Peripheral IgE Repertoires of Healthy Donors Carry Moderate Mutation Loads and Do Not Overlap With Other Isotypes.
ABSTRACT: IgE-mediated allergic disease represents an increasing health problem. Although numerous studies have investigated IgE sequences in allergic patients, little information is available on the healthy IgE repertoire. IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgE transcripts from peripheral blood B cells of five healthy, non-atopic individuals were amplified by unbiased, template-switching, isotype-specific PCR. Complete VDJ regions were sequenced to near-exhaustion on the PacBio platform. Sequences were analyzed for clonal relationships, degree of somatic hypermutation, IGHV gene usage, evidence of antigenic selection, and N-linked glycosylation motifs. IgE repertoires appeared to be highly oligoclonal with preferential usage of certain IGHV genes compared to the other isotypes. IgE sequences carried more somatic mutations than IgM, yet fewer than IgG and IgA. Many IgE sequences contained N-linked glycosylation motifs. IgE sequences had no clonal relationship with the other isotypes. The IgE repertoire in healthy individuals is derived from relatively few clonal expansions without apparent relations to immune reactions that give rise to IgG or IgA. The mutational burden of normal IgE suggests an origin through direct class-switching from the IgM repertoire with little evidence of antigenic drive, and hence presumably low affinity for specific antigens. These findings are compatible with a primary function of the healthy IgE repertoire to occupy Fc? receptors for competitive protection against mast cell degranulation induced by allergen-specific, high-affinity IgE. This background knowledge may help to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms in allergic disease and to design improved desensitization strategies.
Project description:B cells expressing IgE contribute to immunity against parasites and venoms and are the source of antigen specificity in allergic patients, yet the developmental pathways producing these B cells in human subjects remain a subject of debate. Much of our knowledge of IgE lineage development derives from model studies in mice rather than from human subjects.We evaluate models for isotype switching to IgE in human subjects using immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) mutational lineage data.We analyzed IGH repertoires in 9 allergic and 24 healthy adults using high-throughput DNA sequencing of 15,843,270 IGH rearrangements to identify clonal lineages of B cells containing members expressing IgE. Somatic mutations in IGH inherited from common ancestors within the clonal lineage are used to infer the relationships between B cells.Data from 613,641 multi-isotype B-cell clonal lineages, of which 592 include an IgE member, are consistent with indirect switching to IgE from IgG- or IgA-expressing lineage members in human subjects. We also find that these inferred isotype switching frequencies are similar in healthy and allergic subjects.We found evidence that secondary isotype switching of mutated IgG1-expressing B cells is the primary source of IgE in human subjects, with lesser contributions from precursors expressing other switched isotypes and rarely IgM or IgD, suggesting that IgE is derived from previously antigen-experienced B cells rather than naive B cells that typically express low-affinity unmutated antibodies. These data provide a basis from which to evaluate allergen-specific human antibody repertoires in healthy and diseased subjects.
Project description:From paired blood and spleen samples from three adult donors, we performed high-throughput VH sequencing of human B cell subsets defined by IgD and CD27 expression: IgD(+)CD27(+) ("marginal zone [MZ]"), IgD(-)CD27(+) ("memory," including IgM ["IgM-only"], IgG and IgA) and IgD(-)CD27(-) cells ("double-negative," including IgM, IgG, and IgA). A total of 91,294 unique sequences clustered in 42,670 clones, revealing major clonal expansions in each of these subsets. Among these clones, we further analyzed those shared sequences from different subsets or tissues for VH gene mutation, H-CDR3-length, and VH/JH usage, comparing these different characteristics with all sequences from their subset of origin for which these parameters constitute a distinct signature. The IgM-only repertoire profile differed notably from that of MZ B cells by a higher mutation frequency and lower VH4 and higher JH6 gene usage. Strikingly, IgM sequences from clones shared between the MZ and the memory IgG/IgA compartments showed a mutation and repertoire profile of IgM-only and not of MZ B cells. Similarly, all IgM clonal relationships (among MZ, IgM-only, and double-negative compartments) involved sequences with the characteristics of IgM-only B cells. Finally, clonal relationships between tissues suggested distinct recirculation characteristics between MZ and switched B cells. The "IgM-only" subset (including cells with its repertoire signature but higher IgD or lower CD27 expression levels) thus appear as the only subset showing precursor-product relationships with CD27(+) switched memory B cells, indicating that they represent germinal center-derived IgM memory B cells and that IgM memory and MZ B cells constitute two distinct entities.
Project description:In recent years several groups have shown that isotype switching from IgM to IgG to IgA can affect the affinity and specificity of antibodies sharing identical variable (V) regions. However, whether the same applies to IgE is unknown. In this study we compared the fine specificity of V region-identical IgE and IgA to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide and found that these differed in specificity from each other. The IgE and IgA paratopes were probed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with (15)N-labeled peptide mimetics of cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen (Ag). IgE was found to cleave the peptide at a much faster rate than V region-identical IgG subclasses and IgA, consistent with an altered paratope. Both IgE and IgA were opsonic for C. neoformans and protected against infection in mice. In summary, V-region expression in the context of the ? constant (C) region results in specificity changes that are greater than observed for comparable IgG subclasses. These results raise the possibility that expression of certain V regions in the context of ? and ? C regions affects their function and contributes to the special properties of those isotypes.
Project description:Receptors interacting with the constant domain of immunoglobulins (Igs) have a number of important functions in vertebrates. They facilitate phagocytosis by opsonization, are key components in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity as well as activating cells to release granules. In mammals, four major types of classical Fc receptors (FcRs) for IgG have been identified, one high-affinity receptor for IgE, one for both IgM and IgA, one for IgM and one for IgA. All of these receptors are related in structure and all of them, except the IgA receptor, are found in primates on chromosome 1, indicating that they originate from a common ancestor by successive gene duplications. The number of Ig isotypes has increased gradually during vertebrate evolution and this increase has likely been accompanied by a similar increase in isotype-specific receptors. To test this hypothesis we have performed a detailed bioinformatics analysis of a panel of vertebrate genomes. The first components to appear are the poly-Ig receptors (PIGRs), receptors similar to the classic FcRs in mammals, so called FcRL receptors, and the FcR ? chain. These molecules are not found in cartilagous fish and may first appear within bony fishes, indicating a major step in Fc receptor evolution at the appearance of bony fish. In contrast, the receptor for IgA is only found in placental mammals, indicating a relatively late appearance. The IgM and IgA/M receptors are first observed in the monotremes, exemplified by the platypus, indicating an appearance during early mammalian evolution. Clearly identifiable classical receptors for IgG and IgE are found only in marsupials and placental mammals, but closely related receptors are found in the platypus, indicating a second major step in Fc receptor evolution during early mammalian evolution, involving the appearance of classical IgG and IgE receptors from FcRL molecules and IgM and IgA/M receptors from PIGR.
Project description:Objectives:We aimed to evaluate the value of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, and IgA isotypes of anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) and anti-C1q antibody in diagnosing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and elucidate their association with disease activity and lupus nephritis. Methods:Blood samples were obtained from 96 SLE patients, 62 other autoimmune disease patients, and 60 healthy blood donors. Anti-dsDNA IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes and anti-C1q antibody were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Disease activity of SLE patients was assessed according to the SLE Disease Activity Index score. Results:When specificity was greater than 90%, the sensitivity of anti-dsDNA IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes and anti-C1q antibody in diagnosing SLE was 75%, 45%, 33%, and 49%, respectively. The prevalence of anti-dsDNA IgG (p = 0.002), anti-dsDNA IgA (p = 0.028), and anti-C1q antibody (p = 0.000) in active cases was significantly higher than those in inactive ones. In addition, the presence of anti-C1q antibody was associated with renal involvement (p = 0.032). Anti-dsDNA IgM showed no significant association with disease activity, but it was inversely linked with lupus nephritis (p = 0.005). When anti-dsDNA IgG and IgA and anti-C1q were combined to evaluate SLE disease activity, the specificity reached the highest level (90%). When anti-C1q positive was accompanied by anti-dsDNA IgM negative, the specificity of diagnosing lupus nephritis was up to 96%. Conclusions:This study demonstrated the role of anti-dsDNA IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes and anti-C1q antibody alone or combination in diagnosing SLE. Anti-dsDNA IgG and IgA and anti-C1q were shown to be associated with disease activity, while anti-dsDNA IgM and anti-C1q were associated with lupus nephritis. When the related antibodies were combined, the diagnostic specificity was significantly higher.
Project description:Allergen recognition by IgE antibodies is a key event in allergic inflammation. In this study, the IgE IGHV repertoires of individuals with allergy to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, were analyzed over a four years period of allergen exposure by RT-PCR and sequencing of cDNA. Approximately half of the IgE transcripts represented non-redundant sequences, which belonged to seventeen different IGHV genes. Most variable regions contained somatic mutations but also non-mutated sequences were identified. There was no evidence for relevant increases of somatic mutations over time of allergen exposure. Highly similar IgE variable regions were found after four years of allergen exposure in the same and in genetically non-related individuals. Our results indicate that allergens select and shape a limited number of similar IgE variable regions in the human IgE repertoire.
Project description:Antigenic exposures at epithelial sites in infancy and early childhood are thought to influence the maturation of humoral immunity and modulate the risk of developing immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic disease. How different kinds of environmental exposures influence B cell isotype switching to IgE, IgG, or IgA, and the somatic mutation maturation of these antibody pools, is not fully understood. We sequenced antibody repertoires in longitudinal blood samples in a birth cohort from infancy through the first 3 years of life and found that, whereas IgG and IgA show linear increases in mutational maturation with age, IgM and IgD mutations are more closely tied to pathogen exposure. IgE mutation frequencies are primarily increased in children with impaired skin barrier conditions such as eczema, suggesting that IgE affinity maturation could provide a mechanistic link between epithelial barrier failure and allergy development.
Project description:Anti-glycan antibodies are an abundant subpopulation of serum antibodies with critical functions in many immune processes. Changes in the levels of these antibodies can occur with the onset of disease, exposure to pathogens, or vaccination. As a result, there has been significant interest in exploiting anti-glycan antibodies as biomarkers for many diseases. Serum contains a mixture of anti-glycan antibodies that can recognize the same antigen, and competition for binding can potentially influence the detection of antibody subpopulations that are more relevant to disease processes. The most abundant antibody isotypes in serum are IgG, IgM, and IgA, but little is known regarding how these different isotypes compete for the same glycan antigen. In this study, we developed a multiplexed glycan microarray assay and applied it to evaluate how different isotypes of anti-glycan antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgM) compete for printed glycan antigens. While IgG and IgA antibodies typically outcompete IgM for peptide or protein antigens, we found that IgM outcompete IgG and IgA for many glycan antigens. To illustrate the importance of this effect, we provide evidence that IgM competition can account for the unexpected observation that IgG of certain antigen specificities appear to be preferentially transported from mothers to fetuses. We demonstrate that IgM in maternal sera compete with IgG resulting in lower than expected IgG signals. Since cord blood contains very low levels of IgM, competition only affects maternal IgG signals, making it appear as though certain IgG antibodies are higher in cord blood than matched maternal blood. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of competition for studies involving anti-glycan antibodies.
Project description:Understanding how class switch recombination (CSR) is regulated to produce immunoglobulin E (IgE) has become fundamental because of the dramatic increase in the prevalence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. CSR requires the induction of the enzyme AICDA in B cells. Mutations in AICDA have been linked to Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2), which shows absence of switching to IgE as well as to IgG and IgA. Although isolated IgE deficiency is a rare entity, here we show some individuals with normal serum IgM, IgG, and IgA levels that had undetectable total serum IgE levels. We have analyzed the AICDA gene in these individuals to determine if there are mutations in AICDA that could lead to selective IgE deficiency. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) and sequencing analysis of AICDA coding sequences demonstrated sequence heterogeneity due to 5923A/G and 7888C/T polymorphisms, but did not reveal any novel mutation that might explain the selective IgE deficit.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid factors (RFs) and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCPs) of IgG, IgA and IgM isotype have been shown to precede disease onset by years. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serological risk markers in first-degree relatives from multicase families in relation to genetic and environmental risk factors. METHODS: 51 multicase families consisting of 163 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (mean±SD age, 60±14 years; disease duration 21 years; 71.8% female) and with 157 first-degree relatives unaffected by RA (54±17 years; 59.9% female) were recruited. Isotypes of antibodies against CCPs (IgG, IgA and IgM) and RFs (IgM and IgA) were determined using automated enzyme immunoassays. Cut-off levels were established using receiver operating characteristic curves based on values for 100 unrelated healthy controls. RESULTS: The concentrations and frequencies of all anti-CCP and RF isotypes were significantly increased in first-degree relatives and patients with RA compared with unrelated healthy controls. The relative distribution of IgA and IgM isotypes was higher than IgG in the relatives, whereas the IgG isotype dominated in patients with RA. The patients carried human leucocyte antigen-shared epitope (HLA-SE) significantly more often than the relatives (71.4% vs 53.9%, p=0.01), while the frequency of the PTPN22 T variant was similar. HLA-SE, combined with smoking, was significantly related to all combinations of anti-CCP and RF isotypes in patients with RA. No such relationships were found for the first-degree relatives. CONCLUSIONS: All anti-CCP and RF isotypes analysed occurred more commonly in unaffected first-degree relatives from multicase families than in controls, but with different isotype distribution from patients with RA.