Pharmacokinetics and Safety of CSL112 (Apolipoprotein A-I [Human]) in Adults With Moderate Renal Impairment and Normal Renal Function.
ABSTRACT: CSL112 (Apolipoprotein A-I [human]) is an intravenous preparation of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), formulated with phosphatidylcholine (PC) and stabilized with sucrose, in development to prevent early recurrent cardiovascular events following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This phase 1 study was designed to determine if moderate renal impairment (RI) influenced the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of CSL112. Thirty-two subjects, 16 with moderate RI (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ? 30 and < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) and 16 age-, sex-, and weight-matched subjects with normal renal function (eGFR ? 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) were randomized 3:1 to receive a single infusion of CSL112 2 g (n = 6) or placebo (n = 2), or CSL112 6 g (n = 6) or placebo (n = 2). PK sampling was at prespecified times from 48 hours prior to 144 hours following infusions, with final safety assessments at 90 days. Renal and hepatic safety, and adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study. Plasma apoA-I and PC PK profiles were similar between renal function cohorts at both doses. For CSL112 6 g mean ± SD apoA-I AUC0 - last was 7670 ± 1900 and 9170 ± 2910 mg·h/dL in normal renal function and moderate RI subjects, respectively. Renal apoA-I clearance was <1% of CSL112 dose. In moderate RI, sucrose clearance was slower; however, approximately 70% was excreted within 48 hours in both renal function cohorts. No CSL112-related serious AEs or clinically significant renal or hepatic safety changes were observed. Dose adjustment of CSL112 is not required in subjects with moderate RI, supporting its further investigation in AMI patients with moderate RI.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>To characterize relationships between apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) exposure and cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) and covariate effects following CSL112 (apoA-I [human]) administration in an integrated population including acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients.<h4>Methods</h4>A pharmacometric analysis utilized data from seven clinical trials, including patients with AMI, subjects with renal impairment and healthy subjects. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was performed to relate CSL112 doses to changes in apoA-I plasma concentrations. Covariate analysis was conducted to identify sources of variability in apoA-I exposure. Exposure-response modeling was conducted to describe the relationship between apoA-I exposure and total or ATP binding cassette transporter A1-(ABCA1)-dependent CEC and to identify clinical predictors of CEC.<h4>Results</h4>A two-compartment model described apoA-I PK. ApoA-I clearance was slightly lower in subjects with AMI, whereas baseline apoA-I was marginally higher in female and Japanese subjects. Covariate effects on apoA-I exposure were in the order of 10% and thus not clinically relevant. The relationships between apoA-I exposure and CECs were described by nonlinear models. Simulations showed CEC elevation resulting from apoA-I exposure increment was comparable in AMI and non-AMI subjects; no covariate had clinically meaningful effects on CEC. Simulations also demonstrated that CEC in patients with AMI post 6 g CSL112 dosing was substantially elevated compared to placebo and lower dose levels.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The model-based exposure-response analysis demonstrated, irrespective of body weight, sex and race, that fixed 6 g CSL112 dosing causes a desired CEC elevation, which may benefit AMI patients by potentially reducing early recurrent cardiovascular event risk.
Project description:CSL112 (apolipoprotein A-I [human]) is a novel intravenous formulation of plasma-derived apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) that enhances cholesterol efflux capacity. Renal impairment is a common comorbidity in acute myocardial infarction patients and is associated with impaired lipid metabolism. The aim of this phase 1 study was to assess the impact of moderate renal impairment on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of CSL112. Sixteen subjects with moderate renal impairment and 16 age-, sex-, and weight-matched subjects with normal renal function participated in the study. Within each renal function cohort, subjects were randomized 3:1 to receive a single intravenous infusion of CSL112 2 g (n = 6) or placebo (n = 2) or CSL112 6 g (n = 6) or placebo (n = 2). At baseline, subjects with moderate renal impairment versus normal renal function had higher total cholesterol efflux, ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux capacity, and pre-?1-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Infusing CSL112 resulted in similar, immediate, robust, dose-dependent elevations in apoA-I and cholesterol efflux capacity in both renal function cohorts and significantly greater elevations in pre-?1-HDL (P < .05) in moderate renal impairment. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity, demonstrated by a time-dependent change in the ratio of unesterified to esterified cholesterol, did not differ by renal function. No meaningful changes in proatherogenic lipid levels were observed. Moderate renal impairment did not impact the ability of CSL112 to enhance cholesterol efflux capacity. CSL112 may represent a novel therapy to reduce the risk of early recurrent cardiovascular events following acute myocardial infarction in patients with or without moderate renal impairment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human or recombinant apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been shown to increase high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity and to regress atherosclerotic disease in animal and clinical studies. CSL112 is an infusible, plasma-derived apoA-I that has been studied in normal subjects or those with stable coronary artery disease. This study aimed to characterize the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of CSL112 in patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction. METHODS:The AEGIS-I trial (Apo-I Event Reducing in Ischemic Syndromes I) was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging phase 2b trial. Patients with myocardial infarction were stratified by renal function and randomized 1:1:1 to CSL112 (2 g apoA-I per dose) and high-dose CSL112 (6 g apoA-I per dose), or placebo for 4 consecutive weekly infusions. Coprimary safety end points were occurrence of either a hepatic safety event (an increase in alanine transaminase >3 times the upper limit of normal or an increase in total bilirubin >2 times the upper limit of normal) or a renal safety event (an increase in serum creatinine >1.5 times the baseline value or a new requirement for renal replacement therapy). RESULTS:A total of 1258 patients were randomized, and 91.2% received all 4 infusions. The difference in incidence rates for an increase in alanine transaminase or total bilirubin between both CSL112 arms and placebo was within the protocol-defined noninferiority margin of 4%. Similarly, the difference in incidence rates for an increase in serum creatinine or a new requirement for renal replacement therapy was within the protocol-defined noninferiority margin of 5%. CSL112 was associated with increases in apoA-I and ex vivo cholesterol efflux similar to that achieved in patients with stable coronary artery disease. In regard to the secondary efficacy end point, the risk for the composite of major adverse cardiovascular events among the groups was similar. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with acute myocardial infarction, 4 weekly infusions of CSL112 are feasible, well tolerated, and not associated with any significant alterations in liver or kidney function or other safety concern. The ability of CSL112 to acutely enhance cholesterol efflux was confirmed. The potential benefit of CSL112 to reduce major adverse cardiovascular events needs to be assessed in an adequately powered phase 3 trial. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02108262.
Project description:CSL112 is a new formulation of human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) being developed to reduce cardiovascular events following acute coronary syndrome. This phase 2a, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, dose-ranging trial represents the first clinical investigation to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of a CSL112 infusion among patients with stable atherosclerotic disease.Patients were randomized to single ascending doses of CSL112 (1.7, 3.4, or 6.8 g) or placebo, administered over a 2-hour period. Primary safety assessments consisted of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase elevations >3× upper limits of normal and study drug-related adverse events. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic assessments included apoA-I plasma concentration and measures of the ability of serum to promote cholesterol efflux from cells ex vivo. Of 45 patients randomized, 7, 12, and 14 received 1.7-, 3.4-, and 6.8-g CSL112, respectively, and 11 received placebo. There were no clinically significant elevations (>3× upper limit of normal) in alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase. Adverse events were nonserious and mild and occurred in 5 (71%), 5 (41%), and 6 (43%) patients in the CSL112 1.7-, 3.4-, and 6.8-g groups, respectively, compared with 3 (27%) placebo patients. The imbalance in adverse events was attributable to vessel puncture/infusion-site bruising. CSL112 resulted in rapid (T(max)?2 hours) and dose-dependent increases in apoA-I (145% increase in the 6.8-g group) and total cholesterol efflux (up to 3.1-fold higher than placebo) (P<0.001).CSL112 infusion was well tolerated in patients with stable atherosclerotic disease. CSL112 immediately raised apoA-I levels and caused a rapid and marked increase in the capacity of serum to efflux cholesterol. This potential novel approach for the treatment of atherosclerosis warrants further investigation.URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01499420.
Project description:Sulbactam-durlobactam is being developed for the treatment of infections caused by <i>Acinetobacter baumannii</i>, including those caused by multidrug- and carbapenem-resistant isolates. This was a phase 1 study to evaluate the effects of various degrees of renal impairment, including subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD), on the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of durlobactam (also known as ETX2514) and sulbactam after single intravenous (i.v.) dose administration. For healthy subjects and those with mild or moderate renal impairment (RI), single 1,000-mg doses each of durlobactam and sulbactam via a 3-h i.v. infusion were administered, and for severe renal impairment, 500-mg doses were administered. For subjects with ESRD and HD, 500-mg i.v. doses each of durlobactam and sulbactam were administered post-HD and pre-HD, with a 1-week washout between doses. Among 34 subjects, decreasing renal function increased systemic exposure (peak plasma concentration [<i>C</i> <sub>max</sub>] and area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]) to durlobactam and sulbactam in a generally linear manner. In healthy subjects and in those with mild or moderate renal impairment, the majority of durlobactam and sulbactam was excreted in the urine, while approximately 40% or less was excreted in urine in subjects with severe renal impairment or ESRD. In subjects with ESRD, hemodialysis was effective at removing both durlobactam and sulbactam from plasma. Renal impairment had no effect of the safety/tolerability profile of durlobactam and sulbactam. In summary, RI and ESRD had a predictable effect on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of durlobactam and sulbactam with no adverse effects on the safety/tolerability profile. Durlobactam and sulbactam are cleared to a similar extent by renal elimination and are impacted similarly by renal impairment. The results from this study have been used with population PK modeling and nonclinically derived PK/PD (pharmacodynamic) exposure targets to establish dosage recommendations for durlobactam and sulbactam in patients with various degrees of RI. The dosing regimen of durlobactam-sulbactam will require adjustment in patients with severe renal insufficiency and in those with ESRD.
Project description:The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of ELX-02 in a renally impaired population and apply these findings to the individualized dosing of patients with nephropathic cystinosis. This phase 1 renal impairment (RI; mild, moderate, or severe), single-dose, PK, and safety evaluation included 6 participants assigned to each RI group. Six healthy controls with normal renal function were matched to participants with renal impairment. All received a single subcutaneous dose of 1-mg/kg ELX-02 on day 1 and were monitored for 72 hours after dosing with serial blood and urine samples. An estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-PK model of ELX-02 was developed from the RI study data and used to implement individualized dosing in a phase 2a study in patients with nephropathic cystinosis to achieve a weekly targeted exposure (area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]). In participants with RI, ELX-02 clearance decreased, and exposure increased with severity of RI. ELX-02 plasma exposure was similar to healthy controls in participants with mild RI, but increasing severity of RI resulted in significantly decreased clearance, increased maximum plasma concentration, AUC from time zero to infinity, and half-life compared to controls. ELX-02 urinary clearance showed a similar pattern. Relationships between eGFR and exposure were defined supporting individualized dose determination for prediction of dose and AUC in patients with nephropathic cystinosis, achieving overall mean 110.7% of AUC targets. ELX-02 was well tolerated by RI and nephropathic cystinosis populations. ELX-02 exhibits a consistent PK profile across increasing degrees of RI with reduced clearance, increased exposure, and prolonged renal elimination proportional to reductions in eGFR. The defined relationship between eGFR and plasma exposure enabled individualized dose adjustment in patients with nephropathic cystinosis.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended telavancin dosing is based on total body weight (TBW) but lacks adjusted regimens for obese subjects with varying renal function. Our aim was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of telavancin to design optimized dosing regimens for obese patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and varying renal function.<h4>Methods</h4>The PBPK model was verified using clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data of telavancin in healthy populations with varying renal function and obese populations with normal renal function. Then, the PBPK model was applied to predict the PK in obese HAP patients with renal impairment (RI).<h4>Results</h4>The fold error values of PK parameters (AUC, C<sub>max</sub>, T<sub>max</sub>) were all within 1.5. The telavancin AUC<sub>0-inf</sub> was predicted to increase 1.07-fold in mild RI, 1.23-fold in moderate RI, 1.41-fold in severe RI, and 1.57-fold in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), compared with that in obese HAP with normal renal function. The PBPK model combined with Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) suggested that dose adjustment based on a 750-mg-fixed dose could achieve effectiveness with reduced risk of toxicity, compared with current TBW-based dosing recommendations.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The PBPK simulation proposed that using TBW-based regimen in obesity with RI should be avoided. Dose recommendations in obesity from the PBPK model are 750 mg daily for normal renal function and mild RI, 610 mg daily for moderate RI, 530 mg daily for severe RI, and 480 mg daily for ESRD.
Project description:CSL112, human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) reconstituted with phosphatidylcholine, is known to cause a dramatic rise in small high-density lipoprotein (HDL).To explore the mechanisms by which the formation of small HDL particles is induced by CSL112.Infusion of CSL112 into humans caused elevation of 2 small diameter HDL fractions and 1 large diameter fraction. Ex vivo studies showed that this remodeling does not depend on lipid transfer proteins or lipases. Rather, interaction of CSL112 with purified HDL spontaneously gave rise to 3 HDL species: a large, spherical species composed of apoA-I from native HDL and CSL112; a small, disc-shaped species composed of apoA-I from CSL112, but smaller because of the loss of phospholipids; and the smallest species, lipid-poor apoA-I composed of apoA-I from HDL and CSL112. Time-course studies suggest that remodeling occurs by an initial fusion of CSL112 with HDL and subsequent fission leading to the smaller forms. Functional studies showed that ATP-binding cassette transporter 1-dependent cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory effects in whole blood were carried by the 2 small species with little activity in the large species. In contrast, the ability to inactivate lipid hydroperoxides in oxidized low-density lipoprotein was carried predominantly by the 2 largest species and was low in lipid-poor apoA-I.We have described a mechanism for the formation of small, highly functional HDL species involving spontaneous fusion of discoidal HDL with spherical HDL and subsequent fission. Similar remodeling is likely to occur during the life cycle of apoA-I in vivo.
Project description:Renal disease is a frequent comorbidity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and an important factor complicating the choice of glucose-lowering drugs. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor linagliptin (5?mg/day) in mono, dual or triple oral glucose-lowering regimens in subjects with T2DM and mild or moderate renal impairment (RI).In this pooled analysis of three 24-week, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials, subjects with mild (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 60-<90?ml/min/1.73?m(2) , n?=?838) or moderate RI (30-<60?ml/min/1.73?m(2), n?=?93) were compared with subjects with normal renal function (?90?ml/min/1.73?m(2), n?=?1212).Subjects with RI were older, had longer duration of diabetes, and increased prevalence of diabetes-related comorbidities. After 24?weeks, linagliptin achieved consistent placebo-corrected mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) changes across the three renal function categories: normal (-0.63%; p?<?0.0001), mild RI (-0.67%; p?<?0.0001) and moderate RI (-0.53%; p?<?0.01), with no inter-group difference (p?=?0.74). Renal function with linagliptin remained stable across all categories. In linagliptin-treated subjects, overall adverse event (AE) rates and serious AE rates were similar to placebo. The incidence of hypoglycaemia with linagliptin and placebo was 11.1 versus 6.9%, 11.9 versus 9.0% and 15.9 versus 12.0% in the normal, mild RI and moderate RI categories, respectively.This pooled analysis provides evidence that linagliptin is an effective, well-tolerated and convenient treatment in subjects with T2DM and mild or moderate RI.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:CSL112 (apolipoprotein A-I [apoA-I; human]) is a novel formulation of apoA-I in development for reduction of early recurrent cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is a marker of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function that is strongly correlated with incident cardiovascular disease. Impaired CEC has been observed in patients with coronary heart disease. Here, we determined whether infused apoA-I improves CEC when administered to patients with stable atherosclerotic disease versus healthy volunteers. APPROACH AND RESULTS:Measurements of apoA-I, HDL unesterified cholesterol, HDL esterified cholesterol, pre-?1-HDL, and CEC were determined in samples from patients with stable atherosclerotic disease before and after intravenous administration of CSL112. These measures were compared with 2 prior studies in healthy volunteers for differences in CEC at baseline and after CSL112 infusion. Patients with stable atherosclerotic disease exhibited significantly lower ATP-binding cassette transporter 1-mediated CEC at baseline (P<0.0001) despite slightly higher apoA-I levels when compared with healthy individuals (2 phase 1 studies pooled; P?0.05), suggesting impaired HDL function. However, no differences were observed in apoA-I pharmacokinetics or in pre-?1-HDL (P=0.5) or CEC (P=0.1) after infusion of CSL112. Similar elevation in CEC was observed in patients with low or high baseline HDL function (based on tertiles of apoA-I-normalized CEC; P=0.1242). These observations were extended and confirmed using cholesterol esterification as an additional measure. CONCLUSIONS:CSL112 shows comparable, strong, and immediate effects on CEC despite underlying cardiovascular disease. CSL112 is, therefore, a promising novel therapy for lowering the burden of atherosclerosis and reducing the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events.