From cars to bikes - The effect of an intervention providing access to different bike types: A randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:We aimed to investigate whether providing parents with children in kindergarten with access to different bicycle types could influence (i) travel behavior and cycling amount, and (ii) intrinsic motivation for cycling and psychological constructs related to car use. METHODS:A randomized, controlled trial was conducted in Southern Norway from September 2017 to June 2018. In total 36 parents were recruited and randomly drawn into an intervention (n = 18) or control group (n = 18). The intervention group was in random order equipped with an e-bike with trailer (n = 6), a cargo (longtail) bike (n = 6) and a traditional bike with trailer (n = 6). RESULTS:At follow-up, more participants from the intervention group (vs. the control group) were classified as cyclists to the workplace (n = 7 (38.9%) vs. n = 1 (5.9%), p = 0.04), but not to the kindergarten (n = 6 (33.3%) vs. n = 2 (11.8%), p = 0.23) or to the grocery store (n = 2 (11.1%) vs. n = 0 (0%), p = 0.49). A significant (p = ?0.05) increase in cycling frequency (0.1 to 2.0 days/week) from baseline to follow-up was found in the intervention group for all destinations and seasons, except to the grocery store during winter (p = 0.16). A decrease in frequency of car driving (-0.2 to -1.7 days/week) was found to be apparent in terms of travelling to the workplace and the kindergarten for all seasons, yet not to the grocery store for any season (p = 0.15-0.49). The intervention group (vs. the control group) reported significantly higher "intrinsic regulation" for cycling (p = 0.01) at follow-up. CONCLUSION:Access to different bike types for parents with children attending kindergarten resulted in overall increased cycling, decreased car use and higher intrinsic motivation for cycling. E-bikes obtained the greatest cycling amount in total, with the smallest sample variability. Hence, providing parents with children in kindergarten with access to e-bikes might result in increased and sustained cycling, also during the winter season.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Cycling for transport could integrate physical activity (PA) into daily routines and potentially increase total PA levels. However, for parents with young children, most factors affecting transport mode choice tend to facilitate car use. Greater insight is necessary into reasons for (not) using sustainable transport modes in parents with young children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the experiences, including motives, perceptions, attitudes, and norms, of parents of young children by using an e-bike, a longtail bike, and a traditional bike for everyday travel to the workplace, kindergarten, and the grocery store during the autumn, winter, and spring, in nine months. METHODS:Semistructured focus group interviews were conducted with 18 parents of young children residing in southern Norway. Parents were recruited through Facebook announcements and direct contact with kindergartens, selected organisations, and companies in the Kristiansand municipality. Data were analysed by systematic text condensation by using NVivo V.11. RESULTS:Participants' experiences were summarised by three main themes: 'cycling is cumbersome', 'cycling reflects the desirable me', and 'breaking the cycling code'. Time use, planning, logistics, wet and cold weather, long distances, and no cycling habit were frequently mentioned barriers, and the most notable facilitator was the children's attitude towards cycling. In general, children loved to cycle and preferred cycling to driving. Additionally, the freedom and independence of cycling were emphasised and valued. CONCLUSION:In challenging weather conditions, parents of young children may experience cycling as cumbersome but desirable, and bike access could increase the feasibility of daily cycling.
Project description:Introduction:Electrically assisted bicycles (e-bikes) have become increasingly popular in the past decade. This review aimed to scope the literature to identify what is known about the frequency and duration of e-bike use, their impact on travel behaviour, the purposes for which e-bikes are used and factors associated with e-bike use. In addition, the review aimed to identify gaps in the literature and highlight future research priorities. Methods:A scoping review of published and unpublished literature in any language. Relevant articles were identified through searching six databases, two grey literature platforms and reference lists. Searches were conducted until August 2019. Data were extracted using a standardised extraction form and descriptive and narrative results are provided. Results:Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria. The volume of research has increased since 2017 and primarily examines personal e-bike use, as opposed to e-bike share/rental schemes or organizational e-bike initiatives. The use of e-bikes increased the frequency and duration of cycling compared to conventional cycling and may help overcome barriers associated with conventional cycling. The uptake in e-cycling largely substitutes for conventional cycling or private car journeys, though the degree of substitution depends on the primary transport mode prior to e-bike acquisition. E-bikes are primarily used for utilitarian reasons, though older adults also engage in recreational e-cycling. Research priorities include quantitatively examining e-bike use, their impact on overall transport behaviour and identifying determinants of e-cycling to inform intervention and policy. Conclusions:This review suggests that the personal use of e-bikes is associated with a reduction in motorized vehicle use, which has potential positive impacts on the environment and health. The impacts of e-bike share schemes and workplace initiatives are less well understood. Evidence describing the purposes for which e-bikes are used, and the factors associated with usage, are useful to inform e-cycling promotion policy.
Project description:The present study aims to increase bicycling and level of physical activity (PA), and thereby promote health in parents of toddlers, by giving access to different bicycle types. There is a need for greater understanding of e-bikes and their role in the transportation network, and further effects on PA levels and health. Moreover, longtail bikes could meet certain practical needs not fulfilled by e-bikes or traditional bikes, hence increased knowledge regarding their feasibility should be obtained. No previous studies have investigated whether providing an e-bike or a longtail bike over an extended period in a sample of parents of toddlers influence objectively assessed amount of bicycling and total PA level, transportation habits, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and blood pressure.A randomized cross-over trial will be performed, entailing that participants in the intervention group (n?=?18) complete the following intervention arms in random order: (i) three months access to an e-bicycle with trailer for child transportation (n?=?6), (ii) three months access to a longtail bicycle (n?=?6), and (iii) three months access to a regular bicycle with trailer (n?=?6), in total nine months. Also, a control group (n?=?18) maintaining usual transportation and PA habits will be included. A convenience sample consisting of 36 parents of toddlers residing in Kristiansand municipality, Southern Norway, will be recruited. Total amount of bicycling (distance and time), total level of PA, and transportation habits will be measured at baseline and in connection to each intervention arm. Cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and blood pressure will be measured at baseline and post-intervention. Main outcome will be bicycling distance and time spent cycling.New knowledge relevant for the timely issues of public health and environmental sustainability will be provided among parents of toddlers, representing a target group of greatest importance. There is a call for research on the influence of e-bikes and longtail bikes on travel behavior and PA levels, and whether voluntary cycling could improve health. If the present study reveals promising results, it should be replicated in larger and more representative samples. Eventually, inclusion in national public health policies should be considered.ID NCT03131518 , made public 26.04.2017.
Project description:It has been demonstrated that, on their own, both exercise and stimulation from the environment can improve cognitive function and well-being in older adults. The combined effect of exercising in the outdoor environment on psychological function is less well studied. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of an outdoor cycling intervention on cognitive function and mental health and well-being in older adults. A total of 100 older adults took part in the study (aged 50-83), 26 of which were non-cycling controls, 36 were conventional pedal cyclists and 38 were participants using an e-bike (a bike fitted with an electric motor to provide assistance with pedaling), as part of a larger project (www.cycleboom.org). Participants took part in the study for an eight-week period, with cycling participants required to cycle at least three times a week for thirty minutes in duration for each cycle ride. Cognitive function and well-being were measured before and after the intervention period. For executive function, namely inhibition (the Stroop task) and updating (Letter Updating Task), both cycling groups improved in accuracy after the intervention compared to non-cycling control participants. E-bike participants also improved in processing speed (reaction times in go trials of the Stop-It task) after the intervention compared to non-cycling control participants. Finally, e-bike participants improved in their mental health score after the intervention compared to non-cycling controls as measured by the SF-36. This suggests that there may be an impact of exercising in the environment on executive function and mental health. Importantly, we showed a similar (sometimes larger) effect for the e-bike group compared to the pedal cyclists. This suggests that it is not just the physical activity component of cycling that is having an influence. Both pedal cycles and e-bikes can enable increased physical activity and engagement with the outdoor environment with e-bikes potentially providing greater benefits.
Project description:Cycling is considered to have a positive effect on public health through increased physical activity. In Norway, the e-bike is seen as a way of getting more people to cycle. However, the motorized assistance of an e-bike potentially eliminates any physical activity associated with its use. It is possible that the assumed health effect of increased cycling is "erased" through a reduction in other physical activities (a substitution effect). In this paper we study the public health effects of e-bikes using a combined cross-sectional and quasi-experimental design. First, we explore the existence of potentially hedonistic values in relation to interest in acquiring an e-bike and, second, we conduct an intervention study of physical activity pre- and post-purchase.A sample of 340 people responded to a questionnaire before buying an e-bike and follow-up 4 weeks later, when 45 had bought one. A further 28 (mainly physically inactive) were recruited through a Norwegian NGO. For a comparison group, 1995 people were recruited through the Falck National Register of Bicycle Owners. All respondents were asked about the intensity of their cycling, (kilometres cycled in the previous week), walking and physical activity in addition to cycling as means of transport (days and hours).A structural equation model showed that hedonistic life values, and general physical activity, were predictive of interest in buying an e-bike. However people who already cycled a lot showed less interest. The trial showed that increased cycling - whether as a mean of transport or exercise -was related to higher levels of total physical activity in both groups compared to a comparison group (one-way ANOVA).Our findings indicate that in the Norwegian cycle population there is no substantial substitution effect of physical activity with the introduction of an e-bike. The appeal of the e-bike is strongest among those with little existing interest in, or levels of, physical activity. The net effect of the e-bike therefore seems positive from a public health perspective.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The global incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing. Given the many complications associated with T2DM, effective management of the disease is crucial. Physical activity is considered to be a key component of T2DM management. However, people with T2DM are generally less physically active than individuals without T2DM and adherence to physical activity is often poor following completion of lifestyle interventions. As such, developing interventions that foster sustainable physical activity is of high priority. Electrically assisted bicycles (e-bikes) have been highlighted as a potential strategy for promoting physical activity in this population. E-bikes provide electrical assistance to the rider only when pedalling and could overcome commonly reported barriers to regular cycling. This paper describes the protocol of the <i>PEDAL-2</i> pilot randomized controlled trial, an e-cycling intervention aimed at increasing physical activity in individuals with T2DM.<h4>Methods</h4>A parallel-group two-arm randomized waitlist-controlled pilot trial will be conducted. Forty individuals with T2DM will be randomly assigned, in a 1:1 allocation ratio, to an e-cycling intervention or waitlist control. Recruitment and screening will close once 20 participants have been randomized to each study arm. The intervention will involve e-bike training with a certified cycle instructor and provision of an e-bike for 12?weeks. Data will be collected at baseline, during the intervention and immediately post-intervention using both quantitative and qualitative methods. In this trial, the primary interests are determination of effective recruitment strategies, recruitment and consent rates, adherence and retention and delivery and receipt of the intervention. The potential impact of the intervention on a range of clinical, physiological and behaviour outcomes will be assessed to examine intervention promise. Data analyses will be descriptive.<h4>Discussion</h4>This paper describes the protocol for the <i>PEDAL-2</i> pilot randomized controlled trial. Results from this trial will provide information on trial feasibility and identify the promise of e-cycling as a strategy to positively impact the health and behaviour of individuals with T2DM. If appropriate, this information can be used to design and deliver a fully powered definitive trial.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ISRCTN, ISRCTN67421464. Registered 03/01/2019.
Project description:Large-scale analyses on the travel behavior of e-bikes are scarce, and current knowledge regarding who the e-bike owners are is inconsistent. Also, commuters represent a relevant user group with an unexploited potential. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine (i) associations between type of bike (e-bike vs. regular bike) with place of residence (county), sociodemographic variables (age, sex, educational level, income and ethnicity) and habitual physical activity level, and (ii) if public employees possessing an e-bike cycle more often and longer distances to work. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017 among 1977 (5.2% of eligible subjects) public employees in Southern and Western Norway. Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted. Respondents possessing an e-bike were less likely to perform high levels of leisure time physical activity (OR 0.56 (CI 0.39-0.82)), compared to those possessing a regular bike only. For those residing in Agder, the likelihood of possessing an e-bike (vs. regular bike) was almost 4 times higher (OR 3.98 (CI 2.53-6.26)), compared with participants residing in Sogn og Fjordane. Compared with those possessing a regular bike only, e-bike users cycled more frequently to work, both occasionally (OR 3.71 (CI 2.44-5.65)) and most of the time (OR 4.28 (CI 2.79-6.55)), and they had higher odds of cycling medium distances to the workplace (OR 1.74 (CI 1.04-2.90)). In conclusion, e-bike access could result in increased commuter cycling, both in terms of cycling frequency and cycling distance, which in turn could contribute to enhanced physical activity levels.
Project description:China has a historic system of wide cycle tracks, many of which are now encroached by cars, buses and bus stops. Even with these conditions, college students still bicycle. On campuses, students park their bikes on facilities ranging from kick-stand-plazas to caged sheds with racks, pumps and an attendant. In other countries, including Canada, some of the newer cycle tracks need to be wider to accommodate an increasing number of bicyclists. Other countries will also need to improve their bike parking, which includes garage-basement cages and two-tiered racks. China could provide lessons about cycle tracks and bike parking. This study applied the Maslow Transportation Level of Service (LOS) theory, i.e., for cycle tracks and bike parking, only after the basic needs of safety and security are met for both vehicle occupants and bicyclists can the higher needs of convenience and comfort be met. With random clustering, a self-administered questionnaire was collected from 410 students in six dormitory buildings at Peking University in Beijing and an environmental scan of bicycle parking conducted in school/office and living areas. Cycle tracks (1 = very safe/5 = very unsafe) shared with moving cars were most unsafe (mean = 4.6), followed by sharing with parked cars (4.1) or bus stop users (4.1) (p < 0.001). Close to half thought campus bike parking lacked order. The most suggested parking facilities were sheds, security (guard or camera), bicycle racks and bicycle parking services (pumps, etc.). If parking were improved, three quarters indicated they would bicycle more. While caged sheds were preferred, in living areas with 1597 parked bikes, caged sheds were only 74.4% occupied. For the future of China's wide cycle tracks, perhaps a fence-separated bus lane beside a cycle track might be considered or, with China's recent increase in bike riding, shared bikes and E-bikes, perhaps cars/buses could be banned from the wide cycle tracks. In other countries, a widened cycle track entrance should deter cars. Everywhere, bike parking sheds could be built and redesigned with painted lines to offer more space and order, similar to car parking.
Project description:Background:Bike sharing systems have potential to substantially boost active transportation levels (and consequent physical and mental health) in urban populations. We explored equity of spatial access in a novel 'dockless' bike share system that does not that constrain bike pickup and drop-off locations to docking stations. Methods:Starting in July 2017, Seattle, Washington piloted a dockless bike share system that made 10,000 bikes available. We merged data on resident sociodemographic and economic characteristics from the American Community Survey about 93 defined neighborhoods with data about bike locations, bike idle time, and which neighborhoods operators rebalanced bikes to. We used mapping and descriptive statistics to compare access between neighborhoods along sociodemographic and economic lines. Results:With many bikes available, no neighborhood was consistently excluded from access. However, the average availability ranged from 3 bikes per day to 341 per day. Neighborhoods with more bikes had more college-educated residents (median 75% college-educated vs. 65%) and local community resources (median opportunity index score of 24 vs. 19), and higher incomes (median 83,202 vs. 71,296). Rebalancing destinations were strongly correlated with neighborhood demand (r=0.61). Conclusions:The overall scale of the dockless system ensured there was baseline access throughout Seattle. We observed modest inequities in access along sociodemographic lines, similar to prior findings in studies of docked bike share systems. Dockless bike share systems hold promise for offering equitable spatial access to bike sharing.
Project description:To investigate the use of helmets for cyclists choosing to use BIXI bikes in comparison to personal bike riders in the City of Toronto.Cross-sectional study design.Cyclists were observed in Toronto, Canada.Of the 6732 sample size, 306 cyclists on BIXI bikes and 6426 personal bike riders were observed.The outcome of interest was helmet use.Overall, 50.3% of cyclists wore helmets. The proportion of BIXI bike riders using helmets was significantly lower than the proportion of helmet users on personal bikes (20.9% vs 51.7%, respectively, p<0.0001).Although the BIXI bike programme has provided an alternate means for Torontonians to use a bicycle, cyclists using BIXI bikes are much less likely to wear a helmet. Since the prevalence of helmet use in cyclists in general is already low, helmet use should be especially promoted in BIXI bike riders in order to promote a safe and healthy environment for cyclists.