ABSTRACT: KDM5 family members (A, B, C and D) that demethylate H3K4me3 have been shown to be involved in human cancers. Here we performed screening for KDM5A inhibitors from chemical libraries using the AlphaScreen method and identified a battery of screening hits that inhibited recombinant KDM5A. These compounds were further subjected to cell-based screening using a reporter gene that responded to KDM5A inhibition and 6 compounds were obtained as candidate inhibitors. When further confirmation of their inhibition activity on cellular KDM5A was made by immunostaining H3K4me3 in KDM5A-overexpressing cells, ryuvidine clearly repressed H3K4me3 demethylation. Ryuvidine prevented generation of gefitinib-tolerant human small-cell lung cancer PC9 cells and also inhibited the growth of the drug-tolerant cells at concentrations that did not affect the growth of parental PC9 cells. Ryuvidine inhibited not only KDM5A but also recombinant KDM5B and C; KDM5B was the most sensitive to the inhibitor. These results warrant that ryuvidine may serve as a lead compound for KDM5 targeted therapeutics.
Project description:Breast cancer is the one of the most frequent causes of female cancer mortality. KDM5A, a histone demethylase, can increase the proliferation, metastasis, and drug resistance of cancers, including breast cancer, and is thus an important therapeutic target. In the present work, we performed hierarchical virtual screening towards the KDM5A catalytic pocket from a chemical library containing 90,000 compounds. Using multiple biochemical methods, the cyclopenta[c]chromen derivative 1 was identified as the top candidate for KDM5A demethylase inhibitory activity. Compared with the well-known KDM5 inhibitor CPI-455 (18), 1 exhibited higher potency against KDM5A and much higher selectivity for KDM5A over both KDM4A and other KDM5 family members (KDM5B and KDM5C). Additionally, compound 1 repressed the proliferation of various KDM5A-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Mechanistically, 1 promoted accumulation of p16 and p27 by blocking KDM5A-mediated H3K4me3 demethylation, leading to cell cycle arrest and senescence. To date, compound 1 is the first cyclopenta[c]chromen-based KDM5A inhibitor reported, and may serve as a novel motif for developing more selective and efficacious pharmacological molecules targeting KDM5A. In addition, our research provides a possible anti-cancer mechanism of KDM5A inhibitors and highlights the feasibility and significance of KDM5A as a therapeutic target for KDM5A-overexpressing breast cancer.
Project description:KDM5A and KDM5B histone-demethylases are overexpressed in many cancers and have been involved in drug tolerance. Here, we describe that KDM5A, together with KDM5B, contribute to replication stress (RS) response and tolerance. First, they positively regulate RRM2, the regulatory subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. Second, they are required for optimal levels of activated Chk1, a major player of the intra-S phase checkpoint that protects cells from RS. We also found that KDM5A is enriched at ongoing replication forks and associates with both PCNA and Chk1. Because RRM2 is a major determinant of replication stress tolerance, we developed cells resistant to HU, and show that KDM5A/B proteins are required for both RRM2 overexpression and tolerance to HU. Altogether, our results indicate that KDM5A/B are major players of RS management. They also show that drugs targeting the enzymatic activity of KDM5 proteins may not affect all cancer-related consequences of KDM5A/B overexpression.
Project description:Pioneering human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based pre-clinical studies have raised safety concerns and pinpointed the need for safer and more efficient approaches to generate and maintain patient-specific iPSCs. One approach is searching for compounds that influence pluripotent stem cell reprogramming using functional screens of known drugs. Our high-throughput screening of drug-like hits showed that imidazopyridines-analogs of zolpidem, a sedative-hypnotic drug-are able to improve reprogramming efficiency and facilitate reprogramming of resistant human primary fibroblasts. The lead compound (O4I3) showed a remarkable OCT4 induction, which at least in part is due to the inhibition of H3K4 demethylase (KDM5, also known as JARID1). Experiments demonstrated that KDM5A, but not its homolog KDM5B, serves as a reprogramming barrier by interfering with the enrichment of H3K4Me3 at the OCT4 promoter. Thus our results introduce a new class of KDM5 chemical inhibitors and provide further insight into the pluripotency-related properties of KDM5 family members.
Project description:The KDM5/JARID1 family of Fe(II)- and ?-ketoglutarate-dependent demethylases remove methyl groups from tri- and dimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3. Accumulating evidence from primary tumors and model systems supports a role for KDM5A (JARID1A/RBP2) and KDM5B (JARID1B/PLU1) as oncogenic drivers. The KDM5 family is unique among the Jumonji domain-containing histone demethylases in that there is an atypical insertion of a DNA-binding ARID domain and a histone-binding PHD domain into the Jumonji domain, which separates the catalytic domain into two fragments (JmjN and JmjC). Here we demonstrate that internal deletion of the ARID and PHD1 domains has a negligible effect on in vitro enzymatic kinetics of the KDM5 family of enzymes. We present a crystal structure of the linked JmjN-JmjC domain from KDM5A, which reveals that the linked domain fully reconstitutes the cofactor (metal ion and ?-ketoglutarate) binding characteristics of other structurally characterized Jumonji domain demethylases. Docking studies with GSK-J1, a selective inhibitor of the KDM6/KDM5 subfamilies, identify critical residues for binding of the inhibitor to the reconstituted KDM5 Jumonji domain. Further, we found that GSK-J1 inhibited the demethylase activity of KDM5C with 8.5-fold increased potency compared with that of KDM5B at 1 mm ?-ketoglutarate. In contrast, JIB-04 (a pan-inhibitor of the Jumonji demethylase superfamily) had the opposite effect and was ~8-fold more potent against KDM5B than against KDM5C. Interestingly, the relative selectivity of JIB-04 toward KDM5B over KDM5C in vitro translates to a ~10-50-fold greater growth-inhibitory activity against breast cancer cell lines. These data define the minimal requirements for enzymatic activity of the KDM5 family to be the linked JmjN-JmjC domain coupled with the immediate C-terminal helical zinc-binding domain and provide structural characterization of the linked JmjN-JmjC domain for the KDM5 family, which should prove useful in the design of KDM5 demethylase inhibitors with improved potency and selectivity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Accumulating evidence supports that lysine-specific demethylase 5 (KDM5) family members act as oncogenic drivers. This study was performed to elucidate the potential effects of KDM5A on prostate cancer (PCa) progression via the miR-495/YTHDF2/m6A-MOB3B axis. METHODS:The expression of KDM5A, miR-495, YTHDF2 and MOB3B was validated in human PCa tissues and cell lines. Ectopic expression and knockdown experiments were developed in PCa cells to evaluate their effects on PCa cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Mechanistic insights into the interaction among KDM5A, miR-495, YTHDF2 and MOB3B were obtained after dual luciferase reporter, ChIP, and PAR-CLIP assays. Me-RIP assay was used to determine m6A modification level of MOB3B mRNA in PCa cells. Mouse xenograft models of PCa cells were also established to monitor the tumor growth. RESULTS:KDM5A was highly expressed in human PCa tissues and cell lines. Upregulated KDM5A stimulated PCa cell proliferation, migration and invasion, but reduced cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, KDM5A, as a H3K4me3 demethylase, bound to the miR-495 promoter, which led to inhibition of its transcription and expression. As a target of miR-495, YTHDF2 could inhibit MOB3B expression by recognizing m6A modification of MOB3B mRNA and inducing mRNA degradation. Furthermore, KDM5A was found to downregulate MOB3B expression, consequently augmenting PCa cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and promoting tumor growth in vivo via the miR-495/YTHDF2 axis. CONCLUSION:In summary, our study highlights the potential of histone demethylase KDM5A activity in enhancing PCa progression, and suggests KDM5A as a promising target for PCa treatment.
Project description:Methylation of lysine residues on histone tail is a dynamic epigenetic modification that plays a key role in chromatin structure and gene regulation. Members of the KDM5 (also known as JARID1) sub-family are 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) and Fe2+-dependent oxygenases acting as histone 3 lysine 4 trimethyl (H3K4me3) demethylases, regulating proliferation, stem cell self-renewal, and differentiation. Here we present the characterization of KDOAM-25, an inhibitor of KDM5 enzymes. KDOAM-25 shows biochemical half maximal inhibitory concentration values of <100 nM for KDM5A-D in vitro, high selectivity toward other 2-OG oxygenases sub-families, and no off-target activity on a panel of 55 receptors and enzymes. In human cell assay systems, KDOAM-25 has a half maximal effective concentration of ?50 ?M and good selectivity toward other demethylases. KDM5B is overexpressed in multiple myeloma and negatively correlated with the overall survival. Multiple myeloma MM1S cells treated with KDOAM-25 show increased global H3K4 methylation at transcriptional start sites and impaired proliferation.
Project description:The KDM5 family of histone demethylases removes the H3K4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) mark frequently found at promoter regions of actively transcribed genes and is therefore generally considered to contribute to corepression. In this study, we show that knockdown (KD) of all expressed members of the KDM5 family in white and brown preadipocytes leads to deregulated gene expression and blocks differentiation to mature adipocytes. KDM5 KD leads to a considerable increase in H3K4me3 at promoter regions; however, these changes in H3K4me3 have a limited effect on gene expression per se. By contrast, genome-wide analyses demonstrate that KDM5A is strongly enriched at KDM5-activated promoters, which generally have high levels of H3K4me3 and are associated with highly expressed genes. We show that KDM5-activated genes include a large set of cell cycle regulators and that the KDM5s are necessary for mitotic clonal expansion in 3T3-L1 cells, indicating that KDM5 KD may interfere with differentiation in part by impairing proliferation. Notably, the demethylase activity of KDM5A is required for activation of at least a subset of pro-proliferative cell cycle genes. In conclusion, the KDM5 family acts as dual modulators of gene expression in preadipocytes and is required for early stage differentiation and activation of pro-proliferative cell cycle genes.
Project description:Members of the KDM5 histone H3 lysine 4 demethylase family are associated with therapeutic resistance, including endocrine resistance in breast cancer, but the underlying mechanism is poorly defined. Here we show that genetic deletion of KDM5A/B or inhibition of KDM5 activity increases sensitivity to anti-estrogens by modulating estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and by decreasing cellular transcriptomic heterogeneity. Higher KDM5B expression levels are associated with higher transcriptomic heterogeneity and poor prognosis in ER<sup>+</sup> breast tumors. Single-cell RNA sequencing, cellular barcoding, and mathematical modeling demonstrate that endocrine resistance is due to selection for pre-existing genetically distinct cells, while KDM5 inhibitor resistance is acquired. Our findings highlight the importance of cellular phenotypic heterogeneity in therapeutic resistance and identify KDM5A/B as key regulators of this process.
Project description:Histone H3K4 methylation has been linked to transcriptional activation. KDM5A (also known as RBP2 or JARID1A), a member of the KDM5 protein family, is an H3K4 demethylase, previously implicated in the regulation of transcription and differentiation. Here, we show that KDM5A is physically and functionally associated with two histone deacetylase complexes. Immunoaffinity purification of KDM5A confirmed a previously described association with the SIN3B-containing histone deacetylase complex and revealed an association with the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. Sucrose density gradient and sequential immunoprecipitation analyses further confirmed the stable association of KDM5A with these two histone deacetylase complexes. KDM5A depletion led to changes in the expression of hundreds of genes, two-thirds of which were also controlled by CHD4, the NuRD catalytic subunit. Gene ontology analysis confirmed that the genes commonly regulated by both KDM5A and CHD4 were categorized as developmentally regulated genes. ChIP analyses suggested that CHD4 modulates H3K4 methylation levels at the promoter and coding regions of target genes. We further demonstrated that the Caenorhabditis elegans homologues of KDM5 and CHD4 function in the same pathway during vulva development. These results suggest that KDM5A and the NuRD complex cooperatively function to control developmentally regulated genes.
Project description:Lysine demethylase 5A (KDM5A/RBP2/JARID1A) is a histone lysine demethylase that is overexpressed in several human cancers including lung, gastric, breast and liver cancers. It plays key roles in important cancer processes including tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug tolerance, making it a potential cancer therapeutic target. Chemical tools to analyze KDM5A demethylase activity are extremely limited as available inhibitors are not specific for KDM5A. Here, we characterized KDM5A using a homogeneous luminescence-based assay and conducted a screen of about 9,000 small molecules for inhibitors. From this screen, we identified several 3-thio-1,2,4-triazole compounds that inhibited KDM5A with low ?M in vitro IC50 values. Importantly, these compounds showed great specificity and did not inhibit its close homologue KDM5B (PLU1/JARID1B) or the related H3K27 demethylases KDM6A (UTX) and KDM6B (JMJD3). One compound, named YUKA1, was able to increase H3K4me3 levels in human cells and selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells whose growth depends on KDM5A. As KDM5A was shown to mediate drug tolerance, we investigated the ability of YUKA1 to prevent drug tolerance in EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells treated with gefitinib and HER2+ breast cancer cells treated with trastuzumab. Remarkably, this compound hindered the emergence of drug-tolerant cells, highlighting the critical role of KDM5A demethylase activity in drug resistance. The small molecules presented here are excellent tool compounds for further study of KDM5A's demethylase activity and its contributions to cancer.