeted form of the protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit reshapes mitochondria into an interconnected network. Conversely, OMM-targeting of the PKA inhibitor PKI promotes mitochondrial fragmentation upstream of neuronal death. RNAi and overexpression approaches identify mitochondria-localized A kinase anchoring protein 1 (AKAP1) as a neuroprotective and mitochondria-stabilizing factor in vitro and in vivo. According to epistasis studies with phosphorylation site-mutant dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), inhibition of the mitochondrial fission enzyme through a conserved PKA site is the principal mechanism by which cAMP and PKA/AKAP1 promote both mitochondrial elongation and neuronal survival. Phenocopied by a mutation that slows GTP hydrolysis, Drp1 phosphorylation inhibits the disassembly step of its catalytic cycle, accumulating large, slowly recycling Drp1 oligomers at the OMM. Unopposed fusion then promotes formation of a mitochondrial reticulum, which protects neurons from diverse insults.
Project description:Cellular mechanisms involved in multiple neurodegenerative diseases converge on mitochondria to induce overproduction of reactive oxygen species, damage to mitochondria, and subsequent cytochrome c release. Little is currently known regarding the contribution mitochondrial dynamics play in cytochrome c release following oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease. Here we induced oxidative stress in the HT22 cell line with glutamate and investigated key mediators of mitochondrial dynamics to determine the role this process may play in oxidative stress induced neuronal death. We report that glutamate treatment in HT22 cells induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of the mitochondrial fusion protein Opa1 into the cytosol, with concomitant release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, following the glutamate treatment alterations in cell signaling coincide with mitochondrial fragmentation which culminates in significant cell death in HT22 cells. Finally, we report that treatment with the antioxidant tocopherol attenuates glutamate induced-ROS increase, release of mitochondrial Opa1 and cytochrome c, and prevents cell death.