Professional socialisation of nursing students in a collectivist culture: a qualitative study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Beyond the formal curriculum of skill attainment, nursing students are able to undergo the professional socialisation process in clinical contexts and establish their identity as healthcare providers. However, the cultural context that affects the socialisation process in clinical placements is less discussed. We aimed to explore nursing students' learning and professional socialisation during clinical placements by considering the socio-cultural contexts in South Korea. METHODS:A grounded theory approach was used for this research. Four rounds of in-depth and intensive interviews were carried out, with the recruitment of 16 nursing students, four nurses and two university lecturers in South Korea (29 interviews in total). A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted to analyse the interview data. NVivo 11 was used to manage the interview data for analysis. RESULTS:The researchers identified the process of learning and professional socialisation under three core themes: 1) Struggling at the bottom of the hierarchy, 2) Acceptance and conformity, and 3) The need for 'nunchi' (in Korean, it means to study the atmosphere and discover the embedded intention of others' behaviour). The results offered insights into the challenges encountered by nursing students on clinical placements and how students attempt to adapt and conform to the difficulties encountered in clinical education to maximise their learning and for their professional socialisation. The significance of the hidden curriculum was discussed. CONCLUSIONS:While experiential learning is a great opportunity for students to build on their coping skills and professional socialisation, a lack of support can result in failure to manage the hidden curriculum and theoretical and practical skills. Nursing educators therefore need to orientate students to the professional culture prior to beginning clinical placements.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies have demonstrated the importance of role models in medical education. Medical students in Germany participate in clinical placements ("Famulatur") that last 4 months in total and represent the first real-world setting where students encounter possible role models in their clinical education. These placements are an extracurricular activity, however, and regarded as the "black box" of medical education. This study aimed to evaluate whether and how students experience role models during clinical placements, the qualities associated with potential role models and whether role model-related learning gains are relevant. METHODS:We recruited 96 students (mean age: 23.83 years; 75% female) in their 5th to 9th semesters at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Ulm, Germany, who were participating in a clinical placement between July and October 2015. Participants completed a questionnaire at the beginning of a 5-day working week to record sociodemographic and other information and another one at the end of the week to assess various aspects of their experiences. On each of the 5 days, they completed a structured questionnaire to record their perceived role models and self-assessed learning gains. RESULTS:Role models and role modelling play an important role in clinical placements. The positive function of medical staff as role models predominated (88.4%) across all specialties. Junior doctors were the most frequently perceived role models (28.5%), followed by consultants (25.1%) and nursing staff (22.4%). The most commonly perceived positive quality was the interaction with students (16.5%), followed by team behaviour (13.6%), interaction with patients (13.6%) and professional expertise (13.4%). Students also had various kinds of learning gains such as knowledge or skills. CONCLUSIONS:Although these clinical placements are extracurricular activities in Germany and their content is not regulated, they are home to a relevant amount of role modelling. Students experience the various medical professions in different roles and in a range of tasks and interactions. Defining basic learning objectives could help to increase the relevance of these placements for the medical curriculum in Germany and transfer the associated learning gains from the hidden to the open curriculum.
Project description:Background Medical ethics is a vital quality for the doctors which has been seriously taken into consideration in recent years. Identifying the factors affecting medical ethics may help to develop more effective ways to promote this quality in medical education. This study was aimed to explain the challenges of hidden curriculum in learning the professional ethics among Iranian medical students. Materials and Methods This qualitative study was performed on 15 medical interns of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2019 using grounded theory (GT). Sampling was started by purposive sampling and continued through theoretical sampling until complete data saturation. Data collection and analysis were done simultaneously. Data were interpreted by the constant comparative method according to Strauss and Corbin’s approach. Results The results showed that the challenges of hidden curriculum for learning the professional ethics by medical students included a number of key concepts. Analyzing these concepts and taking into account the commonalities, we obtained six subthemes using a reduction inductive method, the main theme of which was “the challenge of hidden curriculum in learning the professional medical ethics”. The subthemes included “decreased interest in medicine”, “false beliefs”, “curriculum weakness”, “materialism and economic problems”, “avoidance of responsibility”, and “underlying problems of the medical profession”. Conclusion The findings indicated six challenges in the hidden curriculum for learning the professional medical ethics. These challenges can be considered a threat or an obstacle to achieving the goals of professional ethics. Therefore, curriculum planners, education policymakers, and teachers should plan and implement the professional ethics curriculum based on these factors.
Project description:Background: Deficits in care and impaired patient-safety have been linked to inefficient interprofessional collaborative practice. Interprofessional training wards (IPTW) are an interprofessional educational intervention which aim to enable students and trainees from different health professions to work self-responsibly in order to manage the medical treatment and rehabilitation of real-life patients together as an interprofessional team. We aimed to develop and implement Germany´s first IPTW at the department of Surgery at Heidelberg University Hospital. Methods: The Kern cycle was used to develop an ITPW curriculum. Practical as well as theoretical considerations guided the design of the IPTW. Common project management tools including blueprinting and RASCI (Responsibility, Approval, Support, Consultation, Information) matrix were applied. Results: Since April 2017, 7 cohorts of students and trainees have had four-week long placements on HIPSTA. They run the IPTW in early and late shifts. Nursing and medical facilitators are supporting the IP team as needed. Learning objectives are operationalized as EPAs (entrustable professional activities) and interprofessional learning goals. Since initiation only minor modifications to the curriculum have been necessary and satisfaction of students/trainees, facilitators and patients is high. Conclusion: IPTWs can be established and run in the German health care system even in a complex clinical setting. The early involvement of all professions in a steering group seems to be key to success. Nursing and medical facilitators are of utmost importance for daily routine. The experiences outlined here could help others aiming to implement IPTWs at their sites. IPTWs might address a number of hitherto unaddressed educational needs. Trial registration: Not applicable.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:On entry into the clinical environment, nursing students are confronted with many challenges. It is a common problem throughout the world, including Iran. Although many studies have been conducted on the problems of nursing students in the clinical environment, limited information is available on nursing students' experiences of the clinical learning environment and the way they respond to these experiences. Identifying nursing students' experiences is essential to develop interventions to reduce challenges. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to explore nursing students' experiences in a clinical learning environment and the way they responded to these experiences. DESIGN:The present study was conducted based on the qualitative research design of the grounded theory methodology. SETTING:This study was conducted at schools of nursing in academic settings in Iran. PARTICIPANTS:The participants included 19 nursing students, 4 nursing instructors and 3 clinical nurses. METHODS:The data were collected using semistructured interviews, field notes and observation, and were analysed using Strauss and Corbin's approach. RESULTS:Students, as a result of the inadequacy of the educational environment, were faced with 'confusion of identity', stating this as their main concern. When confronted with this concern, they employed specific strategies, some of which prevented them from getting into unpleasant conditions. These strategies did not help students solve their problems and also prevented them from accepting their professional roles and responsibilities. Conversely, some other strategies led them to advanced professional development and enabled them to accept their role and the clinical environment. CONCLUSION:According to the results of this study, educational policymakers should focus on improving the clinical environment. Identifying professional models and increasing their influence on management, education and clinical education, as well as teaching positive and constructive strategies, will promote positive strategies in coping with inadequate educational contexts. This is necessary for the professional development of nursing students.
Project description:Project description: In Germany there is great interest in better preparing learners in the health care professions for interprofessional (IP) collaboration on IP training wards. On the MIA, Mannheim's interprofessional training ward, medical students, nursing apprentices and physiotherapy (PT) trainees learn and practise real patient care in a team under supervision. The concept of the MIA, its implementation and the first evaluation results are reported. During the 2017/18 academic year, 201 medical students, 72 nursing apprentices and 33 PT trainees completed their mandatory placements on the MIA, which they evaluated online at the end of the placement (questions on the organisation of the MIA placement, learning gains, supervision, participant satisfaction, personal insights). The data was analysed according to frequency for each health care profession separately using the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing the evaluation data between the three participant groups. Results: The response rate was 45% (104 medical students, 16 nursing apprentices, 19 PT trainees). 64% of the medical students considered the placement too short. For 70% of the nursing apprentices, the number of patients to be treated was too high. The supervision by the facilitators was adequate. There were often IP contacts. Professional and IP learning gains were rated high. IP learning took place mainly in personal conversations and on IP ward rounds. IP communication/collaboration was mentioned most often as an important insight gained from the placement. Discussion: The implementation of the MIA concept is considered successful. The learning objectives were achieved. The structured daily routine on the ward with its IP elements promotes IP collaboration and helps to minimise difficulties in the clinical placement, which - often for the first time - demands that the participants manage patient care in an accountable manner. Conclusion: Placements on IP training wards in the education of health care professionals can be a good preparation for practising optimal patient care in the future.
Project description:Background:Virtual patients are a recent addition to the educational arsenal to develop non-technical skills in undergraduate health professionals. The Virtual Simulated Patient Resource (www.vspr.net.au) is a web-based resource that uses branching, narrative virtual patients to develop knowledge, attitude and practice of all categories of non-technical skills in undergraduate health professionals. However, there is limited literature exploring how the interaction with a virtual patient influences the development of knowledge, attitude and practice of non-technical skills in undergraduate nursing students. Methods:An intrinsic case study method, using focus groups and individual interviews, enabled exploration of the experience of undergraduate nursing students when interacting with a virtual patient to develop non-technical skills. Purposive sampling identified participants to address the research question. Framework analysis supported by a codebook enabled deductive and inductive data analysis. Results:Forty-five first-year and 31 third-year students consented to participate. Findings indicated that the different years interacted differently with the virtual patients. Four themes were recognised in the data: how the virtual patients enabled learning non-technical skills, learning surrounding the virtual patient encounter, changing the way students perceive practice and potential limitations to learning. Conclusions:Interactions with virtual patients influence learning knowledge, attitudes and practice of non-technical skills in undergraduate nursing students via authenticity in the virtual patient interaction, socialisation to the professional role, vicarious learning and learning by making mistakes. Potential limitations to learning from virtual patient interactions include fear, overconfidence, groupthink and confusion. To manage limitations to learning, facilitation approaches, opportunities for reflection, constructive feedback and debriefing may be key. This study demonstrates learning non-technical skills via interactions with virtual patients can change the way students perceive practice, with learning transferable to the clinical setting to support safe and competent patient care.
Project description:A student's mindset influences their achievement and response to challenge, with a 'fixed mindset' encouraging disengagement from challenging tasks and avoidance of learning and feedback opportunities. These behaviours resemble those reported for professional and non-clinical curriculum areas, which are important for employability and resilience in veterinary practice. Students with a 'growth mindset' to learning are more persistent when faced with challenges and actively seek more demanding tasks. They also demonstrate higher levels of psychological well-being. The objectives of this study were to explore whether variation in veterinary students' mindset to learning exists across different curriculum areas, and to identify whether students' backgrounds influence their learning mindset. The mindsets of veterinary students at a UK veterinary school were measured using an adapted version of the Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale. The survey was constructed to compare mindset in clinical reasoning, professional reasoning (incorporating ethics and critical thinking), communication skills and reflection. More students demonstrated a growth mindset to communication skills (59%), reflection (84%) and clinical reasoning (83%) than to professional reasoning (34%). There were more students with a fixed mindset to professional reasoning (10%) than in other areas (0-5%). Students' background (international or non-traditional university access) did not appear to influence mindset to learning. Disengagement from professional studies curricula may be a consequence of students lacking a growth mindset in professional reasoning. Curriculum interventions that encourage engagement and the development of a growth mindset to learning non-clinical competences may be beneficial.
Project description:Aim:To explore levels of stigma in students of all fields of nursing and midwifery at different years and examine the impact of exposure to people with mental illness. Design:A cross-sectional survey was used. Methods:The Community Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire was administered to all branches of student nurses (adult health, mental health, child health and learning disability) and midwives in all three years in one Higher Education Institution (HEI) in Scotland. Results:Mental health nursing students scored significantly better on all stigma subscales. Stigma worsened with a little professional exposure to people with mental illness but then improved with increasing exposure. Both personal exposure and professional exposure to people with mental illness change perceptions. The professional results follow a J-curve. Current plans for cross-field experience involving short or virtual placements during student nurse training are likely to worsen stigma rather than improve it.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Clinical placements are an integral part of midwifery education and are crucial for achieving professional competencies. Although students' experiences on placements have been shown to play a meaningful role in their learning, they have received scant attention in the literature. The aim of this paper is to describe the learning experiences of final-year student midwives in labor wards within the Brussels metropolitan region, Belgium.<h4>Methods</h4>A qualitative exploratory study was conducted using two focus groups (N=20). Data analysis included: transcription of audio recordings, thematic content analysis with coding into recurrent and common themes, and broader categories. Discussions among researchers were incorporated in all phases of the analysis for integrity and data fit.<h4>Results</h4>Data analysis identified the following categories as determining student learning experiences in labor wards: 1) managing opportunities, 2) being supported, and 3) dealing with the environment. Overall, respondents were positive and enthusiastic about their learning experiences, although some felt tense and unprepared. Students expressed concerns about differences in learning opportunities between placements and found it challenging to achieve all competencies. Student learning experiences were enhanced when they had placements for longer periods with the same supportive mentors.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Factors related to students' functioning, the healthcare professional, midwifery education and hospital environment affected their learning in labor wards. The combination of a more persevered preparation of students and mentors, together with a student-centered organization of placements, is crucial to create a positive learning experience for midwifery students in labor wards.
Project description:CONTEXT:Medical students are expected to self-regulate their learning within complex and unpredictable clinical learning environments. Research increasingly focuses on the effects of social interactions on the development of self-regulation in workplace settings, a notion embodied within the concept of co-regulated learning (CRL). Creating workplace learning environments that effectively foster lifelong self-regulated learning (SRL) requires a deeper understanding of the relationship between CRL and SRL. The aim of this study was therefore to explore medical students' perceptions of CRL in clinical clerkships and its perceived impact on the development of their SRL. METHODS:We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 purposively sampled medical students enrolled in clinical clerkships at one undergraduate competency-based medical school. Data collection and analysis were conducted iteratively, informed by principles of constructivist grounded theory. Data analysis followed stages of open, axial and selective coding, which enabled us to conceptualise how co-regulation influences the development of students' self-regulation. RESULTS:Data revealed three interrelated shifts in CRL and SRL as students progressed through clerkships. First, students' CRL shifted from a focus on peers to co-regulation with clinician role models. Second, self-regulated behaviour shifted from being externally driven to being internally driven. Last, self-regulation shifted from a task-oriented approach towards a more comprehensive approach focusing on professional competence and identity formation. Students indicated that if they felt able to confidently and proactively self-regulate their learning, the threshold for engaging others in meaningful CRL seemed to be lowered, enhancing further development of SRL skills. CONCLUSIONS:Findings from the current study emphasise the notion that SRL and its development are grounded in CRL in clinical settings. To optimally support the development of students' SRL, we need to focus on facilitating and organising learners' engagement in CRL from the start of the medical curriculum.