Characterization of Serotonin Signaling Components in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
ABSTRACT: Background:Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)1 catalyzes the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-hydroxytrptamine; 5-HT) in enterochromaffin (EC) cells, the predominant source of gut 5-HT. Secreted 5-HT regulates various gut functions through diverse 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) families, and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) sequesters its activity via uptake into surrounding cells. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mucosal 5-HT signaling is altered, including upregulated EC cell numbers and 5-HT levels. We examined key mucosal 5-HT signaling components and blood 5-HT levels and, as part of a pilot study, investigated the association between 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and Crohn's disease (CD). Methods:In the context of inflammation, colonic expressions of TPH1, 5-HTT and 5-HTRs were studied in CD patients (n=15) and healthy controls (HC; n=10) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We also investigated 5HTTLPR in 40 CD patients and HC utilizing PCR and measured platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and plasma 5-HT concentrations. Results:Compared with HC, inflammation in CD patients was associated with elevated TPH1, 5-HTR3, 5-HTR4, 5-HTR7 and downregulated 5-HTT expressions. In our second cohort of participants, significantly higher PPP and plasma 5-HT levels and higher S-genotype (L/S+S/S) than L/L genotype were observed in CD patients compared with HC. Conclusion:Our results suggest that augmented mucosal 5-HT signaling and specific 5-HTTLPR genotype-associated decreased efficiency in 5-HT reuptake, the latter through increased 5-HT availability, may contribute to inflammation in CD patients. These findings revealed important information on various components of 5-HT signaling in intestinal inflammation which may ultimately lead to effective strategies targeting this pathway in IBD.
Project description:The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays a vital regulatory role in both the brain and gut. 5-HT is crucial for regulating mood in the brain as well as gastrointestinal motility and secretion peripherally. Alterations in 5-HT transmission have been linked to pathological symptoms in both intestinal and psychiatric disorders and selective 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) inhibitors, affecting the 5-HT system by blocking the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) have been successfully used to treat CNS- and intestinal disorders. Humans that carry the short allele of the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are more vulnerable to adverse environmental stressors, in particular early life stress. Although, early life stress has been shown to alter the composition of the gut microbiota, it is not known whether a lower 5-HTT expression is also associated with an altered microbiome composition. To investigate this, male and female wild type (5-HTT+/+), heterozygous (5-HTT+/-), and knockout (5-HTT-/-) 5-HT transporter rats were maternally separated for 6 h a day from postnatal day 2 till 15. On postnatal day 21, fecal samples were collected and the impact of 5-HTT genotype and maternal separation (MS) on the microbiome was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. MS showed a shift in the ratio between the two main bacterial phyla characterized by a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Firmicutes. Interestingly, the 5-HTT genotype caused a greater microbal dysbiosis (microbial imbalance) compared with MS. A significant difference in microbiota composition was found segregating 5-HTT-/- apart from 5-HTT+/- and 5-HTT+/+ rats. Moreover, exposure of rats with 5-HTT diminished expression to MS swayed the balance of their microbiota away from homeostasis to 'inflammatory' type microbiota characterized by higher abundance of members of the gut microbiome including Desulfovibrio, Mucispirillum, and Fusobacterium, all of which are previously reported to be associated with a state of intestinal inflammation, including inflammation associated with MS and brain disorders like multiple depressive disorders. Overall, our data show for the first time that altered expression of 5-HTT induces disruptions in male and female rat gut microbes and these 5-HTT genotype-related disruptions are augmented when combined with early life stress.
Project description:Alterations in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) signaling have been implicated as a factor contributing to the altered bowel habit of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in enterochromaffin cell 5-HT biosynthesis. We hypothesized that genetic variants affecting TPH1 gene expression might alter intestinal 5-HT bioavailability and subsequently the propensity for distinct bowel habit subtypes in IBS. In this study, we assessed the only common TPH1 proximal promoter variant (-347C/A; rs7130929) and its association with bowel habit predominance in IBS.Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed to assess whether the -347C/A-allele variant affects the DNA binding of nuclear factors. Genotype distribution was determined for 422 IBS patients subtyped using the Rome III criteria and for 495 healthy controls recruited from two university medical centers. Association with bowel habit was tested using a multinomial logistic regression model controlling for race, anxiety, depression, and study site.Early growth response factor 1 (EGR-1) bound with higher affinity to a site comprising the minor A-allele of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -347C/A. TPH1 genotype frequencies did not differ between IBS patients and controls overall. The CC genotype was more prevalent in the IBS-D subtype (47%) than in the IBS-C (25%) and IBS-M (37%) subtypes (P=0.039) after adjusting for race and other covariates. Colonic biopsies from a small cohort of IBS patients from one center were tested for higher TPH1 mRNA expression in samples with CC compared with the CA genotype, but the results did not reach statistical significance.The TPH1 promoter SNP -347C/A differentially binds EGR-1 and correlates with IBS bowel habit subtypes and possibly colonic TPH1 expression consistent with its role in modulating intestinal 5-HT signaling.
Project description:Gut microbiota alterations have been described in several diseases with altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility, and awareness is increasing regarding the role of the gut microbiome in modulating GI function. Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a key regulator of GI motility and secretion. To determine the relationship among gut microbes, colonic contractility, and host serotonergic gene expression, we evaluated mice that were germ-free (GF) or humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota). 5-HT reduced contractile duration in both GF and HM colons. Microbiota from HM and conventionally raised (CR) mice significantly increased colonic mRNAs Tph1 [(tryptophan hydroxylase) 1, rate limiting for mucosal 5-HT synthesis; P < 0.01] and chromogranin A (neuroendocrine secretion; P < 0.01), with no effect on monoamine oxidase A (serotonin catabolism), serotonin receptor 5-HT4, or mouse serotonin transporter. HM and CR mice also had increased colonic Tph1 protein (P < 0.05) and 5-HT concentrations (GF, 17 ± 3 ng/mg; HM, 25 ± 2 ng/mg; and CR, 35 ± 3 ng/mg; P < 0.05). Enterochromaffin (EC) cell numbers (cells producing 5-HT) were unchanged. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) promoted TPH1 transcription in BON cells (human EC cell model). Thus, gut microbiota acting through SCFAs are important determinants of enteric 5-HT production and homeostasis.
Project description:Recent studies on tissue-autonomous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) function have identified new roles for 5-HT in peripheral organs. Most of these studies were performed by crossing mice carrying the Tph1tm1Kry allele with tissue specific Cre mice. In the present study, we found that 5-HT production was not completely abolished in Tph1tm1Kry KO mice. The residual 5-HT production in Tph1tm1Kry KO mice is attributed to the expression of a truncated form of TPH1 containing the catalytic domain. Hence, in an effort to obtain mice with a Tph1 null phenotype, we generated mice harboring a new Tph1 floxed allele, Tph1tm1c, targeting exons 5 and 6 which encode the catalytic domain of TPH1. By crossing the new Tph1 floxed mice with villin-Cre or insulin-Cre mice, we observed near-complete ablation of 5-HT production in the intestine and ? cells. In conclusion, this improved Tph1 floxed mouse model will serve as useful and accurate tool for analyzing peripheral 5-HT system.
Project description:The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is thought to alter 5-HT signaling and contribute to behavioral and cognitive phenotypes in depression as well as Alzheimer disease (AD). We explored how well the short (S) and long (L) alleles of the 5-HTTLPR align with serotoninergic indices in 60 autopsied cortical samples from early-onset AD/EOAD and late-onset AD/LOAD donors, and age- and sex-matched controls. Stratifying data by either diagnosis-by-genotype or by sex-by-genotype revealed that the donor's 5-HTTLPR genotype, i.e., L/L, S/L, or S/S, did not affect 5-HTT mRNA or protein expression. However, the glycosylation of 5-HTT was significantly higher in control female (vs. male) samples and tended to decrease in female EOAD/LOAD samples, but remained unaltered in male LOAD samples. Glycosylated forms of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) were lower in both male and female AD samples, while a sex-by-genotype stratification revealed a loss of VMAT2 glycosylation specifically in females with an L/L genotype. VMAT2 and 5-HTT glycosylation were correlated in male samples and inversely correlated in female samples in both stratification models. The S/S genotype aligned with lower levels of 5-HT turnover in females (but not males) and with an increased glycosylation of the post-synaptic 5-HT2C receptor. Interestingly, the changes in presynaptic glycosylation were evident primarily in female carriers of the APOE ε4 risk factor for AD. Our data do not support an association between 5-HTTLPR genotype and 5-HTT expression, but they do reveal a non-canonical association of 5-HTTLPR genotype with sex-dependent glycosylation changes in pre- and post-synaptic markers of serotoninergic neurons. These patterns of change suggest adaptive responses in 5-HT signaling and could certainly be contributing to the female prevalence in risk for either depression or AD.
Project description:Prior work has highlighted the role of genetic variation within the repetitive sequence in the transcriptional control region of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter gene (5-HTT, SLC6A4) in modulating amygdala and prefrontal activation to negative emotional stimuli. However, these studies have not explicitly tested the assumption that the control condition (neutral baseline) does not itself produce changes in activation as a function of 5-HTT genotype. Using a fixation baseline condition, we show that variation in 5-HTT genotype is associated with differential activation to negative, positive, and neutral stimuli in limbic, striatal, and cortical regions. We replicate earlier reports of increased amygdala activation to negative, relative to neutral, stimuli, but then show that these differences are driven by decreased activation to neutral stimuli, rather than increased activation to negative stimuli, in carriers of the 5-HTT short allele. Using high-resolution structural images and automated processes to test for brain volume and gray matter density, we further report significant differences, as a function of 5-HTT genotype, in frontal cortical regions, anterior cingulate, and cerebellum. These functional and structural differences suggest a much broader role for 5-HT transport efficiency in brain processes than previously thought. 5-HTT genotype affects neural systems controlling affective, cognitive, and motor processes.
Project description:Understanding the interplay between genetic susceptibility, the microbiome, the environment and the immune system in Crohn's Disease (CD) is essential for developing optimal therapeutic strategies. We sought to examine the dynamics of the relationship between inflammation, the ileal microbiome, and host genetics in murine models of ileitis.We induced ileal inflammation of graded severity in C57BL6 mice by gavage with Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia muris, low dose indomethacin (LDI; 0.1 mg/mouse), or high dose indomethacin (HDI; 1 mg/mouse). The composition and spatial distribution of the mucosal microbiome was evaluated by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mucosal E. coli were enumerated by quantitative PCR, and characterized by phylogroup, genotype and pathotype.Moderate to severe ileitis induced by T. gondii (day 8) and HDI caused a consistent shift from >95% gram + Firmicutes to >95% gram - Proteobacteria. This was accompanied by reduced microbial diversity and mucosal invasion by adherent and invasive E. coli, mirroring the dysbiosis of ileal CD. In contrast, dysbiosis and bacterial invasion did not develop in mice with mild ileitis induced by Giardia muris. Superimposition of genetic susceptibility and T. Gondii infection revealed greatest dysbiosis and bacterial invasion in the CD-susceptible genotype, NOD2(-/-), and reduced dysbiosis in ileitis-resistant CCR2(-/-) mice. Abrogating inflammation with the CD therapeutic anti-TNF-?-mAb tempered dysbiosis and bacterial invasion.Acute ileitis induces dysbiosis and proliferation of mucosally invasive E. coli, irrespective of trigger and genotype. The identification of CCR2 as a target for therapeutic intervention, and discovery that host genotype and therapeutic blockade of inflammation impact the threshold and extent of ileal dysbiosis are of high relevance to developing effective therapies for CD.
Project description:Earlier studies have shown that genetic variability in the SLC6A4 gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) may be important for the re-uptake of serotonin (5-HT) in the central nervous system. In the present study we investigated how the 5-HTT genotype i.e. the short (S) versus long (L) 5-HTTLPR allele and the SNP rs25531 A > G affect the physical and psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). All 120 patients were recruited from The Department of Paediatrics at Oslo University Hospital, Norway, a national referral center for young CFS patients (12-18 years). Main outcomes were number of steps per day obtained by an accelerometer and disability scored by the Functional Disability Inventory (FDI). Patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype had a significantly lower number of steps per day than patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. Patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype also had a significantly higher FDI score than patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. Thus, CFS patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype had worse 30 weeks outcome than CFS patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. The present study suggests that the 5-HTT genotype may be a factor that contributes to maintenance of CFS.
Project description:Serotonin (5-HT) has long been recognized as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, where it modulates a variety of behavioral functions. Availability of 5-HT depends on the expression of the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), and the recent discovery of a dual system for 5-HT synthesis in the brain (TPH2) and periphery (TPH1) has renewed interest in studying the potential functions played by 5-HT in nonnervous tissues. Moreover, characterization of the TPH1 knockout mouse model (TPH1(-/-)) led to the identification of unsuspected roles for peripheral 5-HT, revealing the importance of this monoamine in regulating key physiological functions outside the brain. Here, we present in vivo data showing that mice deficient in peripheral 5-HT display morphological and cellular features of ineffective erythropoiesis. The central event occurs in the bone marrow where the absence of 5-HT hampers progression of erythroid precursors expressing 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors toward terminal differentiation. In addition, red blood cells from 5-HT-deficient mice are more sensitive to macrophage phagocytosis and have a shortened in vivo half-life. The combination of these two defects causes TPH1(-/-) animals to develop a phenotype of macrocytic anemia. Direct evidence for a 5-HT effect on erythroid precursors is provided by supplementation of the culture medium with 5-HT that increases the proliferative capacity of both 5-HT-deficient and normal cells. Our thorough analysis of TPH1(-/-) mice provides a unique model of morphological and functional aberrations of erythropoiesis and identifies 5-HT as a key factor for red blood cell production and survival.