Enantioselective [2+2] Cycloadditions of Cinnamate Esters: Generalizing Lewis Acid Catalysis of Triplet Energy Transfer.
ABSTRACT: We report the enantioselective [2+2] cycloaddition of simple cinnamate esters, the products of which are useful synthons for the controlled assembly of cyclobutane natural products. This method utilizes a cocatalytic system in which a chiral Lewis acid accelerates the transfer of triplet energy from an excited-state Ir(III) photocatalyst to the cinnamate ester. Computational evidence indicates that the principal role of the Lewis acid cocatalyst is to lower the absolute energies of the substrate frontier molecular orbitals, leading to greater electronic coupling between the sensitizer and substrate and increasing the rate of the energy transfer event. These results suggest Lewis acids can have multiple beneficial effects on triplet sensitization reactions, impacting both the thermodynamic driving force and kinetics of Dexter energy transfer.
Project description:Effective sensitization of triplet states is essential to many applications, including triplet-triplet annihilation based photon upconversion schemes. This work demonstrates successful triplet sensitization of a CdSe quantum dot (QD)-bound oligothiophene carboxylic acid (T6). Transient absorption spectroscopy provides direct evidence of Dexter-type triplet energy transfer from the QD to the acceptor without populating the singlet excited state or charge transfer intermediates. Analysis of T6 concentration dependent triplet formation kinetics shows that the intrinsic triplet energy transfer rate in 1 : 1 QD-T6 complexes is 0.077 ns-1 and the apparent transfer rate and efficiency can be improved by increasing the acceptor binding strength. This work demonstrates a new class of triplet acceptor molecules for QD-based upconversion systems that are more stable and tunable than the extensively studied polyacenes.
Project description:In this contribution we demonstrate a solid-state approach to triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion for application in a solar cell device in which absorption of near-infrared light is followed by direct electron injection into an inorganic substrate. We use time-resolved microwave photoconductivity experiments to study the injection of electrons into the electron-accepting substrate (TiO2) in a trilayer device consisting of a triplet sensitizer (fluorinated zinc phthalocyanine), triplet acceptor (methyl subsituted perylenediimide), and smooth polycrystalline TiO2. Absorption of light at 700 nm leads to the almost quantitative generation of triplet excited states by intersystem crossing. This is followed by Dexter energy transfer to the triplet acceptor layer where triplet annihilation occurs and concludes by injection of an electron into TiO2 from the upconverted singlet excited state.
Project description:Many fundamental questions remain in the elucidation of energy migration mechanisms across the interface between semiconductor nanomaterials and molecular chromophores. The present transient absorption study focuses on PbS quantum dots (QDs) of variable size and band-edge exciton energy (ranging from 1.15 to 1.54 eV) post-synthetically modified with a carboxylic acid-functionalized TIPS-pentacene derivative (TPn) serving as the molecular triplet acceptor. In all instances, selective excitation of the PbS NCs at 743 nm leads to QD size-dependent formation of an intermediate with time constants ranging from 2-13 ps, uncorrelated to the PbS QD valence band potential. However, the rate constant for the delayed formation of the TPn triplet excited state markedly increases with increasing PbS conduction band energy, featuring a parabolic Marcus free energy dependence in the normal region. These observations provide evidence of an indirect triplet sensitization process being inconsistent with a concerted Dexter-like energy transfer process. The collective data are consistent with the generation of an intermediate resulting from hole trapping of the initial PbS excited state by midgap states, followed by formation of the TPn triplet excited state whose rate constant and yield increases with decreasing quantum dot size.
Project description:Relatively few catalytic systems are able to control the stereochemistry of electronically excited organic intermediates. Here we report the discovery that a chiral Lewis acid complex can catalyze triplet energy transfer from an electronically excited photosensitizer. We applied this strategy to asymmetric [2 + 2] photocycloadditions of 2'-hydroxychalcones, using tris(bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) as a sensitizer. A variety of electrochemical, computational, and spectroscopic data rule out substrate activation by means of photoinduced electron transfer and instead support a mechanism in which Lewis acid coordination dramatically lowers the triplet energy of the chalcone substrate. We expect that this approach will enable chemists to more broadly apply their detailed understanding of chiral Lewis acid catalysis to stereocontrol in reactions involving electronically excited states.
Project description:Stereochemical control of electronically excited states is a long-standing challenge in photochemical synthesis, and few catalytic systems that produce high enantioselectivities in triplet-state photoreactions are known. We report herein an exceptionally effective chiral photocatalyst that recruits prochiral quinolones using a series of hydrogen-bonding and ?-? interactions. The organization of these substrates within the chiral environment of the transition-metal photosensitizer leads to efficient Dexter energy transfer and effective stereoinduction. The relative insensitivity of these organometallic chromophores toward ligand modification enables the optimization of this catalyst structure for high enantiomeric excess at catalyst loadings as much as 100-fold lower than the optimal conditions reported for analogous chiral organic photosensitizers.
Project description:Mechanochemistry offers exciting opportunities for molecular-level engineering of stress-responsive properties of polymers. Reactive sites, sometimes called mechanophores, have been reported to increase the material toughness, to make the material mechanochromic or optically healable. Here we show that macrocyclic cinnamate dimers combine these productive stress-responsive modes. The highly thermally stable dimers dissociate on the sub-second timescale when subject to a stretching force of 1-2?nN (depending on isomer). Stretching a polymer of the dimers above this force more than doubles its contour length and increases the strain energy that the chain absorbs before fragmenting by at least 600?kcal per mole of monomer. The dissociation produces a chromophore and dimers are reformed upon irradiation, thus allowing optical healing of mechanically degraded parts of the material. The mechanochemical kinetics, single-chain extensibility, toughness and potentially optical properties of the dissociation products are tunable by synthetic modifications.
Project description:Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism is a significant method that enables the harvesting of both triplet and singlet excitons for emission. However, up to now most efforts have been devoted to dealing with the relation between singlet-triplet splitting (?EST) and fluorescence efficiency, while the significance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is usually ignored. In this contribution, a new method is developed to realize high-efficiency TADF-based devices through simple device-structure optimizations. By inserting an ultrathin external heavy-atom (EHA) perturber layer in a desired manner, it provides useful means of accelerating the T1???S1 reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) in TADF molecules without affecting the corresponding S1???T1 process heavily. Furthermore, this strategy also promotes the utilization of host triplets through Förster mechanism during host???guest energy transfer (ET) processes, which helps to get rid of the solely dependence upon Dexter mechanism. Based on this strategy, we have successfully raised the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in 4CzPN-based devices by nearly 38% in comparison to control devices. These findings provide keen insights into the role of EHA played in TADF-based devices, offering valuable guidelines for utilizing certain TADF dyes which possess high radiative transition rate but relatively inefficient RISC.
Project description:Turbidity and opaqueness are inherent properties of tissues that limit the capacity to acquire microscopic images through large tissues. Creating a uniform refractive index, known as tissue clearing, overcomes most of these issues. These methods have enabled researchers to image large and complex 3D structures with unprecedented depth and resolution. However, tissue clearing has been adopted to a limited extent due to a combination of cost, time, complexity of existing methods and potential negative impact on fluorescence signal. Here, we describe 2Eci (2nd generation ethyl cinnamate-based clearing), which can be used to clear a wide range of tissues in several species, including human organoids, Drosophila melanogaster, zebrafish, axolotl and Xenopus laevis, in as little as 1-5?days, while preserving a broad range of fluorescent proteins, including GFP, mCherry, Brainbow and Alexa-conjugated fluorophores. Ethyl cinnamate is non-toxic and can easily be used in multi-user microscope facilities. This method opens up tissue clearing to a much broader group of researchers due to its ease of use, the non-toxic nature of ethyl cinnamate and broad applicability.
Project description:Synthetic biodegradable elastomers are an emerging class of materials that play a critical role in supporting innovations in bioabsorbable medical implants. This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of poly(glycerol-co-sebacate)-cinnamate (PGS-CinA), a biodegradable elastomer based on hyperbranched polyesters derivatized with pendant cinnamate groups. PGS-CinA can be prepared via photodimerization in the absence of photoinitiators using monomers that are found in common foods. The resulting network exhibits a Young's modulus of 50.5-152.1kPa and a projected in vitro degradation half-life time between 90 and 140days. PGS-CinA elastomers are intrinsically cell-adherent and support rapid proliferation of fibroblasts. Spreading and proliferation of fibroblasts are loosely governed by the substrate stiffness within the range of Young's moduli in PGS-CinA networks that were prepared. The thermo-mechanical properties, biodegradability and intrinsic support of cell attachment and proliferation suggest that PGS-CinA networks are broadly applicable for use in next generation bioabsorable materials including temporary medical devices and scaffolds for soft tissue engineering.
Project description:Two major volatiles produced by the mycelia and fruiting bodies of Tricholoma matsutake (1-octen-3-ol and methyl cinnamate) repel a mycophagous collembolan, Proisotoma minuta. Aggregation of the collembolans on their diet was significantly inhibited by exposure to 1 ppm methyl cinnamate or 10 to 100 ppm 1-octen-3-ol. The aggregation activity decreased dose-dependently upon exposure to 1-octen-3-ol at concentrations higher than 0.01 ppm. Aggregation in the presence of methyl cinnamate exhibited three phases: no significant effect at concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 ppm, significant inhibition from 1 to 100 ppm, and strong inhibition at 1,000 ppm. These results may explain why certain collembolan species do not prefer T. matsutake fruiting bodies.